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Energies, Volume 17, Issue 10 (May-2 2024) – 204 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The following study presents arguments for a framework that approaches geothermal resources as an endogenous factor of community development. To analyse this subject, we create a model that explains the local economic characteristics of geothermal exploitation beyond its geological conditions. The model aims to conceptualise a community-based geothermal development standard referring to the endogeneity principle. Attention is paid to geothermal energy since the characteristics of this resource determine its use locally. This induces the internalisation of labour and technology in the local economic system, a specific condition for local geothermal projects where a community remains the prime beneficiary. We argue that the role of communities in geothermal exploitation is pivotal in the process of green growth for the further expansion of geothermal energy use. View this paper
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4 pages, 161 KiB  
Editorial
Advancing Sustainable Energy Solutions: Innovations in Clean Energy Applications and Conventional Energy Efficiency Upgrade
by Ruitong Yang, Fuqiang Wang, Zhonghao Rao, Chao Shen and Dong Li
Energies 2024, 17(10), 2441; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/en17102441 - 20 May 2024
Viewed by 449
Abstract
The transition to clean and low-carbon energy sources is an imperative driven by the urgent challenges of climate change, energy security, and environmental sustainability [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Clean and Low Carbon Energy)
20 pages, 3601 KiB  
Article
Selection of an Optimal Frequency for Offshore Wind Farms
by Byeonghyeon An, Junsoo Che, Taehun Kim and Taesik Park
Energies 2024, 17(10), 2440; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/en17102440 - 20 May 2024
Viewed by 390
Abstract
Offshore wind power has attracted significant attention due to its high potential, capability for large-scale farms, and high capacity factor. However, it faces high investment costs and issues with subsea power transmission. Conventional high-voltage AC (HVAC) methods are limited by charging current, while [...] Read more.
Offshore wind power has attracted significant attention due to its high potential, capability for large-scale farms, and high capacity factor. However, it faces high investment costs and issues with subsea power transmission. Conventional high-voltage AC (HVAC) methods are limited by charging current, while high-voltage DC (HVDC) methods suffer from the high cost of power conversion stations. The low-frequency AC (LFAC) method mitigates the charging current through low-frequency operation and can reduce power conversion station costs. This paper aims to identify the economically optimal frequency by comparing the investment costs of LFAC systems at various frequencies. The components of LFAC, including transformers, offshore platforms, and cables, exhibit frequency-dependent characteristics. Lower frequencies result in an increased size and volume of transformers, leading to higher investment costs for offshore platforms. In contrast, cable charging currents and losses are proportional to frequency, causing the total cost to reach a minimum at a specific frequency. To determine the optimal frequency, simulations of investment costs for varying capacities and distances were conducted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section A3: Wind, Wave and Tidal Energy)
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35 pages, 7751 KiB  
Review
Emergency Decision Support Techniques for Nuclear Power Plants: Current State, Challenges, and Future Trends
by Xingyu Xiao, Jingang Liang, Jiejuan Tong and Haitao Wang
Energies 2024, 17(10), 2439; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/en17102439 - 20 May 2024
Viewed by 483
Abstract
Emergency decision support techniques play an important role in complex and safety-critical systems such as nuclear power plants (NPPs). Emergency decision-making is not a single method but a framework comprising a combination of various technologies. This paper presents a review of various methods [...] Read more.
Emergency decision support techniques play an important role in complex and safety-critical systems such as nuclear power plants (NPPs). Emergency decision-making is not a single method but a framework comprising a combination of various technologies. This paper presents a review of various methods for emergency decision support systems in NPPs. We first discuss the theoretical foundations of nuclear power plant emergency decision support technologies. Based on this exposition, the key technologies of emergency decision support systems in NPPs are presented, including training operators in emergency management, risk assessment, fault detection and diagnosis, multi-criteria decision support, and accident consequence assessment. The principles, application, and comparative analysis of these methods are systematically described. Additionally, we present an overview of emergency decision support systems in NPPs across different countries and feature profiles of prominent systems like the Real-Time Online Decision Support System for Nuclear Emergencies (RODOS), the Accident Reporting and Guiding Operational System (ARGOS), and the Decision Support Tool for Severe Accidents (Severa). Then, the existing challenges and issues in this field are summarized, including the need for better integration of risk assessment, methods to enhance education and training, the acceleration of simulation calculations, the application of large language models, and international cooperation. Finally, we propose a new decision support system that integrates Level 1, 2, and 3 probabilistic safety assessment for emergency management in NPPs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advancements in Nuclear Energy Technology)
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13 pages, 1715 KiB  
Article
Study on Emulsification Effect of Crude Oil in Brine Emulsions by Automated Demulsibility Tester
by Máté Hartyányi, Roland Nagy, László Bartha and Sándor Puskás
Energies 2024, 17(10), 2438; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/en17102438 - 20 May 2024
Viewed by 356
Abstract
The purpose of the surfactants used is to greatly reduce the interfacial tension between the crude oil and brine, thereby decreasing the capillary number. The resulting oil-in-water emulsions are often grouped according to the Winsor theory. Oil recovery aims to produce Winsor type-III [...] Read more.
The purpose of the surfactants used is to greatly reduce the interfacial tension between the crude oil and brine, thereby decreasing the capillary number. The resulting oil-in-water emulsions are often grouped according to the Winsor theory. Oil recovery aims to produce Winsor type-III emulsions because they have the lowest interfacial tension values and the most favorable flow properties. The sensitivity of oil–water–surfactant systems to environmental influences (e.g., mixing speed and equilibration time) increases close to the favorable environmental range (temperature, brine total salt concentration, pressure, etc.) of the Winsor III type, the middle microemulsion phase, which is favorable for crude oil recovery. The tests aimed to investigate the quality and quantity of emulsions prepared with surfactants used in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) using an automatic device to characterize and select surfactants for industrial petroleum applications. An essential method for surfactant selection is to study the emulsifying effect and phase behavior. Phase behavior tests and emulsifying effect tests were performed on surfactants and surfactant packages as a function of mixing parameters. The mixing speed and mixing time can influence the results of the phase behavior and emulsifying effect tests, although during the investigations, other parameters were unchanged. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section H2: Geothermal)
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37 pages, 7263 KiB  
Article
Hot Bridge-Wire Ignition of Nanocomposite Aluminum Thermite Synthesized Using Sol-Gel-Derived Aerogel with Tailored Properties for Enhanced Reactivity and Reduced Sensitivity
by Ilyes Ghedjatti, Shiwei Yuan and Haixing Wang
Energies 2024, 17(10), 2437; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/en17102437 - 20 May 2024
Viewed by 459
Abstract
The development of nano-energetic materials has significantly advanced, leading to enhanced properties and novel applications in areas such as aerospace, defense, energy storage, and automobile. This research aims to engineer multi-dimensional nano-energetic material systems with precise control over energy release rates, spatial distribution, [...] Read more.
The development of nano-energetic materials has significantly advanced, leading to enhanced properties and novel applications in areas such as aerospace, defense, energy storage, and automobile. This research aims to engineer multi-dimensional nano-energetic material systems with precise control over energy release rates, spatial distribution, and temporal and pressure history. In this context, sol–gel processing has been explored for the manufacture of nanocomposite aluminum thermites using aerogels. The goal is to produce nano-thermites (Al/Fe2O3) with fast energy release rates that are insensitive to unintended initiation while demonstrating the potential of sol–gel-derived aerogels in terms of versatility, tailored properties, and compatibility. The findings provide insightful conclusions on the influence of factors such as secondary oxidizers (KClO3) and dispersants (n-hexane and acetone) on the reaction kinetics and the sensitivity, playing crucial roles in determining reactivity and combustion performance. In tandem, ignition systems contribute significantly in terms of a high degree of reliability and speed. However, the advantages of using nano-thermites combined with hot bridge-wire systems in terms of ignition and combustion efficiency for potential, practical applications are not well-documented in the literature. Thus, this research also highlights the practicality along with safety and simplicity of use, making nano-Al/Fe2O3-KClO3 in combination with hot bridge-wire ignition a suitable choice for experimental purposes and beyond. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoparticles and Nanofluids for Energy Applications 2023)
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29 pages, 11216 KiB  
Article
Using Quality Function Deployment to Assess the Efficiency of Mini-Channel Heat Exchangers
by Artur Piasecki, Sylwia Hożejowska, Aneta Masternak-Janus and Magdalena Piasecka
Energies 2024, 17(10), 2436; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/en17102436 - 20 May 2024
Viewed by 345
Abstract
This article addresses the design of a compact heat exchanger for the cooling of electronic systems. The Quality Function Deployment (QFD) method is used to identify crucial product features to improve device performance and key customer requirements. The QFD simplifies management processes, allowing [...] Read more.
This article addresses the design of a compact heat exchanger for the cooling of electronic systems. The Quality Function Deployment (QFD) method is used to identify crucial product features to improve device performance and key customer requirements. The QFD simplifies management processes, allowing modifications to device components, such as design parameters (dimensions and materials) and operating conditions (flow type and preferred temperature range). The study was applied to analyse the fundamental features of a compact heat exchanger, assessing their impact on enhancing heat transfer intensity during fluid flow through mini-channels. The thermal efficiency of the compact heat exchanger was tested experimentally. The results allow to verify the results obtained from the numerical simulations due to Simcenter STAR-CCM+. Consequently, the experimental part was reduced in favour of numerical simulations conducted using this commercial CFD software version 2020.2.1 Build 15.04.01. The numerical simulations performed with the aid of CFD showed increases in the heat transfer coefficient of up to 180% compared to the case treated as a reference. The application of the QFD matrix significantly reduces the time required to develop suitable design and material solutions and determine the operating parameters for the cooling of miniature electronic devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section J: Thermal Management)
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15 pages, 2309 KiB  
Article
A Method for Determining Target Areas of Hot Dry Rock Resources: A Case Study in Continental China
by Yaqi Wang, Yibo Wang, Guangzheng Jiang, Jie Hu, Yizuo Shi, Shejiao Wang and Shengbiao Hu
Energies 2024, 17(10), 2435; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/en17102435 - 20 May 2024
Viewed by 378
Abstract
Geothermal resources have been recognized as important sources of clean renewable energy. The exploration, development, and utilization of geothermal resources, especially hot dry rock (HDR) resources, are highly important for achieving peak carbon and carbon neutrality. However, there is no comprehensive evaluation method [...] Read more.
Geothermal resources have been recognized as important sources of clean renewable energy. The exploration, development, and utilization of geothermal resources, especially hot dry rock (HDR) resources, are highly important for achieving peak carbon and carbon neutrality. However, there is no comprehensive evaluation method for determining HDR target areas, and the evaluation scale and application disciplines are relatively simplistic. In this paper, we sought to optimize the identification of HDR target areas through a multiscale and multidisciplinary method and formed a set of generalized and demonstrative processes to guide the exploration of HDR resources. Through practical application to the Gonghe Basin and the Zhangzhou Basin, it was found that the comprehensive geothermal conditions of the Gonghe Basin are superior to those of the Zhangzhou Basin, and the geothermal reservoir depth, geothermal reservoir temperature, geothermal gradient, and heat flow are the four most important factors affecting hot dry rock geothermal resources. Using this method, the prioritization of target areas changes from a qualitative study to a quantitative and semiquantitative study, increasing the specificity and reliability of the decision-making process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section H: Geo-Energy)
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29 pages, 7577 KiB  
Review
Overview of Isolated Bidirectional DC–DC Converter Topology and Switching Strategies for Electric Vehicle Applications
by Zhenkun Wang, Xianjin Su, Nianyin Zeng and Jiahui Jiang
Energies 2024, 17(10), 2434; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/en17102434 - 20 May 2024
Viewed by 544
Abstract
Isolated bidirectional DC–DC converters are becoming increasingly important in various applications, particularly in the electric vehicle sector, due to their ability to achieve bidirectional power flow and their safety features. This paper aims to review the switch strategies and topologies of isolated bidirectional [...] Read more.
Isolated bidirectional DC–DC converters are becoming increasingly important in various applications, particularly in the electric vehicle sector, due to their ability to achieve bidirectional power flow and their safety features. This paper aims to review the switch strategies and topologies of isolated bidirectional DC–DC converters, with a specific focus on their applications in the field of electric vehicles. From the perspective of topology, PWM-type isolated bidirectional DC–DC converters, dual active bridge converters, and resonant-type isolated bidirectional DC–DC converters constitute the three main categories of these converters. The paper further examines the traditional switch strategies of these converters and discusses how specific switch technologies, such as single-phase shift, expanding-phase shift, double-phase shift, and triple-phase shift, can enhance the overall performance of isolated bidirectional DC–DC converters. The paper meticulously examines the characteristics of each topology and control scheme, as well as their typical use cases in practical applications. Particularly, the paper delves into the applications of isolated bidirectional DC–DC converters in the electric vehicle sector and draws conclusions regarding their potential and trends in future electric vehicle technology. Full article
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15 pages, 2559 KiB  
Article
Atomistic Details of Methyl Linoleate Pyrolysis: Direct Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Converting Biodiesel to Petroleum Products
by Michael J. Bakker and Matthew R. Siebert
Energies 2024, 17(10), 2433; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/en17102433 - 20 May 2024
Viewed by 419
Abstract
Dependence on petroleum and petrochemical products is unsustainable; it is both a finite resource and an environmental hazard. Biodiesel has many attractive qualities, including a sustainable feedstock; however, it has its complications. The pyrolysis (a process already in common use in the petroleum [...] Read more.
Dependence on petroleum and petrochemical products is unsustainable; it is both a finite resource and an environmental hazard. Biodiesel has many attractive qualities, including a sustainable feedstock; however, it has its complications. The pyrolysis (a process already in common use in the petroleum industry) of biodiesel has demonstrated the formation of smaller hydrocarbons comprising many petrochemical products but experiments suffer from difficulty quantifying the myriad reaction pathways followed and products formed. A computational simulation of pyrolysis using “ab initio molecular dynamics” offers atomic-level detail of the reaction pathways and products formed. Herein, the most prevalent fatty-acid ester (methyl linoleate) from the most prevalent feedstock for biodiesel in the United States (soybean oil) is studied. Temperature acceleration within the atom-centered density matrix propagation formalism (Car–Parrinello) utilizing the D3-M06-2X/6-31+G(d,p) model chemistry is used to compose an ensemble of trajectories. The results are grounded in comparison to experimental studies through agreement in the following: (1) the extent of reactivity (40% in the experimental and 36.1% in this work), (2) the homology of hydrocarbon products formed (wt % of C6–C10 products), and (3) the CO/CO2 product ratio. Deoxygenation pathways are critically analyzed (as the presence of oxygen in biodiesel represents a disadvantage in its current use). Within this ensemble, deoxygenation was found to proceed through two subclasses: (1) spontaneous deoxygenation, following one of four possible pathways; or (2) induced deoxygenation, following one of three possible pathways. Full article
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14 pages, 3746 KiB  
Article
Viability of an Open-Loop Heat Pump Drying System in South African Climatic Conditions
by Solomzi Marco Ngalonkulu and Zhongjie Huan
Energies 2024, 17(10), 2432; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/en17102432 - 20 May 2024
Viewed by 410
Abstract
Drying agricultural produce consumes a considerable amount of energy. As an energy-efficient system, a heat pump can improve the energy efficiency of the drying process and hence reduce the energy consumption, especially in South Africa, where both sub-tropical and temperate weather conditions dominate. [...] Read more.
Drying agricultural produce consumes a considerable amount of energy. As an energy-efficient system, a heat pump can improve the energy efficiency of the drying process and hence reduce the energy consumption, especially in South Africa, where both sub-tropical and temperate weather conditions dominate. The objective of this research is to experimentally investigate the impacts of weather conditions on the operational conditions and thermal performance of an open-loop air-source heat pump drying system. The experimental investigation was conducted in a climate chamber where the climate conditions were simulated from −10 °C to 20 °C with an interval of 10 °C for the typical temperature range of the harvesting season in South Africa. The findings indicate that ambient temperatures have a significant impact on both the operating conditions and thermal performance of an open-loop heat pump system; the change in ambient temperatures from −10 °C to 20 °C leads to a 141.6% improvement in the suction pressure, a 214.2% increase in the discharge pressure, and 30.1% increase in the compression ratio, as well as a consequent increase of 130.6% in the refrigerant mass flow rate (from 0.0067 to 0.0155 kg/s), resulting in a corresponding increase in the coefficient of performance (COP) of the heat pump drying system by about 42.1%. Therefore, this study suggests that, while using an open-loop air-source heat pump drying system utilising R134a refrigerant is feasible in South Africa, it may be practically limited to regions with warm climates or during warmer seasons. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section J1: Heat and Mass Transfer)
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13 pages, 3053 KiB  
Article
Effects of CO2 Geosequestration on Opalinus Clay
by Taimoor Asim and Haval Kukha Hawez
Energies 2024, 17(10), 2431; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/en17102431 - 19 May 2024
Viewed by 794
Abstract
CO2 geosequestration is an important contributor to United Nations Sustainable Development Goal 13, i.e., Climate Action, which states a global Net-Zero CO2 emissions by 2050. A potential impact of CO2 geosequestration in depleted oil and gas reservoirs is the variations [...] Read more.
CO2 geosequestration is an important contributor to United Nations Sustainable Development Goal 13, i.e., Climate Action, which states a global Net-Zero CO2 emissions by 2050. A potential impact of CO2 geosequestration in depleted oil and gas reservoirs is the variations in induced pressure across the caprocks, which can lead to significant local variations in CO2 saturation. A detailed understanding of the relationship between the pressure gradient across the caprock and local CO2 concentration is of utmost importance for assessing the potential of CO2 geosequestration. Achieving this through experimental techniques is extremely difficult, and thus, we employ a coupled Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and Finite Element Method (FEM) based solver to mimic sub-critical CO2 injection in Opalinus Clay under various pressure gradients across the sample. The geomechanical and multiphase flow modelling utilising Darcy Law helps evaluate local variations in CO2 concentration in Opalinus Clay. Well-validated numerical results indicate favourable sub-critical CO2 geosequestration under a positive pressure gradient across Opalinus Clay. In the absence of a positive pressure gradient, a peak CO2 concentration of 5% has been recorded, which increases substantially (above 90%) as the pressure gradient across the sample increases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section B3: Carbon Emission and Utilization)
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20 pages, 10664 KiB  
Article
Research on NaCl-KCl High-Temperature Thermal Storage Composite Phase Change Material Based on Modified Blast Furnace Slag
by Gai Zhang, Hui Cui, Xuecheng Hu, Anchao Qu, Hao Peng and Xiaotian Peng
Energies 2024, 17(10), 2430; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/en17102430 - 19 May 2024
Viewed by 484
Abstract
The high-temperature composite phase change materials (HCPCMs) were prepared from solid waste blast furnace slag (BFS) and NaCl-KCl binary eutectic salt to achieve efficient and cost-effective utilization. To ensure good chemical compatibility with chlorine salt, modifier fly ash (FA) was incorporated and subjected [...] Read more.
The high-temperature composite phase change materials (HCPCMs) were prepared from solid waste blast furnace slag (BFS) and NaCl-KCl binary eutectic salt to achieve efficient and cost-effective utilization. To ensure good chemical compatibility with chlorine salt, modifier fly ash (FA) was incorporated and subjected to high-temperature treatment for the processing of industrial solid waste BFS, which possesses a complex chemical composition. The HCPCMs were synthesized through a three-step process involving static melting, solid waste modification, and mixing–cold pressing–sintering. Then, the influence of the modification method and the amount of SiC thermal conductivity reinforced material on chemical compatibility and thermodynamic performance was explored. The results demonstrate that the predominant phase of the modified solid waste is Ca2Al2SiO7, which exhibits excellent chemical compatibility with chlorine salt. HCPCMs containing less than 50 wt.% chloride content exhibit good morphological stability without any cracks, with a melting temperature of 661.76 °C and an enthalpy value of 108.73 J/g. Even after undergoing 60 thermal cycles, they maintain good chemical compatibility, with leakage rates for melting and solidification enthalpies being only 6.3% and 0.23%, respectively. The equilibrium was achieved when 40 wt.% of chloride salt was encapsulated upon the addition of 10% of SiC, and the incorporation of SiC resulted in an enhancement of thermal conductivity for HCPCMs to 2.959 W/(m·K) at room temperature and 2.400 W/(m·K) at 200 °C, with an average increase of about 2 times. The cost of the prepared HCPCMs experienced a significant reduction of 81.3%, demonstrating favorable economic performance and promising prospects for application. The research findings presented in this article can offer significant insights into the efficient utilization of solid waste. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Applications of Solar and Thermal Storage Energy)
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27 pages, 6260 KiB  
Article
Numerical Investigation of Innovative Photovoltaic–Thermal (PVT) Collector Designs for Electrical and Thermal Enhancement
by Ziqiang Wang, Gaoyang Hou, Hessam Taherian and Ying Song
Energies 2024, 17(10), 2429; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/en17102429 - 19 May 2024
Viewed by 424
Abstract
Photovoltaic–thermal (PVT) technology is gaining popularity due to the diminishing availability of traditional fossil fuels and escalating environmental concerns. Enhancing the heat dissipation of PVT to improve its electrical and thermal performance remains a significant task. This study simulates the thermodynamic and heat [...] Read more.
Photovoltaic–thermal (PVT) technology is gaining popularity due to the diminishing availability of traditional fossil fuels and escalating environmental concerns. Enhancing the heat dissipation of PVT to improve its electrical and thermal performance remains a significant task. This study simulates the thermodynamic and heat transfer characteristics in multiple novel PVT structures by examining the impact of various factors such as collector materials, radiation intensity, mass flow rate, and inlet temperature. This work also identifies the optimal mass flow rate for locations with different solar radiation. The numerical results indicate that the electrical efficiency of a designed cylindrical structure has increased by 1.73% while the thermal efficiency has increased by 8.29%. Aluminum is identified as the most cost-effective material for the collector. The optimal mass flow rates in selected locations of Xining, Taiyuan, and Turpan are 0.36 kg/s, 0.35 kg/s, and 0.30 kg/s, respectively. The numerical results provide valuable insight into optimizing the design and operating conditions of PVT systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section A2: Solar Energy and Photovoltaic Systems)
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18 pages, 13225 KiB  
Article
AC Direct Charging for Electric Vehicles via a Reconfigurable Cascaded Multilevel Converter
by Giulia Tresca and Pericle Zanchetta
Energies 2024, 17(10), 2428; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/en17102428 - 19 May 2024
Viewed by 359
Abstract
This paper presents a charging architecture for the Reconfigurable Cascaded Multilevel converter, which was specifically designed for electric vehicle (EV) powertrain applications. The RCMC topology is capable of executing power conversion and actively managing battery systems concurrently. The active battery management is achieved [...] Read more.
This paper presents a charging architecture for the Reconfigurable Cascaded Multilevel converter, which was specifically designed for electric vehicle (EV) powertrain applications. The RCMC topology is capable of executing power conversion and actively managing battery systems concurrently. The active battery management is achieved using the Reconfigurable Battery Module, which regulates the serial connection of cells via a switch pattern. In this paper, the RCMC is directly interfaced with an AC three-phase power system, facilitating the dynamic control over battery cells charging. Its inherent design allows for the implementation of various charging algorithms, customizable to specific requirements, without necessitating additional intermediary power stages. Firstly, an overview of the RCMC topology is given, and an analysis to define the optimal filter inductance is carried out. Subsequently, after the AC system characteristics are explained, two charging algorithms are presented and described: one prioritizes State of Charge (SOC) balancing among battery cells, while the other focuses on minimizing power losses. Moreover, a time estimation computation for the RCMC is carried out considering a two-level AC charging station. The result is compared with the time required for a conventional battery pack. The results show a reduction of 10 s in charging time for a mere 20% increase in SOC. Finally, the experimental setup is presented and used to validate the efficacy of the proposed algorithms. Full article
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22 pages, 2215 KiB  
Article
Performance Improvement of a Limaçon Gas Expander Using an Inlet Control Valve: Two Case Studies
by Md Shazzad Hossain, Ibrahim Sultan, Truong Phung and Apurv Kumar
Energies 2024, 17(10), 2427; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/en17102427 - 18 May 2024
Viewed by 552
Abstract
Renewable energy-based compact energy-generation systems based on the organic Rankine cycle (ORC) can be employed to meet the ever-growing thirst for affordable and clean energy. The overall performance and effectiveness of ORC systems are constrained by the low efficiency of the gas expander, [...] Read more.
Renewable energy-based compact energy-generation systems based on the organic Rankine cycle (ORC) can be employed to meet the ever-growing thirst for affordable and clean energy. The overall performance and effectiveness of ORC systems are constrained by the low efficiency of the gas expander, specifically the positive displacement expander, which is responsible for energy conversion from the working fluid. This low-efficiency scenario can be significantly improved by employing a control valve to regulate and restrict the flow of the working fluid into the expander. A control valve can effectively curve the loss of costly compressed and energized working fluids by allowing them to expand in the expander chamber before discharging through the outlet port. They can thus be used to regulate the amount of energy yield and output power. In this work, two direct drive rotary valves (DDRVs) operated by a stepper motor (SM-DDRV) and rotary solenoid (RS-DDRV) are suggested, and the behavior of the valves is examined. The effect of friction and temperature on the valve response is also studied. Additionally, the effect of inlet control valves on the overall system performance of the limaçon expander is assessed. Thermodynamic properties such as the isentropic efficiency and filling factor are also computed. The effect of leakage due to valve response delay is analyzed at different inlet pressures. The performance indices are compared to the expander performance without any inlet valve. The SM-DDRV setup results in a 14.86% increase in isentropic efficiency and a 220% increase in the filling factor, whereas the RS-DDRV performs moderately with a 2.58% increase in isentropic efficiency and an 80% increase in the filling factor compared to a ported expander. The SM-DDRV provides better performance indices compared to the RS-DDRV and without valve setups. However, the performance of the limaçon expander with the SM-DDRV is sensitive to the inlet pressure and degrades at higher pressure. Overall, the valves proposed in this work present key insights into improving the performance characteristics of gas expanders of ORC systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section J: Thermal Management)
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25 pages, 9219 KiB  
Article
An Efficient Shunt Modulated AC Green Plug–Switched Filter Compensation Scheme for Nonlinear Loads
by Albe M. Bloul, Mohamad Abuhamdah, Adel M. Sharaf, Hamed H. Aly and Jason Gu
Energies 2024, 17(10), 2426; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/en17102426 - 18 May 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 480
Abstract
Nonlinear loads, crucial components of power system grids, pose a challenge due to harmonics injection. This work tackles this issue with a novel modified green plug–switched filter compensation scheme using fuzzy logic controllers. This innovative scheme presented in this paper utilizes dual action [...] Read more.
Nonlinear loads, crucial components of power system grids, pose a challenge due to harmonics injection. This work tackles this issue with a novel modified green plug–switched filter compensation scheme using fuzzy logic controllers. This innovative scheme presented in this paper utilizes dual action pulse width modulation to ensure switching functions from harmonics reduction and capacitive compensation for inrush nonlinear-type AC loads. The scheme’s multi-loop regulations and online switching effectively handle dynamic-type slow-acting inrush, motorized- and other rectifier-type nonlinear loads, enhancing the power factor, power quality at source and load buses, and reducing the total harmonics distortion at the key source and sensitive nonlinear load buses. A simulation model in the MATLAB/SIMULINK-2023b software environment demonstrates the efficiency of the proposed FACTS technique. The modulated dual mode switched filter-capacitive compensation scheme controlled by a fuzzy logic controller ensures less harmonics distortion and improved voltage stabilization. The results show that voltage, current, active power, reactive power, power factor regulation, and effective energy utilization are achievable with the designed Flexible AC Transmission System-Modulated Filter Capacitor Compensation–Switched Filter Compensator (FACTS-MFCC-SFC). The switched modulated AC green plug filter significantly improves power quality and enhances power factor in cases of inrush and nonlinear loads. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section A: Sustainable Energy)
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29 pages, 16522 KiB  
Review
A Comprehensive Review of Existing and Pending University Campus Microgrids
by Edrees Yahya Alhawsawi, Khaled Salhein and Mohamed A. Zohdy
Energies 2024, 17(10), 2425; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/en17102425 - 18 May 2024
Viewed by 695
Abstract
Over the past few decades, many universities have turned to using microgrid systems because of their dependability, security, flexibility, and less reliance on the primary grid. Microgrids on campuses face challenges in the instability of power production due to meteorological conditions, as the [...] Read more.
Over the past few decades, many universities have turned to using microgrid systems because of their dependability, security, flexibility, and less reliance on the primary grid. Microgrids on campuses face challenges in the instability of power production due to meteorological conditions, as the output of renewable sources such as solar and wind power relies entirely on the weather and determining the optimal size of microgrids. Therefore, this paper comprehensively reviews the university campuses’ microgrids. Some renewable energy sources, such as geothermal (GE), wind turbine (WT), and photovoltaic (PV), are compared in terms of installation costs, availability, weather conditions, efficiency, environmental impact, and maintenance. Furthermore, a description of microgrid systems and their components, including distributed generation (DG), energy storage system (ESS), and microgrid load, is presented. As a result, the most common optimization models for analyzing the performance of campus microgrids are discussed. Hybrid microgrid system configurations are introduced and compared to find the optimal configuration in terms of energy production and flexibility. Therefore, configuration A (Hybrid PV- grid-connected) is the most common configuration compared to the others due to its simplicity and free-charge operation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section A1: Smart Grids and Microgrids)
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19 pages, 2026 KiB  
Article
Feature Selection by Binary Differential Evolution for Predicting the Energy Production of a Wind Plant
by Sameer Al-Dahidi, Piero Baraldi, Miriam Fresc, Enrico Zio and Lorenzo Montelatici
Energies 2024, 17(10), 2424; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/en17102424 - 18 May 2024
Viewed by 380
Abstract
We propose a method for selecting the optimal set of weather features for wind energy prediction. This problem is tackled by developing a wrapper approach that employs binary differential evolution to search for the best feature subset, and an ensemble of artificial neural [...] Read more.
We propose a method for selecting the optimal set of weather features for wind energy prediction. This problem is tackled by developing a wrapper approach that employs binary differential evolution to search for the best feature subset, and an ensemble of artificial neural networks to predict the energy production from a wind plant. The main novelties of the approach are the use of features provided by different weather forecast providers and the use of an ensemble composed of a reduced number of models for the wrapper search. Its effectiveness is verified using weather and energy production data collected from a 34 MW real wind plant. The model is built using the selected optimal subset of weather features and allows for (i) a 1% reduction in the mean absolute error compared with a model that considers all available features and a 4.4% reduction compared with the model currently employed by the plant owners, and (ii) a reduction in the number of selected features by 85% and 50%, respectively. Reducing the number of features boosts the prediction accuracy. The implication of this finding is significant as it allows plant owners to create profitable offers in the energy market and efficiently manage their power unit commitment, maintenance scheduling, and energy storage optimization. Full article
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18 pages, 5272 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Ferroresonance Mitigation Effectiveness in Auxiliary Power Systems of High-Voltage Substations
by Rafał Tarko, Wiesław Nowak, Jakub Gajdzica and Stanislaw Czapp
Energies 2024, 17(10), 2423; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/en17102423 - 18 May 2024
Viewed by 373
Abstract
Ferroresonance in power networks is a dangerous phenomenon, which may result in overcurrents and overvoltages, causing damage to power equipment and the faulty operation of protection systems. For this reason, the possibility of the occurrence of ferroresonance has to be identified, and adequate [...] Read more.
Ferroresonance in power networks is a dangerous phenomenon, which may result in overcurrents and overvoltages, causing damage to power equipment and the faulty operation of protection systems. For this reason, the possibility of the occurrence of ferroresonance has to be identified, and adequate methods need to be incorporated to eliminate or reduce its effects. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the effectiveness of ferroresonance damping in auxiliary power systems of high-voltage substations by selected damping devices. Laboratory experiments, the results of which created bases for the development of models of selected damping devices, are presented. These models were used to simulate the effectiveness of ferroresonance damping in an auxiliary power system of a 220/110 kV substation in the EMTP-ATP program. The analyses showed that control systems with different algorithms of operation are used in damping devices. This knowledge is important when selecting parameters and settings of the applied damping devices for a given network and the disturbances in it. The presented research results have proved the effectiveness of commercially available damping devices, provided their parameters are correctly coordinated with the settings of the power system protection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section F1: Electrical Power System)
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15 pages, 2629 KiB  
Article
The Resilience of Electrical Support in UAV Swarms in Special Missions
by Igor Kabashkin
Energies 2024, 17(10), 2422; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/en17102422 - 18 May 2024
Viewed by 361
Abstract
Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) swarms serve as a dynamic platform for diverse missions, including communication relays, search and rescue operations, and environmental monitoring. The success of these operations crucially depends on the resilience of their electrical support systems, especially in terms of battery [...] Read more.
Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) swarms serve as a dynamic platform for diverse missions, including communication relays, search and rescue operations, and environmental monitoring. The success of these operations crucially depends on the resilience of their electrical support systems, especially in terms of battery management. This paper examines the reliability of electrical support for UAV swarms engaged in missions that require prioritization into high and low categories. The paper proposes a dynamic resource allocation strategy that permits the flexible reassignment of drones across different-priority tasks, ensuring continuous operation while optimizing resource use. By leveraging the Markov chain theory, an analytical model for the evaluation of the resilience of the battery management system under different operational scenarios was developed. The paper quantitatively assesses the impact of different operational strategies and battery management approaches on the overall system resilience and mission efficacy. This approach aims to ensure uninterrupted service delivery for critical tasks while optimizing the overall utilization of available electrical resources. Through modeling and analytical evaluations, the paper quantifies the impact of various parameters and operating strategies on overall system resilience and mission availability, considering the utilization strategies of batteries and their reliability and maintenance metrics. The developed models and strategies can inform the development of robust battery management protocols, resource allocation algorithms, and mission planning frameworks, ultimately enhancing the operational availability and effectiveness of UAV swarms in critical special missions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section F: Electrical Engineering)
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16 pages, 5408 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of the Activity of a Municipal Waste Landfill Site in the Operational and Non-Operational Sectors Based on Landfill Gas Productivity
by Grzegorz Przydatek, Agnieszka Generowicz and Włodzimierz Kanownik
Energies 2024, 17(10), 2421; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/en17102421 - 18 May 2024
Viewed by 390
Abstract
This research identifies the productivity of landfill gas actively captured at a municipal waste landfill site with a waste mass exceeding 1 million Mg from sectors in the operational and non-operational phases, considering meteorological conditions. Based on the analysis of landfill gas, including [...] Read more.
This research identifies the productivity of landfill gas actively captured at a municipal waste landfill site with a waste mass exceeding 1 million Mg from sectors in the operational and non-operational phases, considering meteorological conditions. Based on the analysis of landfill gas, including emissions and composition (CH4, CO2, O2, and other gases), the processes occurring demonstrate the impact of the decomposition of deposited waste on the activity of the deposit. With average monthly gas emissions exceeding 960,000 m3, the average content of CH4 (30–63%) and CO2 (18–42%) and the varied content of O2 (0.3–9.8%) in individual sectors of the landfill site were significant. The statistically significant relationship between CH4, CO2, and landfill gas emissions exhibited a noticeable decrease in methane content. Despite the abandonment of waste storage, a high correlation is present between the emission level and methane content (0.59) and carbon dioxide (0.50). In the operational part of the landfill, this relationship is also statistically significant but to a lesser extent; Spearman’s R-value was 0.42 for methane and 0.36 for carbon dioxide. The operational and post-operational phases of the municipal waste landfill demonstrated a noticeable impact from the amount of precipitation, relative humidity, and air temperature, on landfill gas productivity. The generally progressive decline in the activity of the waste deposit, which reflects a decreasing trend in the methane content of approximately 2% annually in the total composition of landfill gas, as well as the share below 50%, indicates the need only to utilise landfill without producing energy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section A4: Bio-Energy)
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20 pages, 5929 KiB  
Article
Passive Shunted Piezoelectric Systems for Vibration Control of Wind Turbine Towers: A Feasibility Study
by Maria-Styliani Daraki, Konstantinos Marakakis, Panagiotis Alevras, Georgia A. Foutsitzi and Georgios E. Stavroulakis
Energies 2024, 17(10), 2420; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/en17102420 - 17 May 2024
Viewed by 784
Abstract
Many countries have a variety of offshore and onshore wind turbines that face extreme aging challenges. Issues with harmful vibrations that must be minimized are addressed in this paper. A new method of wind turbine tower vibration control using piezoelectricity and shunt circuits [...] Read more.
Many countries have a variety of offshore and onshore wind turbines that face extreme aging challenges. Issues with harmful vibrations that must be minimized are addressed in this paper. A new method of wind turbine tower vibration control using piezoelectricity and shunt circuits is proposed in this paper. The passive vibration control method is shown to improve the tower’s structural performance under various environmental loads, like wind and seismic excitations. To examine the effectiveness of the suggested shunted piezoelectric system, a simple surrogate finite element model of a wind turbine tower is considered, and various investigations at the second eigenfrequency are carried out. An alternative way of modeling the studied structure is considered and the results demonstrate better performance. The advantages of setting up structural damping systems for decreasing tower vibrational loads and boosting their structural stability and resilience against extreme events are highlighted throughout this work. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Energy Artificial Islands)
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28 pages, 3137 KiB  
Article
A Stochastic Decision-Making Tool Suite for Distributed Energy Resources Integration in Energy Markets
by Sergio Cantillo-Luna, Ricardo Moreno-Chuquen, David Celeita and George J. Anders
Energies 2024, 17(10), 2419; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/en17102419 - 17 May 2024
Viewed by 392
Abstract
Energy markets are crucial for integrating Distributed Energy Resources (DER) into modern power grids. However, this integration presents challenges due to the inherent variability and decentralized nature of DERs, as well as poorly adapted regulatory environments. This paper proposes a medium-term decision-making approach [...] Read more.
Energy markets are crucial for integrating Distributed Energy Resources (DER) into modern power grids. However, this integration presents challenges due to the inherent variability and decentralized nature of DERs, as well as poorly adapted regulatory environments. This paper proposes a medium-term decision-making approach based on a comprehensive suite of computational tools for integrating DERs into Colombian energy markets. The proposed framework consists of modular tools that are aligned with the operation of a Commercial Virtual Power Plant (CVPP). The tools aim to optimize participation in bilateral contracts and short-term energy markets. They use forecasting, uncertainty management, and decision-making modules to create an optimal portfolio of DER assets. The suite’s effectiveness and applicability are demonstrated and analyzed through its implementation with heterogeneous DER assets across various operational scenarios. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section C: Energy Economics and Policy)
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24 pages, 5255 KiB  
Article
Lithium-Ion Batteries (LIBs) Immersed in Fire Prevention Material for Fire Safety and Heat Management
by Junho Bae, Yunseok Choi and Youngsik Kim
Energies 2024, 17(10), 2418; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/en17102418 - 17 May 2024
Viewed by 524
Abstract
Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) have emerged as the most commercialized rechargeable battery technology. However, their inherent property, called thermal runaway, poses a high risk of fire. This article introduces the “Battery Immersed in Fire Prevention Material (BIF)”, the immersion-type battery in which all of [...] Read more.
Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) have emerged as the most commercialized rechargeable battery technology. However, their inherent property, called thermal runaway, poses a high risk of fire. This article introduces the “Battery Immersed in Fire Prevention Material (BIF)”, the immersion-type battery in which all of the LIB cells are surrounded by a liquid agent. This structure and the agent enable active battery fire suppression under abusive conditions while facilitating improved thermal management during normal operation. Abuse tests involving a battery revealed that the LIB module experienced fire, explosions, and burnouts with the target cell reaching temperatures of 1405 °C and the side reaching 796 °C. Conversely, the BIF module exhibited a complete lack of fire propagation, with temperatures lower than those of LIBs, particularly 285 and 17 °C, respectively. Under normal operating conditions, the BIF module exhibited an average temperature rise ~8.6 times lower than that of a normal LIB. Furthermore, it reduced the uneven thermal deviation between the cells by ~5.3 times more than LIB. This study provides a detailed exploration of the BIF and covers everything from components to practical applications. With further improvements, this technology can significantly enhance fire safety and prevent the thermal degradation of batteries in the real world. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Battery Energy Storage Systems)
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23 pages, 1532 KiB  
Review
An Overview of the Thermochemical Valorization of Sewage Sludge: Principles and Current Challenges
by Bruna Rijo, Catarina Nobre, Paulo Brito and Paulo Ferreira
Energies 2024, 17(10), 2417; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/en17102417 - 17 May 2024
Viewed by 405
Abstract
With the increase in the world population and economic activity, the production of sewage sludge has grown, and its management has become an environmental problem. The most traditional method of managing sewage sludge is to dispose of it in landfills and on farmland. [...] Read more.
With the increase in the world population and economic activity, the production of sewage sludge has grown, and its management has become an environmental problem. The most traditional method of managing sewage sludge is to dispose of it in landfills and on farmland. One way to valorize sewage sludge is to use thermochemical conversion processes to produce added-value products such as biochar, biofuels, and renewable gases. However, due to the high moisture content, thermochemical conversion using processes such as pyrolysis and traditional gasification involves multiple pre-treatment processes such as material drying. Hydrothermal thermochemical processes usually require high pressures, which pose many challenges to their application on a large scale. In this work, the advantages and disadvantages of the different existing thermochemical processes for the recovery of sewage sludge were analyzed, as well as the resulting industrial and environmental challenges. A SWOT analysis was carried out to assess the different thermochemical processes in terms of technical feasibility, economic viability, and broader market considerations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Technologies for Decarbonising the Energy Sector)
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19 pages, 34490 KiB  
Article
Numerical Investigation of Rotor and Stator Matching Mode on the Complex Flow Field and Pressure Pulsation of a Vaned Centrifugal Pump
by Leilei Du, Fankun Zheng, Bo Gao, Mona Gad, Delin Li and Ning Zhang
Energies 2024, 17(10), 2416; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/en17102416 - 17 May 2024
Viewed by 300
Abstract
The match of rotor and stator blades significantly affects the flow field structure and flow-induced pressure pulsation characteristics inside the pump. In order to study the effects of the rotor and stator matching mode on the complex flow field and pressure pulsation of [...] Read more.
The match of rotor and stator blades significantly affects the flow field structure and flow-induced pressure pulsation characteristics inside the pump. In order to study the effects of the rotor and stator matching mode on the complex flow field and pressure pulsation of a centrifugal pump with a vaned diffuser, this paper designs three different vaned diffusers (DY5, DY8 and DY9) and uses the DDES (Delayed Detached Eddy Simulation) numerical method combined with structured grids to simulate the unsteady flow phenomena of the model pump under rated conditions. The results show that, under different rotor and stator matching modes, the pressure pulsation spectrum is dominated by the blade passing frequency and its harmonics. The matching mode of the rotor and stator significantly affects the time–frequency domain characteristics of the pressure pulsation inside the pump, and it is observed that the pressure pulsation energy of vaned diffusers with more blades is significantly smaller than that of fewer-blade vaned diffusers in comparison to the energy of the pressure pulsation at the blade passing frequency and within the 10–1500 Hz frequency band. Combined with the distribution characteristics of the complex flow field inside the pump, it can be found that increasing the number of vaned diffuser blades can reduce the energy of flow-induced pressure pulsation, improve the distribution of high-energy vortices in the interaction zone and stabilize the flow inside the centrifugal pump effectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section F: Electrical Engineering)
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13 pages, 14127 KiB  
Article
Nanofluidic Study of Multiscale Phase Transitions and Wax Precipitation in Shale Oil Reservoirs
by Zhiyong Lu, Yunqiang Wan, Lilong Xu, Dongliang Fang, Hua Wu and Junjie Zhong
Energies 2024, 17(10), 2415; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/en17102415 - 17 May 2024
Viewed by 334
Abstract
During hydraulic fracturing of waxy shale oil reservoirs, the presence of fracturing fluid can influence the phase behavior of the fluid within the reservoir, and heat exchange between the fluids causes wax precipitation that impacts reservoir development. To investigate multiscale fluid phase transition [...] Read more.
During hydraulic fracturing of waxy shale oil reservoirs, the presence of fracturing fluid can influence the phase behavior of the fluid within the reservoir, and heat exchange between the fluids causes wax precipitation that impacts reservoir development. To investigate multiscale fluid phase transition and microscale flow impacted by fracturing fluid injection, this study conducted no-water phase behavior experiments, water injection wax precipitation experiments, and water-condition phase behavior experiments using a nanofluidic chip model. The results show that in the no-water phase experiment, the gasification occurred first in the large cracks, while the matrix throat was the last, and the bubble point pressure difference between the two was 12.1 MPa. The wax precipitation phenomena during fracturing fluid injection can be divided into granular wax in cracks, flake wax in cracks, and wax precipitation in the matrix throat, and the wax mainly accumulated in the microcracks and remained in the form of particles. Compared with the no-water conditions, the large cracks and matrix throat bubble point in the water conditions decreased by 6.1 MPa and 3.5 MPa, respectively, and the presence of the water phase reduced the material occupancy ratio at each pore scale. For the smallest matrix throat, the final gas occupancy ratio under the water conditions decreased from 32% to 24% in the experiment without water. This study provides valuable insight into reservoir fracture modification and guidance for the efficient development of similar reservoirs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section H: Geo-Energy)
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28 pages, 13282 KiB  
Article
Large-Eddy vs. Reynolds-Averaged Navier–Stokes Simulations of Flow and Heat Transfer in a U-Duct with Unsteady Flow Separation
by Kenny S. Hu and Tom I-P. Shih
Energies 2024, 17(10), 2414; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/en17102414 - 17 May 2024
Viewed by 340
Abstract
Large-eddy simulation (LES) and Reynolds-Averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) equations were used to study incompressible flow and heat transfer in a U-duct with a high-aspect-ratio trapezoidal cross section. For the LES, the WALE subgrid-scale model was employed, and its inflow boundary condition was provided by [...] Read more.
Large-eddy simulation (LES) and Reynolds-Averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) equations were used to study incompressible flow and heat transfer in a U-duct with a high-aspect-ratio trapezoidal cross section. For the LES, the WALE subgrid-scale model was employed, and its inflow boundary condition was provided by a concurrent LES of incompressible fully-developed flow in a straight duct with the same cross section and flow conditions as the U-duct. LES results are presented for turbulent kinetic energy, Reynolds stresses, pressure–strain rate, turbulent diffusion, turbulent transport, and velocity–temperature correlations, with a focus on how they are affected by the U-turn region of the U-duct. The LES results were also used to assess three commonly used RANS models: the realizable k-ε with the two-layer model in the near-wall region, the two-equation shear-stress transport model, and the seven-equation stress-omega Reynolds stress model. Results obtained show steady and unsteady RANS to incorrectly predict the effects of unsteady flow separation. The results obtained also identified the terms in the RANS models that need to be modified and suggested how turbulent diffusion should be modeled when there is unsteady flow separation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High-Performance Numerical Simulation in Heat Transfer)
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15 pages, 908 KiB  
Article
Enhancing a Deep Learning Model for the Steam Reforming Process Using Data Augmentation Techniques
by Zofia Pizoń, Shinji Kimijima and Grzegorz Brus
Energies 2024, 17(10), 2413; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/en17102413 - 17 May 2024
Viewed by 476
Abstract
Methane steam reforming is the foremost method for hydrogen production, and it has been studied through experiments and diverse computational models to enhance its energy efficiency. This study focuses on employing an artificial neural network as a model of the methane steam reforming [...] Read more.
Methane steam reforming is the foremost method for hydrogen production, and it has been studied through experiments and diverse computational models to enhance its energy efficiency. This study focuses on employing an artificial neural network as a model of the methane steam reforming process. The proposed data-driven model predicts the output mixture’s composition based on reactor operating conditions, such as the temperature, steam-to-methane ratio, nitrogen-to-methane ratio, methane flow, and nickel catalyst mass. The network, a feedforward type, underwent training with a comprehensive dataset augmentation strategy that augments the primary experimental dataset through interpolation and theoretical simulations of the process, ensuring a robust model training phase. Additionally, it introduces weights to evaluate the relative significance of different data categories (experimental, interpolated, and theoretical) within the dataset. The optimal artificial neural network architecture was determined by evaluating various configurations, with the aim of minimizing the mean squared error (0.00022) and maximizing the Pearson correlation coefficient (0.97) and Spearman correlation coefficient (1.00). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydrogen-Based Energy Systems for Sustainable Transportation)
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16 pages, 600 KiB  
Article
Hierarchically Distributed Charge Control of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles in a Future Smart Grid
by Hanyun Zhou, Wei Li and Jiekai Shi
Energies 2024, 17(10), 2412; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/en17102412 - 17 May 2024
Viewed by 383
Abstract
Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are becoming increasingly widespread due to their environmental benefits. However, PHEV penetration can overload distribution systems and increase operational costs. It is a major challenge to find an economically optimal solution under the condition of flattening load demand [...] Read more.
Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are becoming increasingly widespread due to their environmental benefits. However, PHEV penetration can overload distribution systems and increase operational costs. It is a major challenge to find an economically optimal solution under the condition of flattening load demand for systems. To this end, we formulate this problem as a two-layer optimization problem, and propose a hierarchical algorithm to solve it. For the upper layer, we flatten the load demand curve by using the water-filling principle. For the lower layer, we minimize the total cost for all consumers through a consensus-like iterative method in a distributed manner. Technical constraints caused by consumer demand and power limitations are both taken into account. In addition, a moving horizon approach is used to handle the random arrival of PHEVs and the inaccuracy of the forecast base demand. This paper focuses on distributed solutions under a time-varying switching topology so that all PHEV chargers conduct local computation and merely communicate with their neighbors, which is substantially different from the existing works. The advantages of our algorithm include a reduction in computational burden and high adaptability, which clearly has its own significance for the future smart grid. Finally, we demonstrate the advantages of the proposed algorithm in both theory and simulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section A1: Smart Grids and Microgrids)
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