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Materials, Volume 14, Issue 19 (October-1 2021) – 443 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The smart release of healing agents is a key factor determining the inhibition efficiency of microcapsule-based corrosion inhibitors for reinforced concrete. In this study, only about 5% reserved benzotriazole (BTA) was released from microcapsule corrosion inhibitors (based on PEO-b-PS copolymers) into mortar under high pH environment (pH>12.4). Most BTA in the microcapsule-based inhibitors was released under a low pH environment, which was closely related to the morphology/composition alterations of hydration products caused by a pH drop in the environment. The smart release of BTA dramatically delayed corrosion initiation and improved corrosion resistance of reinforced mortar after corrosion initiation. View this paper
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Article
Mechanical-Chemical Coupling Effects on an Environmental Barrier Coating System under High-Temperature Water Vapour Conditions
Materials 2021, 14(19), 5907; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma14195907 - 08 Oct 2021
Viewed by 448
Abstract
The degradation mechanisms for environmental barrier coatings (EBCs) under high-temperature water vapour conditions are vital for the service of aero-engine blades. This study proposes a theoretical model of high-temperature water vapour corrosion coupled with deformation, mass diffusion and chemical reaction based on the [...] Read more.
The degradation mechanisms for environmental barrier coatings (EBCs) under high-temperature water vapour conditions are vital for the service of aero-engine blades. This study proposes a theoretical model of high-temperature water vapour corrosion coupled with deformation, mass diffusion and chemical reaction based on the continuum thermodynamics and the actual water vapour corrosion mechanisms of an EBC system. The theoretical model is suitable for solving the stress and strain fields, water vapour concentration distribution and coating corrosion degree of an EBC system during the water vapour corrosion process. The results show that the thickness of the corrosion zone on the top of the EBC system depended on water vapour diffusion, which had the greatest influence on the corrosion process. The top corroded area of the rare-earth silicate EBC system was significantly evident, and there was a clear dividing line between the un-corroded and corroded regions. Full article
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Article
Synthesis of Magnetite Nanoparticles through a Lab-On-Chip Device
Materials 2021, 14(19), 5906; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma14195906 - 08 Oct 2021
Viewed by 307
Abstract
Magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) represent one of the most intensively studied types of iron oxide nanoparticles in various fields, including biomedicine, pharmaceutics, bioengineering, and industry. Since their properties in terms of size, shape, and surface charge significantly affects their efficiency towards the envisaged application, [...] Read more.
Magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) represent one of the most intensively studied types of iron oxide nanoparticles in various fields, including biomedicine, pharmaceutics, bioengineering, and industry. Since their properties in terms of size, shape, and surface charge significantly affects their efficiency towards the envisaged application, it is fundamentally important to develop a new synthesis route that allows for the control and modulation of the nanoparticle features. In this context, the aim of the present study was to develop a new method for the synthesis of MNPs. Specifically, a microfluidic lab-on-chip (LoC) device was used to obtain MNPs with controlled properties. The study investigated the influence of iron precursor solution concentration and flowed onto the final properties of the nanomaterials. The synthesized MNPs were characterized in terms of size, morphology, structure, composition, and stability. Results proved the formation of magnetite as a single mineral phase. Moreover, the uniform spherical shape and narrow size distribution were demonstrated. Optimal characteristics regarding MNPs crystallinity, uniformity, and thermal stability were obtained at higher concentrations and lower flows. In this manner, the potential of the LoC device is a promising tool for the synthesis of nanomaterials by ensuring the necessary uniformity for all final applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Metal-Based Nanoparticles)
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Article
Modelling of SMA Vibration Systems in an AVA Example
Materials 2021, 14(19), 5905; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma14195905 - 08 Oct 2021
Viewed by 316
Abstract
Vibration suppression, as well as its generation, is a common subject of scientific investigations. More and more often, but still rarely, shape memory alloys (SMAs) are used in vibrating systems, despite the fact that SMA springs have many advantages. This is due to [...] Read more.
Vibration suppression, as well as its generation, is a common subject of scientific investigations. More and more often, but still rarely, shape memory alloys (SMAs) are used in vibrating systems, despite the fact that SMA springs have many advantages. This is due to the difficulty of the mathematical description and the considerable effortfulness of analysing and synthesising vibrating systems. The article shows the analysis of vibrating systems in which spring elements made of SMAs are used. The modelling and analysis method of vibrating systems is shown in the example of a vibrating system with a dynamic vibration absorber (DVA), which uses springs made of a shape memory alloy. The formulated mathematical model of a 2-DOF system with a controlled spring, mounted in DVA suspension, uses the viscoelastic model of the SMA spring. For the object, a control system was synthesised. Finally, model tests with and without a controller were carried out. The characteristics of the vibrations’ transmissibility functions for both systems were determined. It was shown that the developed DVA can tune to frequency excitation changes of up to ±10%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanical Behavior of Shape Memory Alloys: 2021)
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Article
Analysis and Prediction of Sulfate Erosion Damage of Concrete in Service Tunnel Based on ARIMA Model
Materials 2021, 14(19), 5904; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma14195904 - 08 Oct 2021
Viewed by 330
Abstract
Sulfate erosion is a major cause of concrete durability deteriorations, especially for the service tunnels that suffer sulfate erosion for a long time. Accurately predicting the concrete damage failure under sulfate erosion has been a challenging problem in the evaluation and maintenance of [...] Read more.
Sulfate erosion is a major cause of concrete durability deteriorations, especially for the service tunnels that suffer sulfate erosion for a long time. Accurately predicting the concrete damage failure under sulfate erosion has been a challenging problem in the evaluation and maintenance of concrete structures. Here we design the dry–wet cycle test of service tunnel concrete under sulfate erosion and analyze the Elastic relative dynamic modulus (Erd) and mass under 35 times cycle periods. Then we develop an autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) prediction model linking damage failure to Erd and mass. The results show that the deterioration of concrete first increased and then decreased with an extension of the dry–wet cycle period. Moreover, based on a finite set of training data, the proposed prediction approach shows high accuracy for the changes of concrete damage failure parameters in or out of the training dataset. The ARIMA method is proven to be feasible and efficient for predicting the concrete damage failure of service tunnels under sulfate erosion for a long time. Full article
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Article
Improving the Properties of Composite Titanium Nitride Layers on the AZ91D Magnesium Alloy Using Hydrothermal Treatment
Materials 2021, 14(19), 5903; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma14195903 - 08 Oct 2021
Viewed by 342
Abstract
Coating magnesium alloys with nitride surface layers is a prospective way of improving their intrinsically poor surface properties; in particular, their tribological and corrosion resistance. These layers are usually produced using PVD methods using magnetron sputtering or arc evaporation. Even though the thus-produced [...] Read more.
Coating magnesium alloys with nitride surface layers is a prospective way of improving their intrinsically poor surface properties; in particular, their tribological and corrosion resistance. These layers are usually produced using PVD methods using magnetron sputtering or arc evaporation. Even though the thus-produced layers significantly increase the wear resistance of the alloys, their effects on corrosion resistance are unsatisfactory because of the poor tightness, characteristic of PVD-produced products. Tightness acquires crucial significance when the substrate is a highly-active magnesium alloy, hence our idea to tighten the layers by subjecting them to a post-deposition chemical-hydrothermal-type treatment. This paper presents the results of our experiments with a new hybrid surface engineering method, using a final tightening pressure hydrothermal gas treatment in overheated steam of the composite titanium nitride layers PVD, produced on AZ91D magnesium alloy. The proposed method resulted in an outstanding improvement of the performance properties, in particular resistance to corrosion and wear, yielding values that exceed those exhibited by commercially anodized alloys and austenitic stainless 316L steel. The developed hybrid method produces new, high-performance corrosion and wear resistant, lightweight magnesium base materials, suitable for heavy duty applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Metals and Alloys)
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Article
Lightweight Concretes with Improved Water and Water Vapor Transport for Remediation of Damp Induced Buildings
Materials 2021, 14(19), 5902; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma14195902 - 08 Oct 2021
Viewed by 354
Abstract
Most of the historical and old building stock in Europe are constructed from masonry, when brick, stones, or their combination are bound with traditional mortars. Rising damp, due to accompanying effects, is the main factor influencing the quality of indoor climate as well [...] Read more.
Most of the historical and old building stock in Europe are constructed from masonry, when brick, stones, or their combination are bound with traditional mortars. Rising damp, due to accompanying effects, is the main factor influencing the quality of indoor climate as well as having an important impact on the durability of masonry structures. In this study, new types of lightweight concrete with waste aggregate content as a suitable material for remediation of damp damaged masonries were designed and tested. Alternative aggregate served as silica sand substitution in the range of 0–100 vol.%. Basic structural properties, mechanical resistance, water, and water vapor transport properties were measured after 28 days of water curing and were compared with dense reference concrete and with traditional masonry materials as well. Moreover, the porous structure of produced concretes and changes caused by usage of alternative aggregate usage were evaluated with the mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) technique. Obtained experimental data showed the suitability of modified concretes with 25–50 vol.% of waste aggregate content to ensure acceptable strength and hydric properties, and these properties were found to be comparable with masonry structures and materials used in the past. Full article
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Article
Electrochromism of Viologen/Polymer Composite: From Gel to Insulating Bulk for High-Voltage Applications
Materials 2021, 14(19), 5901; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma14195901 - 08 Oct 2021
Viewed by 371
Abstract
Power equipment operates under high voltages, inducing space charge accumulation on the surface of key insulating structures, which increases the risk of discharge/breakdown and the possibility of maintenance workers experiencing electric shock accidents. Hence, a visualized non-equipment space charge detection method is of [...] Read more.
Power equipment operates under high voltages, inducing space charge accumulation on the surface of key insulating structures, which increases the risk of discharge/breakdown and the possibility of maintenance workers experiencing electric shock accidents. Hence, a visualized non-equipment space charge detection method is of great demand in the power industry. Typical electrochromic phenomenon is based on redox of the material, triggered by a voltage smaller than 5 V with a continuous current in μA~mA level, which is not applicable to high electric fields above 106 V/m with pA~nA operation current in power equipment. Until now, no naked-eye observation technique has been realized for space charge detection to ensure the operation of power systems as well as the safety of maintenance workers. In this work, a viologen/poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene)(P(VDF–HFP)) composite is investigated from gel to insulating bulk configurations to achieve high-voltage electrical-insulating electrochromism. The results show that viologen/P(VDF–HFP) composite bulk can withstand high electric fields at the 107 V/m level, and its electrochromism is triggered by space charges. This electrochromism phenomenon can be visually extended by increasing viologen content towards 5 wt.% and shows a positive response to voltage amplitude and application duration. As viologen/P(VDF–HFP) composite bulk exhibits a typical electrical insulating performance, it could be attached to the surface of insulating structures or clamped between metal and insulating materials as a space charge accumulation indicator in high-voltage power equipment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Insulating Materials and Technologies)
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Article
Corrosion Performance of Nano-TiO2-Modified Concrete under a Dry–Wet Sulfate Environment
Materials 2021, 14(19), 5900; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma14195900 - 08 Oct 2021
Viewed by 357
Abstract
This study compared the effects of the sulfate dry–wet cycle on the properties of ordinary concrete and nano-TiO2-modified concrete, including the mass loss rate, ultrasonic wave velocity, compressive strength, and XRD characteristics. In addition, a series of compression simulations carried out [...] Read more.
This study compared the effects of the sulfate dry–wet cycle on the properties of ordinary concrete and nano-TiO2-modified concrete, including the mass loss rate, ultrasonic wave velocity, compressive strength, and XRD characteristics. In addition, a series of compression simulations carried out using the PFC2D software are also presented for comparison. The results show the following: (1) with an increase in dry–wet cycles, the damage to the concrete gradually increased, and adding nano-TiO2 into ordinary concrete can improve the material’s sulfate resistance; (2) after 50 sulfate dry–wet cycles, the mass loss rate of ordinary concrete was –3.744%, while that of nano-TiO2-modified concrete was −1.363%; (3) the compressive strength of ordinary concrete was reduced from 41.53 to 25.12 MPa (a reduction of 39.51%), but the compressive strength of nano-TiO2-modified concrete was reduced from 49.91 to 32.12 MPa (a reduction of 35.64%); (4) after a sulfate dry–wet cycle, the nano-TiO2-modified concrete surface produced white crystalline products, considered to be ettringite based on the XRD analysis; (5) when considering the peak stress and strain of the concrete samples, the numerical results agreed well with the test results, indicating the reliability of the method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Cement and Concrete Composites)
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Article
Structure-Property Relationships of Polyamide 12 Grades Exposed to Rapid Crack Extension
Materials 2021, 14(19), 5899; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma14195899 - 08 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 337
Abstract
Thermoplastic materials have established a reputation for long-term reliability in low-pressure gas and water distribution pipe systems. However, occasional Slow Crack Growth (SCG) and Rapid Crack Propagation (RCP) failures still occur. SCG may initiate only a small leak, but it has the potential [...] Read more.
Thermoplastic materials have established a reputation for long-term reliability in low-pressure gas and water distribution pipe systems. However, occasional Slow Crack Growth (SCG) and Rapid Crack Propagation (RCP) failures still occur. SCG may initiate only a small leak, but it has the potential to trigger RCP, which is much rarer but more catastrophic and destructive. RCP can create a long, straight or meandering axial crack path at speeds of up to hundreds of meters per second. It is driven by internal (residual) and external (pressure) loads and resisted by molecular and morphological characteristics of the polymer. The safe installation and operation of a pipe throughout its service lifetime therefore requires knowledge of its resistance to RCP, particularly when using new materials. In this context, the RCP resistance of five different polyamide (PA) 12 grades was investigated using the ISO 13477 Small-Scale Steady State (S4) test. Since these grades differed not only in molecular weight but also in their use of additives (impact modifiers and pigments), structure-property relationships could be deduced from S4 test results. A new method is proposed for correlating these results more efficiently to evaluate each grade using the crack arrest lengths from individual S4 test specimens. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fracture Mechanics Investigation of Polymeric Materials)
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Article
Stability of Weld Pool and Elimination of Weld Defects in Aluminum Alloy Plasma Arc Keyhole Welding at Continuously Varying Positions
Materials 2021, 14(19), 5898; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma14195898 - 08 Oct 2021
Viewed by 363
Abstract
Mathematical statistics were used to study the stability of weld pool and the elimination of weld defects in aluminum alloy plasma arc keyhole welding at continuously varying positions. In the mathematical model, the mass transfer position and spatial welding position were taken as [...] Read more.
Mathematical statistics were used to study the stability of weld pool and the elimination of weld defects in aluminum alloy plasma arc keyhole welding at continuously varying positions. In the mathematical model, the mass transfer position and spatial welding position were taken as the input, and the shape of the welded joints (symmetry/deviation) was taken as the output. The results showed that the fitted curves of the front, back, and average deviations of the weld seam were all similar to the actual curves. According to the optimum results obtained in the experiment and the mathematical models, the mass transfer position only needs to be adjusted once (near to 30°) during the continuously varying positions, from vertical-up to horizontal welding. A breakthrough from fixed environmental variables to dynamic environmental variables in the process control of the keyhole weld pool was realized, which enabled the Al-alloy keyhole weld pool to resist the disturbance caused by gravity during variable position welding. The deviation of the welded joints of the whole plate was smaller than 0.5 mm, and the mechanical properties of the weld reached at least 85% compared to those of the base material, thus meeting the requirements of Al-alloy welding. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Welding and Joining Processes of Materials)
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Article
Analysis of Advanced Pore Morphology (APM) Foam Elements Using Compressive Testing and Time-Lapse Computed Microtomography
Materials 2021, 14(19), 5897; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma14195897 - 08 Oct 2021
Viewed by 370
Abstract
Advanced pore morphology (APM) foam elements are almost spherical foam elements with a solid outer shell and a porous internal structure mainly used in applications with compressive loading. To determine how the deformation of the internal structure and its changes during compression are [...] Read more.
Advanced pore morphology (APM) foam elements are almost spherical foam elements with a solid outer shell and a porous internal structure mainly used in applications with compressive loading. To determine how the deformation of the internal structure and its changes during compression are related to its mechanical response, in-situ time-resolved X-ray computed microtomography experiments were performed, where the APM foam elements were 3D scanned during a loading procedure. Simultaneously applying mechanical loading and radiographical imaging enabled new insights into the deformation behaviour of the APM foam samples when the mechanical response was correlated with the internal deformation of the samples. It was found that the highest stiffness of the APM elements is reached before the appearance of the first shear band. After this point, the stiffness of the APM element reduces up to the point of the first self-contact between the internal pore walls, increasing the sample stiffness towards the densification region. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 4D X-ray Computed Tomography for Material Science)
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Article
The Numerical Modelling Approach with a Random Distribution of Mechanical Properties for a Mismatched Weld
Materials 2021, 14(19), 5896; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma14195896 - 08 Oct 2021
Viewed by 347
Abstract
The aim of this work was to include a local variation in material properties to simulate the fracture behaviour in a multi-pass mis-matched X-weld joint. The base material was welded with an over and under-match strength material. The local variation was represented in [...] Read more.
The aim of this work was to include a local variation in material properties to simulate the fracture behaviour in a multi-pass mis-matched X-weld joint. The base material was welded with an over and under-match strength material. The local variation was represented in a finite element model with five material groups in the weld and three layers in the heat-affected zone. The groups were assigned randomly to the elements within a region. A three-point single edge notch bending (SENB) fracture mechanics specimen was analysed for two different configurations where either the initial crack is in the over or under-matched material side to simulate experimentally obtained results. The used modelling approach shows comparable crack propagation and stiffness behaviour, as well as the expected, scatter and instabilities of measured fracture behaviour in inhomogeneous welds. Full article
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Article
Synthesis of Polyamide-Based Microcapsules via Interfacial Polymerization: Effect of Key Process Parameters
Materials 2021, 14(19), 5895; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma14195895 - 08 Oct 2021
Viewed by 452
Abstract
Polyamide microcapsules have gathered significant research interest during the past years due to their good barrier properties; however, the potential of their application is limited due to the fragility of the polymeric membrane. Fully aliphatic polyamide microcapsules (PA MCs) were herein prepared from [...] Read more.
Polyamide microcapsules have gathered significant research interest during the past years due to their good barrier properties; however, the potential of their application is limited due to the fragility of the polymeric membrane. Fully aliphatic polyamide microcapsules (PA MCs) were herein prepared from ethylene diamine and sebacoyl chloride via interfacial polymerization, and the effect of key encapsulation parameters, i.e., monomers ratio, core solvent, stirring rate and time during the polymerization step, were examined concerning attainable process yield and microcapsule properties (shell molecular weight and thermal properties, MC size and morphology). The process yield was found to be mainly influenced by the nature of the organic solvent, which was correlated to the diffusion potential of the diamine from the aqueous phase to the organic core through the polyamide membrane. Thus, spherical microcapsules with a size between 14 and 90 μm and a yield of 33% were prepared by using toluene as core solvent. Milder stirring during the polymerization step led to an improved microcapsule morphology; yet, the substantial improvement of mechanical properties remains a challenge. Full article
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Article
Trivalent Ions and Their Impacts on Effective Conductivity at 300 K and Radio-Protective Behaviors of Bismo-Borate Glasses: A Comparative Investigation for Al, Y, Nd, Sm, Eu
Materials 2021, 14(19), 5894; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma14195894 - 08 Oct 2021
Viewed by 399
Abstract
We aimed to determine the contribution of various trivalent ions like Al and rare-earths (Y, Nd, Sm, Eu) on resistance behaviors of different types of bismo-borate glasses. Accordingly, eight different bismuth borate glasses from the system: 40Bi2O3–59B2O [...] Read more.
We aimed to determine the contribution of various trivalent ions like Al and rare-earths (Y, Nd, Sm, Eu) on resistance behaviors of different types of bismo-borate glasses. Accordingly, eight different bismuth borate glasses from the system: 40Bi2O3–59B2O3–1Tv2O3 (where Tv = Al, Y, Nd, Sm, and Eu) and three glasses of (40Bi2O3–60B2O3; 37.5Bi2O3–62.5B2O3; and 38Bi2O3–60B2O3–2Al2O3) compositions were extensively investigated in terms of their nuclear attenuation shielding properties, along with effective conductivity and buildup factors. The Py-MLBUF online platform was also utilized for determination of some essential parameters. Next, attenuation coefficients, along with half and tenth value layers, have been determined in the 0.015 MeV–15 MeV photon energy range. Moreover, effective atomic numbers and effective atomic weight, along with exposure and energy absorption buildup factors, were determined in the same energy range. The result showed that the type of trivalent ion has a direct effect on behaviors of bismo-borate glasses against ionizing gamma-rays. As incident photon energy increases, the effective thermal conductivity decreases rapidly, especially in the low energy range, where photoelectric effects dominate the photon–matter interaction. Sample 8 had the minimum heat conductivity at low photon energies; our findings showed that Eu-reinforced bismo-borate glass composition, namely 40Bi2O3–59B2O3–1Eu2O3, with a glass density of 6.328 g/cm3 had superior gamma-ray attenuation properties. These outcomes would be useful for the scientific community to observe the most suitable additive rareearth type and related glass composition for providing the aforementioned shielding properties, in terms of needs and utilization requirements. Full article
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Article
Optimization of the Mechanical Properties and the Cytocompatibility for the PMMA Nanocomposites Reinforced with the Hydroxyapatite Nanofibers and the Magnesium Phosphate Nanosheets
Materials 2021, 14(19), 5893; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma14195893 - 08 Oct 2021
Viewed by 365
Abstract
Commercial poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA)-based cement is currently used in the field of orthopedics. However, it suffers from lack of bioactivity, mechanical weakness, and monomer toxicity. In this study, a PMMA-based cement nanocomposite reinforced with hydroxyapatite (HA) nanofibers and two-dimensional (2D) magnesium phosphate [...] Read more.
Commercial poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA)-based cement is currently used in the field of orthopedics. However, it suffers from lack of bioactivity, mechanical weakness, and monomer toxicity. In this study, a PMMA-based cement nanocomposite reinforced with hydroxyapatite (HA) nanofibers and two-dimensional (2D) magnesium phosphate MgP nanosheets was synthesized and optimized in terms of mechanical property and cytocompatibility. The HA nanofibers and the MgP nanosheets were synthesized using a hydrothermal homogeneous precipitation method and tuning the crystallization of the sodium-magnesium-phosphate ternary system, respectively. Compressive strength and MTT assay tests were conducted to evaluate the mechanical property and the cytocompatibility of the PMMA-HA-MgP nanocomposites prepared at different ratios of HA and MgP. To optimize the developed nanocomposites, the standard response surface methodology (RSM) design known as the central composite design (CCD) was employed. Two regression models generated by CCD were analyzed and compared with the experimental results, and good agreement was observed. Statistical analysis revealed the significance of both factors, namely, the HA nanofibers and the MgP nanosheets, in improving the compressive strength and cell viability of the PMMA-MgP-HA nanocomposite. Finally, it was demonstrated that the HA nanofibers of 7.5% wt and the MgP nanosheets of 6.12% wt result in the PMMA-HA-MgP nanocomposite with the optimum compressive strength and cell viability. Full article
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Article
Viscoelastic Damage Characteristics of Asphalt Mixtures Using Fractional Rheology
Materials 2021, 14(19), 5892; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma14195892 - 08 Oct 2021
Viewed by 333
Abstract
The mechanical behavior of asphalt mixtures at high stress levels are characterized by non-linear viscoelasticity and damage evolution. A nonlinear damage constitutive model considering the existence of creep hardening and creep damage mechanisms in the entire creep process is proposed in this study [...] Read more.
The mechanical behavior of asphalt mixtures at high stress levels are characterized by non-linear viscoelasticity and damage evolution. A nonlinear damage constitutive model considering the existence of creep hardening and creep damage mechanisms in the entire creep process is proposed in this study by adopting the fractional rheology theory to characterize the three-stage creep process of mixtures. A series of uniaxial compressive creep tests under various stresses were conducted at different temperatures to verify the model. The results indicated that the model predictions were in good agreement with the creep tests. The relationship between the model parameters and applied stresses was established, and the stress range in which the mixture exhibited only creep consolidation was obtained. The damage to the asphalt mixture was initiated in the steady stage; however, it developed in the tertiary stage. A two-parameter Weibull distribution function was used to describe the evolution between the damage values and damage strains at different stress levels and temperatures. The correlation coefficients were greater than 0.99 at different temperatures, indicating that a unified damage evolution model could be established. Thus, the parameters of the unified model were related to material properties and temperature, independent of the stress levels applied to the mixtures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Experimental Testing and Constitutive Modelling of Pavement Materials)
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Article
A Brief Photocatalytic Study of ZnO Containing Cerium towards Ibuprofen Degradation
Materials 2021, 14(19), 5891; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma14195891 - 08 Oct 2021
Viewed by 346
Abstract
Ibuprofen (IBU) is one of the most-sold anti-inflammatory drugs in the world, and its residues can reach aquatic systems, causing serious health and environmental problems. Strategies are used to improve the photocatalytic activity of zinc oxide (ZnO), and thosethat involvethe inclusion of metalhave [...] Read more.
Ibuprofen (IBU) is one of the most-sold anti-inflammatory drugs in the world, and its residues can reach aquatic systems, causing serious health and environmental problems. Strategies are used to improve the photocatalytic activity of zinc oxide (ZnO), and thosethat involvethe inclusion of metalhave received special attention. The aim of this work was to investigate the influence of the parameters and toxicity of a photoproduct using zinc oxide that contains cerium (ZnO-Ce) for the photodegradation of ibuprofen. The parameters include the influence of the photocatalyst concentration (0.5, 0.5, and 1.5 g L−1) as well as the effects of pH (3, 7, and 10), the effect of H2O2, and radical scavengers. The photocatalyst was characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy-Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy, Transmission electron microscopy, Raman, X-Ray Diffraction, surface area, and diffuse reflectance. The photocatalytic activity of ibuprofen was evaluated in an aqueous solution under UV light for 120 min. The structural characterization by XRD and SEM elucidated the fact that the nanoparticle ZnO contained cerium. The band gap value was 3.31 eV. The best experimental conditions for the photodegradation of IBU were 60% obtained in an acidic condition using 0.50 g L−1 of ZnO-Ce in a solution of 20 ppm of IBU. The presence of hydrogen peroxide favored the photocatalysis process. ZnO-Ce exhibited good IBU degradation activity even after three photocatalytic cycles under UV light. The hole plays akey role in the degradation process of ibuprofen. The toxicity of photolyzed products was monitored against Artemia salina (bioindicator) and did not generate toxic metabolites. Therefore, this work provides a strategic design to improve ZnO-Ce photocatalysts for environmental remediation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Materials Chemistry)
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Article
Micropipes in SiC Single Crystal Observed by Molten KOH Etching
Materials 2021, 14(19), 5890; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma14195890 - 08 Oct 2021
Viewed by 367
Abstract
Micropipe, a “killer” defect in SiC crystals, severely hampers the outstanding performance of SiC-based devices. In this paper, the etching behavior of micropipes in 4H-SiC and 6H-SiC wafers was studied using the molten KOH etching method. The spectra of 4H-SiC and 6H-SiC crystals [...] Read more.
Micropipe, a “killer” defect in SiC crystals, severely hampers the outstanding performance of SiC-based devices. In this paper, the etching behavior of micropipes in 4H-SiC and 6H-SiC wafers was studied using the molten KOH etching method. The spectra of 4H-SiC and 6H-SiC crystals containing micropipes were examined using Raman scattering. A new Raman peak accompanying micropipes located near −784 cm−1 was observed, which may have been induced by polymorphic transformation during the etching process in the area of micropipe etch pits. This feature may provide a new way to distinguish micropipes from other defects. In addition, the preferable etching conditions for distinguishing micropipes from threading screw dislocations (TSDs) was determined using laser confocal microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and optical microscopy. Meanwhile, the micropipe etching pits were classified into two types based on their morphology and formation mechanism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wide Bandgap Semiconductor Materials and Devices)
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Article
Valorization of Recycled Tire Rubber for 3D Printing of ABS- and TPO-Based Composites
Materials 2021, 14(19), 5889; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma14195889 - 08 Oct 2021
Viewed by 385
Abstract
Vulcanized and devulcanized ground tire rubber microparticles have been used as a minor phase in acrylonitrile butadiene styrene copolymer (ABS) and thermoplastic polyolefins (TPO) for the development of materials with desired functionalities by 3D printing. These polymers have been selected because they ( [...] Read more.
Vulcanized and devulcanized ground tire rubber microparticles have been used as a minor phase in acrylonitrile butadiene styrene copolymer (ABS) and thermoplastic polyolefins (TPO) for the development of materials with desired functionalities by 3D printing. These polymers have been selected because they (i) present part of the plastic waste generated by the automotive industry and (ii) have totally different properties (ABS for its stiffness and robustness and TPO for its softness and ductility). The study aims to improve the circular economy of the automotive industry by proposing a promising route for recycling the generated tire rubber waste. In this respect, emergent technology for plastic processing such as 3D printing is used, as part of the additive manufacturing technologies for the prolongated end of life of recycled plastics originated from automotive waste such as ABS and TPO. The obtained results revealed that (i) the composites are suitable for successful filament production with desired composition and diameter required for successful 3D printing by fused deposition modeling, and that (ii) the optimization of the composition of the blends allows the production of materials with interesting mechanical performances. Indeed, some of the investigated ABS-recycled rubber tire blends exhibit high impact properties as TPO-based composites do, which in addition exhibits elongation at break higher than 500% and good compression properties, accompanied with good shape recovery ratio after compression. Full article
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Article
Comparison of Properties of 3D-Printed Mortar in Air vs. Underwater
Materials 2021, 14(19), 5888; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma14195888 - 08 Oct 2021
Viewed by 392
Abstract
Research and technological advancements in 3D concrete printing (3DCP) have led to the idea of applying it to offshore construction. The effect of gravity is reduced underwater, which can have a positive effect on 3DCP. For basic verification of this idea, this study [...] Read more.
Research and technological advancements in 3D concrete printing (3DCP) have led to the idea of applying it to offshore construction. The effect of gravity is reduced underwater, which can have a positive effect on 3DCP. For basic verification of this idea, this study printed and additively manufactured specimens with the same mortar mixture in air and underwater and evaluated properties in the fresh state and the hardened state. The mechanical properties were evaluated using the specimens produced by direct casting to the mold and specimens produced by extracting from the additive part through coring and cutting. The results of the experiment show that underwater 3D printing required a greater amount of printing output than in-air 3D printing for a good print quality, and buildability was improved underwater compared to that in air. In the case of the specimen layered underwater, the density and compressive strength decreased compared to the specimen layered in air. Because there are almost no effects of moisture evaporation and bleeding in water, the interlayer bond strength of the specimen printed underwater was somewhat larger than that printed in air, while there was no effect of the deposition time interval underwater. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Concrete 3D Printing and Digitally-Aided Fabrication (Second Volume))
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Article
Modelling of Friction Phenomena Existed in Drawbead in Sheet Metal Forming
Materials 2021, 14(19), 5887; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma14195887 - 08 Oct 2021
Viewed by 345
Abstract
The article presents the results of friction tests of a 0.8 mm-thick DC04 deep-drawing quality steel sheet. A special friction simulator was used in the tests, reflecting friction conditions occurring while pulling a sheet strip through a drawbead in sheet metal forming. The [...] Read more.
The article presents the results of friction tests of a 0.8 mm-thick DC04 deep-drawing quality steel sheet. A special friction simulator was used in the tests, reflecting friction conditions occurring while pulling a sheet strip through a drawbead in sheet metal forming. The variable parameters in the experimental tests were as follows: surface roughness of countersamples, lubrication conditions, sample orientation in relation to the sheet rolling direction as well as the sample width and height of the drawbead. Due to many factors that affect the value of the coefficient of friction coefficient, artificial neural networks (ANNs) were used to build and analyse the friction model. Four training algorithms were used to train the ANNs: back propagation, conjugate gradients, quasi-Newton and Levenberg–Marquardt. It was found that for all analysed friction conditions and sheet strip widths, increasing the drawbead height increases the COF value. The chlorine-based Heavy Draw 1150 compound provides a more effective friction reduction compared to a LAN-46 machine oil. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Materials Science in Poland (2020,2021))
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Article
Comparison of Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of High Strength and Toughness Ship Plate Steel
Materials 2021, 14(19), 5886; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma14195886 - 08 Oct 2021
Viewed by 392
Abstract
E36 ship plate steel was, respectively, produced by as rolling and normalizing process (ARNP), and EH36 and FH36 ship plate steel was produced by the thermo-mechanical control process (TMCP) with low carbon and multi-element micro-alloying. The microstructure of the three grades of ship [...] Read more.
E36 ship plate steel was, respectively, produced by as rolling and normalizing process (ARNP), and EH36 and FH36 ship plate steel was produced by the thermo-mechanical control process (TMCP) with low carbon and multi-element micro-alloying. The microstructure of the three grades of ship plate steel was composed of ferrite, pearlite, and carbides at room temperature. The average grain size on 1/4 width sections (i.e., longitudinal sections) of the three grades of ship plate steel was, respectively, 5.4 μm, 10.8 μm, and 11.9 μm. EH36 and FH36 ship plate steel had the higher strength due to precipitation and grain boundary strengthening effect, while the E36 ship plate steel had the lower strength due to the recovery phenomenon in the normalizing process. EH36 and FH36 ship plate steel had higher impact toughness due to lower carbon (C) and silicon (Si) content and higher manganese (Mn) content than E36 ship plate steel. E36 ship plate steel had the best plasticity due to the two strong {110} and {111} texture components. The fracture toughness KJ0.2BL(30) values of E36 and EH36 and KJ0.2BL value of FH36 ship plate steel were, respectively, obtained at 387 MPa·m1/2, 464 MPa·m1/2 and 443 MPa·m1/2. EH36 and FH36 ship plate steel had higher KJ0.2BL(30) due to lower C and Si and higher Mn, niobium (Nb), vanadium (V), and aluminum (Al) content than the E36 ship plate steel. The fatigue crack growth rate of E36 ship plate steel was higher than that of EH36 and FH36 ship plate steel due to its higher carbon content and obviously smaller grain size. The analysis results and data may provide a necessary experimental basis for quantitatively establishing the relationship between fracture toughness, yield strength and impact toughness, as well as the relationship between fatigue crack growth rate and both strength and fracture toughness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Metallurgical and Materials Engineering)
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Article
Estimation of the Plastic Zone in Fatigue via Micro-Indentation
Materials 2021, 14(19), 5885; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma14195885 - 08 Oct 2021
Viewed by 376
Abstract
Accurate knowledge of the plastic zone of fatigue cracks is a very direct and effective way to quantify the damage of components subjected to cyclic loads. In this work, we propose an ultra-fine experimental characterisation of the plastic zone based on Vickers micro-indentations. [...] Read more.
Accurate knowledge of the plastic zone of fatigue cracks is a very direct and effective way to quantify the damage of components subjected to cyclic loads. In this work, we propose an ultra-fine experimental characterisation of the plastic zone based on Vickers micro-indentations. The methodology is applied to different compact tension (CT) specimens made of aluminium alloy 2024-T351 subjected to increasing stress intensity factors. The experimental work and sensitivity analysis showed that polishing the surface to #3 μm surface finish and applying a 25 g-force load for 15 s produced the best results in terms of resolution and quality of the data. The methodology allowed the size and shape of both the cyclic and the monotonic plastic zones to be visualised through 2D contour maps. Comparison with Westergaard’s analytical model indicates that the methodology, in general, overestimates the plastic zone. Comparison with S355 low carbon steel suggests that the methodology works best for alloys exhibiting a high strain hardening ratio. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fatigue Crack Growth in Metallic Materials)
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Article
Validity and Applicability of the Scaling Effects for Low Velocity Impact on Composite Plates
Materials 2021, 14(19), 5884; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma14195884 - 08 Oct 2021
Viewed by 279
Abstract
As a result of the increasing use of composite materials in engineering fields, the study of the effect of scale on impact performance is essential for the design of large-scale structures. The purpose of this study was to develop a method capable of [...] Read more.
As a result of the increasing use of composite materials in engineering fields, the study of the effect of scale on impact performance is essential for the design of large-scale structures. The purpose of this study was to develop a method capable of identifying a corrective factor that can be used to evaluate based on similarity theory the behavior of panels with the same material but with scaled geometry when subjected to low velocity impact. The field of investigation was applied based on the experimental results present in the bibliography and that refer to two flat sheets differing only in geometric scale and made by overlapping carbon/carbon unidirectional pre-impregnated epoxy 914 C-TS (6K) −5 34% sheets. Behavior outside the range of structural linearity was investigated for the scaled panels, and the theoretical predictions of the model, projected with each law of scale for each variable present in the dynamic impact process, were compared with the experimental data. A finite element model was thereby developed that validates the theory of scaling and its limits of applicability up to the limits of fracture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Composites Materials for Aeronautical Structural Application)
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Article
Effect of Printing Parameters on Mechanical Behaviour of PLA-Flax Printed Structures by Fused Deposition Modelling
Materials 2021, 14(19), 5883; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma14195883 - 08 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 355
Abstract
Few studies have reported the performance of Polylactic acid (PLA) flax feedstock composite for additive manufacturing. In this work, we report a set of experiments conducted by fused filament technology on PLA and PLA-flax with the aim of drawing a clear picture of [...] Read more.
Few studies have reported the performance of Polylactic acid (PLA) flax feedstock composite for additive manufacturing. In this work, we report a set of experiments conducted by fused filament technology on PLA and PLA-flax with the aim of drawing a clear picture of the potential of PLA-flax as a feedstock material. Nozzle and bed temperatures are both combined with the printing angle to investigate their influence on structural and mechanical properties. The study shows a low sensitivity of PLA-flax to process parameters compared to PLA. A varied balance between shearing and uniaxial deformation is found consistent with tensile results where filament crossing at −45/+45° provides the optimal load-bearing capabilities. However, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and high-speed camera recording shows a limiting reinforcing effect of flax fibre due to the presence of intra-filament porosity and a significant amount of fibre pull-out resulting from the tensile loading. These results suggest that the quality of the bond between PLA matrix and flax fibre, intra-filament porosity, and surface roughness should receive more attention as well as the need for more continuous fibre reinforcement in PLA filaments to optimise the performance of PLA-flax printed materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis, Properties and Applications of Polymer Blends)
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Article
Analysis of the Frequency of Acoustic Emission Events in Terms of the Assessment of the Reduction of Mechanical Parameters of Cellulose–Cement Composites
Materials 2021, 14(19), 5882; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma14195882 - 08 Oct 2021
Viewed by 290
Abstract
The article proposes the application of the acoustic emission method as a technique for the evaluation of mechanical parameters of cellulose–cement composites. The analysis focused on frequency values in a time series analysis of elements subject to three-point flexural stress. In the course [...] Read more.
The article proposes the application of the acoustic emission method as a technique for the evaluation of mechanical parameters of cellulose–cement composites. The analysis focused on frequency values in a time series analysis of elements subject to three-point flexural stress. In the course of a statistic analysis, it has been demonstrated that a significant reduction of the recorded frequency values is associated with a considerable reduction in strength. This allowed the authors to determine the range of frequencies related to the depreciation in the strength of an element. The tests were carried out on elements cut from a full-size cellulose–cement board. Samples exposed to potential operational factors (environmental and exceptional) were analysed. It was shown that the frequencies recorded before reaching the maximum load during bending of samples exposed to environmental factors (water and low temperature) were significantly different (were much lower) from the sounds emitted by elements subjected to exceptional factors (fire and high temperature). Considering the fact that the analysed frequencies of acoustic emission events occur before the maximum stresses in the material are reached and the elements are destroyed, this provides the basis for the use of the acoustic emission method to assess the condition of cellulose–cement composites in terms of lowering mechanical parameters by observing the frequency of events generated by the material during load action. It was found that generating by material frequencies above 300 kHz during bending does not result in a significant decrease in mechanical parameters. The emission of signals with frequencies ranging from 200 to 300 kHz indicate that there was a decline in strength exceeding 25% but less than 50%. The registration of signals with frequencies below 200 kHz indicates that the reduction in mechanical parameters was greater than 50%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Testing of Materials and Elements in Civil Engineering (2nd Edition))
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Article
Mechanical Properties of Aramid/Carbon Hybrid Fiber-Reinforced Concrete
Materials 2021, 14(19), 5881; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma14195881 - 08 Oct 2021
Viewed by 396
Abstract
In this study, aramid fiber (Kevlar® 29 fiber) and carbon fiber were added into concrete in a hybrid manner to enhance the static and impact mechanical properties. The coupling agent presence on the surface of carbon fibers was spotted in Scanning Electron [...] Read more.
In this study, aramid fiber (Kevlar® 29 fiber) and carbon fiber were added into concrete in a hybrid manner to enhance the static and impact mechanical properties. The coupling agent presence on the surface of carbon fibers was spotted in Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) graphs. The carbon fiber with a coupling agent affected the mechanical strength of the reinforced concrete. At 1% fiber/cement weight percentage, the hybrid fiber-reinforced concrete (HFRC) prepared using Kevlar fiber and carbon fiber of 12 and 24 mm in length under different mix proportions was investigated to determine the maximum mechanical strengths. From the test results, the mechanical strength of the HFRC attained better performance than that of the concrete with only Kevlar or carbon fibers. Foremost, the mix proportion of Kevlar/carbon fiber (50–50%) significantly improved the compressive, flexural, and splitting tensile strengths. Under different impact energies, the impact resistance of the HFRC specimen was much higher than that of the benchmark specimen, and the damage of the HFRC specimens was examined with an optical microscope to identify slippage or rupture failure of the fiber in concrete. Full article
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Article
A Comparative Analysis of Chemical, Thermal, and Mechanical Post-Process of Fused Filament Fabricated Polyetherimide Parts for Surface Quality Enhancement
Materials 2021, 14(19), 5880; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma14195880 - 08 Oct 2021
Viewed by 399
Abstract
Additive manufacturing technologies are increasingly being used in production systems because they shorten product development time and production cost, but surface integrity remains a limitation to meet the standards set by conventional manufacturing. In this research article, two chemical, one thermal, and three [...] Read more.
Additive manufacturing technologies are increasingly being used in production systems because they shorten product development time and production cost, but surface integrity remains a limitation to meet the standards set by conventional manufacturing. In this research article, two chemical, one thermal, and three mechanical finishing operations are proposed to post-process fused filament fabricated Ultem 9085 parts. Their effects on the parts’ surface quality and dimensional accuracy (changes in their width, height, length, and mass) are examined through optical and electron scanning microscopy, and the advantages and disadvantages of each method are discussed. Microscope evaluation has proven to be a powerful tool to observe apparent differences and understand the nature of different morphological changes. Results indicate that chemical and thermal treatments and ball burnishing are good candidates to significantly enhance the finish of the parts, despite requiring the use of solvents or provoking dimensional changes to the parts. The effects of abrasive mechanical treatments are more moderate at a macroscopic scale, but the surface of the filaments suffers the most remarkable changes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Finishing Operations to Enhance Surface Integrity of Parts)
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Article
Characteristics of Mortars with Blast Furnace Slag Powder and Mixed Fine Aggregates Containing Ferronickel-Slag Aggregate
Materials 2021, 14(19), 5879; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma14195879 - 08 Oct 2021
Viewed by 360
Abstract
Recently, interest in environmentally friendly development has increased worldwide, especially in the construction industry. In this study, blast furnace slag powder (BFSP) and mixed steel fine aggregates were applied to cement mortars to reduce the environmental damage caused by the extraction of natural [...] Read more.
Recently, interest in environmentally friendly development has increased worldwide, especially in the construction industry. In this study, blast furnace slag powder (BFSP) and mixed steel fine aggregates were applied to cement mortars to reduce the environmental damage caused by the extraction of natural aggregate and to increase the recycling rate of steel by-products in the construction industry. We investigated the fluidity, compressive strength, tensile strength, accelerated carbonation depth, and chloride ion penetration resistance of mortars with steel slag aggregate and their dependence on the presence or absence of BFSP. Because the recycling rate of ferronickel slag is low and causes environmental problems, we considered mortar samples with mixed fine aggregates containing blast furnace slag fine aggregate (BSA) and ferronickel slag fine aggregate (FSA). The results showed that the 7-day compressive strength of a sample containing both 25% BSA and 25% FSA was nearly 14.8% higher than that of the control sample. This trend is likely due to the high density and angular shape of steel slag particles. The 56-day compressive strength of the sample with BFSP and 50% FSA was approximately 64.9 MPa, which was higher than that of other samples with BFSP. In addition, the chloride ion penetrability test result indicates that the use of BFSP has a greater effect than the use of steel slag aggregate on the chloride ion penetration resistance of mortar. Thus, the substitute rate of steel slag as aggregate can be substantially enhanced if BFSP and steel slag aggregate are used in an appropriate combination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Various Substitute Aggregate Materials for Sustainable Concrete)
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Article
Characterization and Antimicrobial Activity of Silver Nanoparticles Synthesized with the Peel Extract of Mango
Materials 2021, 14(19), 5878; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma14195878 - 08 Oct 2021
Viewed by 407
Abstract
The green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from biological waste, as well as their excellent antibacterial properties, is currently attracting significant research attention. This study synthesized AgNPs from different mango peel extract concentrations while investigating their characteristics and antibacterial properties. The results showed [...] Read more.
The green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from biological waste, as well as their excellent antibacterial properties, is currently attracting significant research attention. This study synthesized AgNPs from different mango peel extract concentrations while investigating their characteristics and antibacterial properties. The results showed that the AgNPs were irregular with rod-like, spherical shapes and were detected in a range of 25 nm to 75 nm. The AgNPs displayed antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), showing a more significant impact when synthesized with 0.20 g/mL of mango peel extract. Therefore, the antibacterial effect of different diluted AgNP concentrations on the growth kinetic curves of E. coli and S. aureus after synthesis with 0.20 g/mL mango peel extract was analyzed. The results indicated that the AgNP antibacterial activity was higher against S. aureus than against E. coli, while the AgNP IC50 in these two strains was approximately 1.557 mg/mL and 2.335 mg/L, respectively. This research provides new insights regarding the use of postharvest mango byproducts and the potential for developing additional AgNP composite antibacterial materials for fruit and vegetable preservation. Full article
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