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Materials, Volume 14, Issue 20 (October-2 2021) – 321 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Thermoelectric generators, which directly convert thermal energy to electricity and vice versa, have attracted a great deal of interest due to their applications in waste heat recovery and highly efficient cooling of next-generation integrated circuits. Recently, multiphase thermoelectric materials have offered higher conversion efficiencies than single-phase counterparts, providing exciting prospects to exploit the effects of secondary phases to improve the power factor and thermal conductivity of these compounds. Here, we have summarized the principal mechanisms used to enhance the conversion efficiency of these materials, including energy filtering, modulation doping, phonon scattering, and magnetic effects. View this paper
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Article
Electronic Waste Low-Temperature Processing: An Alternative Thermochemical Pretreatment to Improve Component Separation
Materials 2021, 14(20), 6228; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma14206228 - 19 Oct 2021
Viewed by 467
Abstract
The production of electronic waste due to technological development, economic growth and increasing population has been rising fast, pushing for solutions before the environmental pressure achieves unprecedented levels. Recently, it was observed that many extractive metallurgy alternatives had been considered to recover value [...] Read more.
The production of electronic waste due to technological development, economic growth and increasing population has been rising fast, pushing for solutions before the environmental pressure achieves unprecedented levels. Recently, it was observed that many extractive metallurgy alternatives had been considered to recover value from this type of waste. Regarding pyrometallurgy, little is known about the low-temperature processing applied before fragmentation and subsequent component separation. Therefore, the present manuscript studies such alternative based on scanning electron microscopy characterization. The sample used in the study was supplied by a local recycling center in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The mass loss was constant at around 30% for temperatures higher than 300 °C. Based on this fact, the waste material was then submitted to low-temperature processing at 350 °C followed by attrition disassembling, size classification, and magnetic concentration steps. In the end, this first report of the project shows that 15% of the sample was recovered with metallic components with high economic value, such as Cu, Ni, and Au, indicating that such methods could be an interesting alternative to be explored in the future for the development of alternative electronic waste extraction routes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recovery and Treatment of Solid Waste)
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Article
Effects of Oxide Additives on the Phase Structures and Electrical Properties of SrBi4Ti4O15 High-Temperature Piezoelectric Ceramics
Materials 2021, 14(20), 6227; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma14206227 - 19 Oct 2021
Viewed by 401
Abstract
In this work, SrBi4Ti4O15 (SBT) high-temperature piezoelectric ceramics with the addition of different oxides (Gd2O3, CeO2, MnO2 and Cr2O3) were fabricated by a conventional solid-state reaction route. [...] Read more.
In this work, SrBi4Ti4O15 (SBT) high-temperature piezoelectric ceramics with the addition of different oxides (Gd2O3, CeO2, MnO2 and Cr2O3) were fabricated by a conventional solid-state reaction route. The effects of oxide additives on the phase structures and electrical properties of the SBT ceramics were investigated. Firstly, X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that all these oxides-modified SBT ceramics prepared presented a single SrBi4Ti4O15 phase with orthorhombic symmetry and space group of Bb21m, the change in cell parameters indicated that these oxide additives had diffused into the crystalline lattice of SBT and formed solid solutions with it. The SBT ceramics with the addition of MnO2 achieved a high relative density of up to 97%. The temperature dependence of dielectric constant showed that the addition of Gd2O3 could increase the TC of SBT. At a low frequency of 100 Hz, those dielectric loss peaks appearing around 500 °C were attributed to the space-charge relaxation as an extrinsic dielectric response. The synergetic doping of CeO2 and Cr2O3 could reduce the space-charge-induced dielectric relaxation of SBT. The piezoelectricity measurement and electro-mechanical resonance analysis found that Cr2O3 can significantly enhance both d33 and kp of SBT, and produce a higher phase-angle maximum at resonance. Such an enhanced piezoelectricity was attributed to the further increased orthorhombic distortion after Ti4+ at B-site was substituted by Cr3+. Among these compositions, Sr0.92Gd0.053Bi4Ti4O15 + 0.2 wt% Cr2O3 (SGBT-Cr) presented the best electrical properties including TC = 555 °C, tan δ = 0.4%, kp = 6.35% and d33 = 28 pC/N, as well as a good thermally-stable piezoelectricity that the value of d33 was decreased by only 3.6% after being annealed at 500 °C for 4 h. Such advantages provided this material with potential applications in the high-stability piezoelectric sensors operated below 500 °C. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microstructural Design and Processing Control of Advanced Ceramics)
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Article
Mirror-like Bright Al-Mn Coatings Electrodeposition from 1-Ethyl-3 Methylimidazolium Chloride-AlCl3-MnCl2 Ionic Liquids with Pyridine Derivatives
Materials 2021, 14(20), 6226; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma14206226 - 19 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 382
Abstract
The effects of three pyridine derivative additives, 4-hydroxypyridine, 4-picolinic acid, and 4-cyanopyridine, on Al-Mn coatings were investigated in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride-AlCl3-MnCl2 (EMIC-AlCl3-MnCl2) ionic liquids. The smooth mirror-like bright Al-Mn coatings were obtained only in the EMIC-AlCl3 [...] Read more.
The effects of three pyridine derivative additives, 4-hydroxypyridine, 4-picolinic acid, and 4-cyanopyridine, on Al-Mn coatings were investigated in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride-AlCl3-MnCl2 (EMIC-AlCl3-MnCl2) ionic liquids. The smooth mirror-like bright Al-Mn coatings were obtained only in the EMIC-AlCl3-MnCl2 ionic liquids containing 4-cyanopyridine, while the matte Al-Mn coatings were electrodeposited from EMIC-AlCl3-MnCl2 without additives or containing either 4-hydroxypyridine or 4-picolinic acid. The scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction showed that the bright Al-Mn coatings consisted of nanocrystals and had a strong (200) preferential orientation, while the particle size of matte Al-Mn coatings were within the micron range. The brightening mechanism of 4-cyanopyridine is due to it being adsorbed onto the cathode to produce the combined effect of (1) generating an overpotential to promote Al-Mn nucleation; (2) inhibiting the growth of the deposited nuclei and enabling them grow preferentially, making the coating composed of nanocrystals and with a smooth surface. The brightening effect of 4-cyanopyridine on the Al-Mn coatings was far better than that of the 4-hydroxypyridine and the 4-picolinic acid. In addition, the bright Al-Mn coating was prepared in a bath with 6 mmol·L−1 4-cyanopyridine and displayed superior corrosion resistance relative to the matte coatings, which could be attributed to its unique nanocrystalline structure that increased the number of grain boundaries and accelerated the formation of the protective layer of the corrosion products. Full article
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Article
Gemological Characteristic Difference between Colorless CVD Synthetic Diamonds and Natural Diamonds
Materials 2021, 14(20), 6225; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma14206225 - 19 Oct 2021
Viewed by 393
Abstract
CVD synthetic diamond plays an important role in the jewelry market due to its excellent performance and low cost. In this paper, colorless CVD synthetic diamonds produced by a Chinese company were investigated in detail with their gemological, spectroscopic, and luminescent properties compared [...] Read more.
CVD synthetic diamond plays an important role in the jewelry market due to its excellent performance and low cost. In this paper, colorless CVD synthetic diamonds produced by a Chinese company were investigated in detail with their gemological, spectroscopic, and luminescent properties compared with natural colorless diamonds. Compared with natural diamonds, CVD synthetic diamonds have high-order interference color and more apparent abnormal birefringence. The results of infrared spectra indicate that all the CVD samples are classified as type IIa, while the natural samples belong to type Ia. The CVD samples show lamellar growth and mottled luminescence pattern and have blue, orange red, purple red, and blue fluorescence, respectively, while most of the natural samples show blue fluorescence. CVD diamonds show lamellar growth structure, and natural diamonds show irregular ring-like growth structure. Thus, multiple methods combined with analysis are required to distinguish synthetic diamonds from natural diamonds. This work provides an experimental basis for the identification of CVD synthetic diamonds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Synthetic Diamond Materials)
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Article
Incorporation of Temperature and Plastic Strain Effects into Local Approach to Fracture
Materials 2021, 14(20), 6224; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma14206224 - 19 Oct 2021
Viewed by 475
Abstract
An unjustified simplification of the local quantitative criterion regarding cleavage nucleation is a key problem in the utilisation of the Local Approach to Fracture (LA), particularly to predict the fracture toughness within the ductile-to-brittle transition (DBT) region. The theoretical concept of the effect [...] Read more.
An unjustified simplification of the local quantitative criterion regarding cleavage nucleation is a key problem in the utilisation of the Local Approach to Fracture (LA), particularly to predict the fracture toughness within the ductile-to-brittle transition (DBT) region. The theoretical concept of the effect of both temperature and the plastic strain value on the crack nuclei (CN) generation rate in iron and ferritic steels is presented. It is shown how the plastic strain and temperature affect CN formation rate and, as a consequence, govern the shape of the temperature dependence of fracture toughness KJc and its scatter limits. Within the framework of the microscopic model proposed, dependences of the CN bulk density on the plastic deformation value and temperature are predicted. Convenient approximation dependences for incorporating this effect into the LA are suggested. The experimental data of reactor pressure vessel steel and cast manganese steel demonstrate that the use of these dependences enables one to predict, with sufficient accuracy, the effect of temperature on the value of fracture toughness and its scatter limits over the DBT region. It is shown that accounting for both the temperature and strain dependence of CN bulk density gives rise to the invariance of parameters of the Weibull distribution to temperature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Mechanisms of Fracture and Fatigue)
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Article
A Method for Characterising the Influence of Casting Parameters on the Metallurgical Bonding of Copper and Steel Bimetals
Materials 2021, 14(20), 6223; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma14206223 - 19 Oct 2021
Viewed by 267
Abstract
Traditional casting technology offers two mayor drawbacks towards research activities. On the one hand, time and resources needed for every casting are rather high. The mould has to be able to withstand the high temperatures introduced by the melt and provide cooling for [...] Read more.
Traditional casting technology offers two mayor drawbacks towards research activities. On the one hand, time and resources needed for every casting are rather high. The mould has to be able to withstand the high temperatures introduced by the melt and provide cooling for the cast part. Preparation and installation of measuring equipment therefore takes time. Additionally, due to the high mass of the mould when compared to the cast part, parameter variations are rather limited in their resulting effect on the temperature-time profile being one of the most prominent factors regarding cast quality. Especially when pouring by hand, variations in casting times and rates superimpose effects created intentionally. Therefore, a different process was advanced and evaluated, allowing to minimise some of the drawbacks mentioned before. The key idea is to drastically reduce casting size to the dimensions of one specimen and to apply a highly automated production route. As such, a mirror furnace was modified as to allow the processing of melt. Due to the specimens size, an adaption of mechanical testing equipment was performed and evaluated. As an example, copper-iron bimetal specimens were examined by light microscopy, micro hardness testing, nanoindentation as well as tensile and torsion testing. As the results were consistent, the newly introduced method can be applied successfully in casting research. This allows for highly reproducible results, reducing the uncertainty of temperature measurements of a specimen due to the distance between them. The possibility of separating influencing variables like maximum temperature and cooling rate allows an analysis of the casting process, which would require different moulds to do so in traditional casting methods. The next steps will be directed at a broader variety of metals processed and at a direct comparison between the new process route and traditional casting technology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Characterization Methods for Metal Cast Processes)
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Article
Modeling and Analysis of a SiC Microstructure-Based Capacitive Micro-Accelerometer
Materials 2021, 14(20), 6222; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma14206222 - 19 Oct 2021
Viewed by 302
Abstract
In this study, a comb-type capacitive accelerometer based on a silicon carbide (SiC) microstructure is presented and investigated by the finite element method (FEM). It has the advantages of low weight, small volume, and low cross-coupling. Compared with silicon(111) accelerometers with the same [...] Read more.
In this study, a comb-type capacitive accelerometer based on a silicon carbide (SiC) microstructure is presented and investigated by the finite element method (FEM). It has the advantages of low weight, small volume, and low cross-coupling. Compared with silicon(111) accelerometers with the same structure, it has a higher natural frequency. When the accelerometer vibrates, its resistive force consists of two main components: a viscous damping and an elastic damping force. It was found that viscous damping dominates at low frequency, and elastic damping dominates at high frequency. The second-order linear system of the accelerometer was analyzed in the time-frequency domain, and its dynamic characteristics were best when the gap between the capacitive plates was 1.23 μm. The range of this accelerometer was 0–100 g, which is 1.64 times that of a silicon(111) accelerometer with the same structure. In addition, the accelerometer could work normally at temperatures of up to 1200 °C, which is much higher than the working temperatures of silicon devices. Therefore, the proposed accelerometer showed superior performance compared to conventional silicon-based sensors for inertial measurements. Full article
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Article
Numerical Investigation of Composite Behavior and Strength of Rectangular Concrete-Filled Cold-Formed Steel Tubular Stub Columns
Materials 2021, 14(20), 6221; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma14206221 - 19 Oct 2021
Viewed by 286
Abstract
The objective of this study was to investigate the composite behavior of rectangular concrete-filled cold-formed steel (CFS) tubular stub columns under axial compression. A fine finite 3D solid element model of rectangular concrete-filled cold-formed steel tubular stub column was established by ABAQUS, which [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to investigate the composite behavior of rectangular concrete-filled cold-formed steel (CFS) tubular stub columns under axial compression. A fine finite 3D solid element model of rectangular concrete-filled cold-formed steel tubular stub column was established by ABAQUS, which utilized a constitutive model of cold-formed steel considering the cold-forming effect and a triaxial plastic-damage constitutive model of the infilled concrete. Good agreement was achieved and the average discrepancy between the experimental and FE results was less than 5%. Based on the verified models, a further parametric analysis was carried out to reveal the influence of various factors on the strength and behavior of the concrete-filled rectangular cold-formed steel tubular stub columns. The factors included constitutive models adopted for cold-formed steel, length over width ratio of the rectangular section, wall-thickness and width, and concrete strength and yield strength of the cold-formed steel. A total of 144 FE models were analyzed. The stress nephogram was reasonably simplified in accordance with the limit state and a theoretical formula considering confinement coefficient was proposed to estimate the ultimate bearing capacity of concrete-filled rectangular cold-formed steel tubular stub columns using the superposition method. The calculated results showed satisfactory agreement with both the experimental and FE results, which proved the validity and accuracy of the formula proposed in this paper. In the proposed formula, the confinement coefficient of square concrete-filled cold-formed steel tubular stub columns is larger than that of hot-rolled steel counterparts but smaller than that of the stainless steel counterparts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Confined Concrete and Its Application in Structural Engineering)
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Article
The Influence of Physical Properties and Increasing Woven Fabric Layers on the Noise Absorption Capacity
Materials 2021, 14(20), 6220; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma14206220 - 19 Oct 2021
Viewed by 317
Abstract
Noise pollution from the environment may wreak havoc on a person’s wellbeing. Numerous sound-absorbing materials are employed to address these issues, one of which is textile-woven fabrics. In this study, 12 woven textiles with four different weave structures (plain, rib, sateen, and twill) [...] Read more.
Noise pollution from the environment may wreak havoc on a person’s wellbeing. Numerous sound-absorbing materials are employed to address these issues, one of which is textile-woven fabrics. In this study, 12 woven textiles with four different weave structures (plain, rib, sateen, and twill) and those formed from three distinct polyester yarns were evaluated for their sound absorption properties using an impedance tube. The study was conducted within the range of 80–5000 (Hz) frequency. Part of the investigation was measuring different layers of woven fabrics under three different measuring conditions. Firstly, only woven fabrics were evaluated. Following that, woven and nonwoven textiles were measured. The third variant, in addition to the woven fabrics, included an air gap. In addition, this study includes tests and analyses of the effect of roughness and porosity of the fabric structure on the effectiveness of noise reduction by woven fabrics. The absorption capacity of plain fabric is higher at lower frequencies than other woven fabrics. Other weave structures noise reduction efficiency is higher as the frequency range increases. The absorption efficiency of plain fabric decreases with fabric layering. Utilizing woven fabric combined with nonwoven fabric reduces noise more effectively than the air gap variant. Low surface roughness and a highly porous surface of the fabric indicate a high noise reduction coefficient (NRC). Full article
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Article
Dialkyl Succinates and Adipates as Alternative Plasticizers—Even More Efficient Synthesis
Materials 2021, 14(20), 6219; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma14206219 - 19 Oct 2021
Viewed by 321
Abstract
As a result of strict regulations of phthalate plasticizers, alternative non-phthalate forms are desired and increasingly used. This work presents a synthetic method for alternative plasticizers (dialkyl succinates and adipates) via esterification of succinic and adipic acid with alcohols: butan-1-ol and 2-ethylhexan-1-ol. Ionic [...] Read more.
As a result of strict regulations of phthalate plasticizers, alternative non-phthalate forms are desired and increasingly used. This work presents a synthetic method for alternative plasticizers (dialkyl succinates and adipates) via esterification of succinic and adipic acid with alcohols: butan-1-ol and 2-ethylhexan-1-ol. Ionic liquids were synthesized by the reaction of triethylamine with over-equimolar (1:2.7) amounts of sulfuric(VI) acid, which were used as an acidic catalyst and solvent. The two-phase liquid–liquid system was formed during the reaction due to immiscibility of the esters with the ionic liquid. This phenomenon is a driving force of this process, shifting the equilibrium toward the product formation. As a result, dialkyl succinates and adipates were obtained in high yields (99%) and selectivities (>99%), under mild reaction conditions at 70–80 °C and using a 4:1 molar ratio of alcohol to acid and 15 mol% of catalyst. The catalyst was recycled 10 times without any loss of activity. This alternative method is highly competitive: it involves a simple procedure for product isolation as well as a high yield and purity of the resulting esters. These advantages make this method sustainable and promising for industrial applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Technologies for Sustainable Materials)
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Article
Interaction between Thermal Modification Temperature of Spruce Wood and the Cutting and Fracture Parameters
Materials 2021, 14(20), 6218; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma14206218 - 19 Oct 2021
Viewed by 298
Abstract
This work examines the effect of thermal modification temperatures in the production of thermally modified wood on the cutting and fracture parameters when cutting heat-treated spruce wood by a circular sawblade machine. The samples were thermally modified at 160, 180, 200, and 220 [...] Read more.
This work examines the effect of thermal modification temperatures in the production of thermally modified wood on the cutting and fracture parameters when cutting heat-treated spruce wood by a circular sawblade machine. The samples were thermally modified at 160, 180, 200, and 220 °C. One sample was unmodified and was used as a reference sample. On the basis of the performed experiments, the fracture parameters (fracture toughness and shear yield strength) were calculated for the axial–perpendicular direction of cutting. In comparison with the theoretical assumptions, the influence of temperature on the cutting and fracture parameters was confirmed. Thermally treated wood is characterized by increased fragility and susceptibility to crack formation, as well as reduced density, bending strength, and shear strength. These properties significantly affect the size of the cutting force and feed force, as well as the fracture parameters. As the temperature increases, the values of these parameters decrease. The mentioned material characteristics could be useful for the optimization of the cutting process, as well as for the issue of energy consumption during the machining of heat-treated wood. Full article
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Article
Histologic and Histomorphometric Evaluation of a New Bioactive Liquid BBL on Implant Surface: A Preclinical Study in Foxhound Dogs
Materials 2021, 14(20), 6217; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma14206217 - 19 Oct 2021
Viewed by 347
Abstract
Background: Bioactive chemical surface modifications improve the wettability and osseointegration properties of titanium implants in both animals and humans. The objective of this animal study was to investigate and compare the bioreactivity characteristics of titanium implants (BLT) pre-treated with a novel bone bioactive [...] Read more.
Background: Bioactive chemical surface modifications improve the wettability and osseointegration properties of titanium implants in both animals and humans. The objective of this animal study was to investigate and compare the bioreactivity characteristics of titanium implants (BLT) pre-treated with a novel bone bioactive liquid (BBL) and the commercially available BLT-SLA active. Methods: Forty BLT-SLA titanium implants were placed in in four foxhound dogs. Animals were divided into two groups (n = 20): test (BLT-SLA pre-treated with BBL) and control (BLT-SLA active) implants. The implants were inserted in the post extraction sockets. After 8 and 12 weeks, the animals were sacrificed, and mandibles were extracted, containing the implants and the surrounding soft and hard tissues. Bone-to-implant contact (BIC), inter-thread bone area percentage (ITBA), soft tissue, and crestal bone loss were evaluated by histology and histomorphometry. Results: All animals were healthy with no implant loss or inflammation symptoms. All implants were clinically and histologically osseo-integrated. Relative to control groups, test implants demonstrated a significant 1.5- and 1.7-fold increase in BIC and ITBA values, respectively, at both assessment intervals. Crestal bone loss was also significantly reduced in the test group, as compared with controls, at week 8 in both the buccal crests (0.47 ± 0.32 vs 0.98 ± 0.51 mm, p < 0.05) and lingual crests (0.39* ± 0.3 vs. 0.89 ± 0.41 mm, p < 0.05). At week 12, a pronounced crestal bone loss improvement was observed in the test group (buccal, 0.41 ± 0.29 mm and lingual, 0.54 ± 0.23 mm). Tissue thickness showed comparable values at both the buccal and lingual regions and was significantly improved in the studied groups (0.82–0.92 mm vs. 33–48 mm in the control group). Conclusions: Relative to the commercially available BLT-SLA active implants, BLT-SLA pre-treated with BBL showed improved histological and histomorphometric characteristics indicating a reduced titanium surface roughness and improved wettability, promoting healing and soft and hard tissue regeneration at the implant site. Full article
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Article
Mud-Based Construction Material: Promising Properties of French Gravel Wash Mud Mixed with Byproducts, Seashells and Fly Ash as a Binder
Materials 2021, 14(20), 6216; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma14206216 - 19 Oct 2021
Viewed by 440
Abstract
The French gravel industry produces approximatively 6.5 million tons of gravel wash mud each year. This material offers very promising properties which require an in-depth characterization study before its use as a construction material, otherwise it is removed from value cycles by disposal [...] Read more.
The French gravel industry produces approximatively 6.5 million tons of gravel wash mud each year. This material offers very promising properties which require an in-depth characterization study before its use as a construction material, otherwise it is removed from value cycles by disposal in landfills. We examined the suitability of gravel wash mud and seashells, with fly ash as a binder, as an unfired earth construction material. Thermal and mechanical characterizations of the smart mixture composed of gravel wash mud, Crepidula fornicata shells and fly ash are performed. The new specimens exhibit high compressive strengths compared to usual earth construction materials, which appears as a good opportunity for a reduction in the thickness of walls. The use of fly ash and Crepidula shells in addition to gravel wash mud provides high silica and calcium contents, which both react with clay, leading to the formation of tobermorite and Al-tobermorite as a result of a pozzolanic reaction. Considering the reduction in porosity and improvements in strength, these new materials are good candidates to contribute significantly to the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and reduce carbon emissions. Full article
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Article
Space Maintainers Used in Pediatric Dentistry: An Insight of Their Biosecurity Profile by Applying In Vitro Methods
Materials 2021, 14(20), 6215; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma14206215 - 19 Oct 2021
Viewed by 373
Abstract
Space maintainers have presented an increased interest due to their chemical composition which influences the electrochemical and electrolytic processes of the oral cavity, leading to important biological activity. The present study was purported to evaluate the biological in vitro activity of three types [...] Read more.
Space maintainers have presented an increased interest due to their chemical composition which influences the electrochemical and electrolytic processes of the oral cavity, leading to important biological activity. The present study was purported to evaluate the biological in vitro activity of three types of space maintainers (S1, S2, and S3, differing from each other in terms of metal composition) used in pediatric dentistry, in terms of their antimicrobial effect and biosecurity profile using two types of keratinocytes (PGK: primary gingival keratinocytes, and HaCaT: human immortalized keratinocytes) by assessing the morphology, viability, cytotoxicity, and gene expression of the cells. Statistical differences were calculated by the one-way ANOVA test, followed by Tukey’s post-test. Antimicrobial screening highlighted a dilution-dependent influence that, in the case of all strains tested, did not show inhibition or stimulation of bacterial growth. The in vitro evaluations revealed that the test samples did not induce important cytotoxic potential on both keratinocyte cell lines (HaCaT and PGK), with the cells manifesting no morphological alteration, a good viability rate (above 90%: PGK–S1, * p < 0.05), and a low cytotoxic activity (less than 11%: PGK, S1 *** p < 0.001 and S3 * p < 0.05; HaCaT, S1 ** p < 0.01). The data obtained in this study highlight the fact that the samples analyzed are biocompatible and do not develop the growth of the studied bacteria or encode the gene expression of primary and immortalized keratinocytes. Full article
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Article
In Vitro Fracture Resistance of Endodontically Treated Premolar Teeth Restored with Prefabricated and Custom-Made Fibre-Reinforced Composite Posts
Materials 2021, 14(20), 6214; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma14206214 - 19 Oct 2021
Viewed by 329
Abstract
(1) Background: The study aimed to compare and analyse the differences between the features of prefabricated fibre-reinforced composite (FRC) posts and custom-made FRC posts in the form of a tape and confirm the necessity of using FRC posts in teeth treated endodontically in [...] Read more.
(1) Background: The study aimed to compare and analyse the differences between the features of prefabricated fibre-reinforced composite (FRC) posts and custom-made FRC posts in the form of a tape and confirm the necessity of using FRC posts in teeth treated endodontically in comparison to direct reconstruction with a composite material. (2) Methods: Sixty premolars after endodontic treatment were used. The teeth were divided into four groups (n—15). Group 1: teeth with embedded prefabricated posts (Mirafit White); group 2: teeth with embedded prefabricated posts (Rebilda); group 3 teeth with embedded custom-made posts in the form of a tape (EverStick); group 4: teeth without a post restored with composite material. The compressive strength of the teeth was tested using the Instron-5944 testing machine until the sample broke. The crystal structure of the investigated posts was detected with the X-ray diffractometer (3) Results: During the experiment, the maximum values of forces at which the damage of the restored premolar teeth after endodontic treatment occurred were obtained. The best results were obtained for teeth rebuilt with Rebilda Posts (1119 N), while teeth with cemented Mirafit White posts were the weakest (968 N). Teeth without an embedded FRC post, rebuilt only with light-cured composite material, obtained the lowest value—859 N. (4) Conclusions: The use of FRC posts increases the resistance to damage of an endodontically treated tooth when compared to direct restoration with light-cured composite material. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polish Achievements in Materials Science and Engineering)
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Article
Coatings Based on Phosphate Cements for Fire Protection of Steel Structures
Materials 2021, 14(20), 6213; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma14206213 - 19 Oct 2021
Viewed by 309
Abstract
Fire events in buildings can cause losses to human life and important material damage, therefore a great deal of attention is paid nowadays to fire prevention. Buildings based on steel structures are especially affected in the event of a fire, due to the [...] Read more.
Fire events in buildings can cause losses to human life and important material damage, therefore a great deal of attention is paid nowadays to fire prevention. Buildings based on steel structures are especially affected in the event of a fire, due to the important loss of load-bearing capability when steel is heated at temperatures higher than 500 °C. Therefore, one possible method to mitigate the deleterious effect of fire is to protect steel structures from direct heating by applying protective coatings. In this paper, the ability of magnesium phosphate cement (MPC), based on dead burned magnesite and calcium magnesium phosphate cement (CMPC) coatings, to protect a steel substrate was assessed. CMPCs were obtained by mixing partially calcined dolomite with a KH2PO4 (MKP) solution, and in some cases, with a setting retarder (borax). The main mineralogical compounds assessed by X-ray diffraction and electronic microscopy (SEM-EDS) in CMPC are MgO, CaCO3, and K-struvite (KMgPO4·6H2O). The coatings based on MPC and CMPC, applied to steel plates, were tested in direct contact with a flame; the coatings of MPC and CMPC without the borax addition prevented the temperature increase of a metal substrate above 500 °C. No exfoliation of coatings (MPC and CMPC without borax addition) was noticed during the entire period of the test (45 min). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Construction Materials for Sustainable Infrastructure)
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Article
Renovation Effect of Flax FRP-Reinforced Cracked Concrete Slabs under Impact Loadings
Materials 2021, 14(20), 6212; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma14206212 - 19 Oct 2021
Viewed by 306
Abstract
The impact behaviour of flax fibre-reinforced polymer (FFRP) renovated coconut fibre-reinforced concrete (CFRC) slabs was investigated through two series of experiments and theoretical analysis. The first experiment was carried out to find out the effectiveness of FFRP retrofitted method for the partly damaged [...] Read more.
The impact behaviour of flax fibre-reinforced polymer (FFRP) renovated coconut fibre-reinforced concrete (CFRC) slabs was investigated through two series of experiments and theoretical analysis. The first experiment was carried out to find out the effectiveness of FFRP retrofitted method for the partly damaged concrete structure and its performance under impact loadings. The renovation process was applied on the pre-cracked rectangular CFRC slabs of 600 mm × 300 mm × 50 mm with FFRP laminates, before the repeated impact tests. Then, the parameters of these slabs, i.e., impact force history, deflection history and damage pattern, were discussed in detail. Another experiment was conducted on the FFRP-CFRC square slabs with a dimension of 600 mm × 600 mm × 50 mm. Based on test results, the effect of different FFRP configurations was discussed to find out the effective reinforcement method. In addition, the two-degree-of-freedom spring-mass model was applied to predict the impact force. Results demonstrate that FFRP composites have a good potential to be utilised as renovated construction materials under dynamic load conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmentally Friendly Materials in Construction)
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Editorial
Special Issue “Corrosion in Concrete: Inhibitors and Coatings”
Materials 2021, 14(20), 6211; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma14206211 - 19 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 283
Abstract
The climatic changes that are taking place in recent years have increased awareness of the importance of environmental protection and the urgent need for industrial strategies aimed at a sustainable development [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Corrosion in Concrete: Inhibitors and Coatings)
Article
Lagrangian Differencing Dynamics for Time-Independent Non-Newtonian Materials
Materials 2021, 14(20), 6210; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma14206210 - 19 Oct 2021
Viewed by 256
Abstract
This paper introduces a novel meshless and Lagrangian approach for simulating non-Newtonian flows, named Lagrangian Differencing Dynamics (LDD). Second-order-consistent spatial operators are used to directly discretize and solve generalized Navier–Stokes equations in a strong formulation. The solution is obtained using a split-step scheme, [...] Read more.
This paper introduces a novel meshless and Lagrangian approach for simulating non-Newtonian flows, named Lagrangian Differencing Dynamics (LDD). Second-order-consistent spatial operators are used to directly discretize and solve generalized Navier–Stokes equations in a strong formulation. The solution is obtained using a split-step scheme, i.e., by decoupling the solutions of the pressure and velocity. The pressure is obtained by solving a Poisson equation, and the velocity is solved in a semi-implicit formulation. The matrix-free solution to the equations, and Lagrangian advection of mesh-free nodes allowed for a fully parallelized implementation on the CPU and GPU, which ensured an affordable computing time and large time steps. A set of four benchmarks are presented to demonstrate the robustness and accuracy of the proposed formulation. The tested two- and three-dimensional simulations used Power Law, Casson and Bingham models. An Abram slump test and a dam break test were performed using the Bingham model, yielding visual and numerical results in accordance with the experimental data. A square lid-driven cavity was tested using the Casson model, while the Power Law model was used for a skewed lid-driven cavity test. The simulation results of the lid-driven cavity tests are in good agreement with velocity profiles and stream lines of published reports. A fully implicit scheme will be introduced in future work. As the method precisely reproduces the pressure field, non-Newtonian models that strongly depend on the pressure will be validated. Full article
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Article
The Influence of the Type of Electrolyte in the Modifying Solution on the Protective Properties of Vinyltrimethoysilane/Ethanol-Based Coatings Formed on Stainless Steel X20Cr13
Materials 2021, 14(20), 6209; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma14206209 - 19 Oct 2021
Viewed by 315
Abstract
The paper reports the results of the examination of the protective properties of silane coatings based on vinyltrimethoxysilane (VTMS) and ethanol (EtOH), doped with the following electrolytes: acetic acid (AcOH), lithium perchlorate LiClO4, sulphuric acid (VI) H2SO4 and [...] Read more.
The paper reports the results of the examination of the protective properties of silane coatings based on vinyltrimethoxysilane (VTMS) and ethanol (EtOH), doped with the following electrolytes: acetic acid (AcOH), lithium perchlorate LiClO4, sulphuric acid (VI) H2SO4 and ammonia NH3. The coatings were deposited on stainless steel X20Cr13 by the sol–gel dip-coating method. The obtained VTMS/EtOH/Electrolyte coatings were characterized in terms of corrosion resistance, surface morphology and adhesion to the steel substrate. Corrosion tests were conducted in sulphate media acidified up to pH = 2 with and without chloride ions Cl, respectively. The effectiveness of corrosion protection was determined using potentiometric curves. It has been demonstrated that the coatings under study slow down the processes of corrosion of the steel substrate, thus effectively protecting it against corrosion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Corrosion Properties and Mechanism of Steels)
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Article
Strength and Acid Resistance of Ceramic-Based Self-Compacting Alkali-Activated Concrete: Optimizing and Predicting Assessment
Materials 2021, 14(20), 6208; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma14206208 - 19 Oct 2021
Viewed by 340
Abstract
The development of self-compacting alkali-activated concrete (SCAAC) has become a hot topic in the scientific community; however, most of the existing literature focuses on the utilization of fly ash (FA), ground blast furnace slag (GBFS), silica fume (SF), and rice husk ash (RHA) [...] Read more.
The development of self-compacting alkali-activated concrete (SCAAC) has become a hot topic in the scientific community; however, most of the existing literature focuses on the utilization of fly ash (FA), ground blast furnace slag (GBFS), silica fume (SF), and rice husk ash (RHA) as the binder. In this study, both the experimental and theoretical assessments using response surface methodology (RSM) were taken into account to optimize and predict the optimal content of ceramic waste powder (CWP) in GBFS-based self-compacting alkali-activated concrete, thus promoting the utilization of ceramic waste in construction engineering. Based on the suggested design array from the RSM model, experimental tests were first carried out to determine the optimum CWP content to achieve reasonable compressive, tensile, and flexural strengths in the SCAAC when exposed to ambient conditions, as well as to minimize its strength loss, weight loss, and UPVL upon exposure to acid attack. Based on the results, the optimum content of CWP that satisfied both the strength and durability aspects was 31%. In particular, a reasonable reduction in the compressive strength of 16% was recorded compared to that of the control specimen (without ceramic). Meanwhile, the compressive strength loss of SCAAC when exposed to acid attack minimized to 59.17%, which was lower than that of the control specimen (74.2%). Furthermore, the developed RSM models were found to be reliable and accurate, with minimum errors (RMSE < 1.337). In addition, a strong correlation (R > 0.99, R2 < 0.99, adj. R2 < 0.98) was observed between the predicted and actual data. Moreover, the significance of the models was also proven via ANOVA, in which p-values of less than 0.001 and high F-values were recorded for all equations. Full article
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Article
Effects of Artificial Tooth Brushing and Hydrothermal Aging on the Mechanical Properties and Color Stability of Dental 3D Printed and CAD/CAM Materials
Materials 2021, 14(20), 6207; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma14206207 - 19 Oct 2021
Viewed by 345
Abstract
This study analyzed the surface roughness and waviness, Vickers hardness (VHN), and color changes of six types of 3D printed resins and computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) materials after artificial toothbrushing. The average surface roughness height (Ra) change of Formlabs denture teeth A2 resin [...] Read more.
This study analyzed the surface roughness and waviness, Vickers hardness (VHN), and color changes of six types of 3D printed resins and computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) materials after artificial toothbrushing. The average surface roughness height (Ra) change of Formlabs denture teeth A2 resin (FMLB) was not significant between after artificial toothbrushing (0.17 ± 0.02 μm and 0.17 ± 0.05 μm, respectively; mean ± standard deviation). However, the Ra value increased significantly in all remaining groups. Regarding waviness, polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) had the largest increases in average waviness height (Wa) and maximum surface waviness height (Wz) between, before (0.43 ± 0.23 μm and 0.08 ± 0.02 μm), and after (8.67 ± 4.03 μm, 1.30 ± 0.58 μm) toothbrushing. There were no significant changes in Wa for Formlabs denture teeth A2 resin (FMLB) and NextDent C&B (NXT). After artificial toothbrushing, the dispersed-filler composite (DFC) group had the largest color difference (ΔE, of 2.4 ± 0.9), and the remaining materials had smaller changes than the clinical acceptance threshold of ΔE = 2.25. The VHN of FMLB and NXT were 9.1 ± 0.4 and 15.5 ± 0.4, respectively, and were not affected by artificial toothbrushing. The flexural strengths of the 3D printed materials were 139.4 ± 40.5 MPa and 163.9 ± 14.0 MPa for FMLB and NXT, respectively, which were similar to those of the polycarbonate and PMMA groups (155.2 ± 23.6 MPa and 108.0 ± 8.1 MPa, respectively). This study found that the evaluated 3D printed materials had mechanical and optical properties comparable to those of CAD/CAM materials and were stable even after artificial toothbrushing and hydrothermal aging. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers of Dental Materials in Prosthodontics)
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Article
Mechanical Properties and Constitutive Model Applied to the High-Speed Impact of Aluminum Foam That Considers Its Meso-Structural Parameters
Materials 2021, 14(20), 6206; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma14206206 - 19 Oct 2021
Viewed by 284
Abstract
In this work, quasistatic mechanical compression experiments were used to study the stress–strain relationship of aluminum foam, and the mechanism of the compressive deformation of aluminum foam under quasistatic compression conditions is discussed based on the experimental observations. Since the interactions among cells [...] Read more.
In this work, quasistatic mechanical compression experiments were used to study the stress–strain relationship of aluminum foam, and the mechanism of the compressive deformation of aluminum foam under quasistatic compression conditions is discussed based on the experimental observations. Since the interactions among cells of the aluminum foam and differences in compressive strength among cells substantially impacted the mechanical properties of the material, the cellular structural parameters, namely the cell size and cell wall thickness, were defined. Along with the mechanism of deformation of a single cell, the influence of structural parameters on the micro failure mechanism and the stress–strain relationship of the aluminum foam material was analyzed. In combination with the factors influencing the mechanical properties of the aluminum foam, a mechanical constitutive model of aluminum foam suitable for multi-density and multi-impact environments that considers cellular structure density was established to predict the complete stress–strain relationship of aluminum foam under a high strain rate. The coupling function of strain rate and temperature in the original model was verified and the parameters were determined by the compression experiments under different strain rates and different temperatures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Constitutive Model for Porous Metallic Materials)
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Article
Moisture Vapor Permeability and Thermal Wear Comfort of Ecofriendly Fiber-Embedded Woven Fabrics for High-Performance Clothing
Materials 2021, 14(20), 6205; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma14206205 - 19 Oct 2021
Viewed by 321
Abstract
This study examined the moisture vapor permeability and thermal wear comfort of ecofriendly fiber-embedded woven fabrics in terms of the yarn structure and the constituent fiber characteristics according to two measuring methods. The moisture vapor permeability measured using the upright cup (CaCl2 [...] Read more.
This study examined the moisture vapor permeability and thermal wear comfort of ecofriendly fiber-embedded woven fabrics in terms of the yarn structure and the constituent fiber characteristics according to two measuring methods. The moisture vapor permeability measured using the upright cup (CaCl2) method (JIS L 1099A-1) was primarily dependent on the hygroscopicity of the ecofriendly constituent fibers in the yarns and partly influenced by the pore size in the fabric because of the yarn structure. On the other hand, the moisture vapor resistance measured using the sweating guarded hot plate method (ISO 11092) was governed mainly by the fabric pore size and partly by the hygroscopicity of the constituent ecofriendly fibers. The difference between the two measuring methods was attributed to the different mechanisms in the measuring method. The thermal conductivity as a measure of the thermal wear comfort of the composite yarn fabrics was governed primarily by the pore size in the fabric and partly by the thermal characteristics of the constituent fibers in the yarns. Lastly, considering market applications, the Coolmax®/Tencel sheath/core fabric appears useful for winter warm feeling clothing because of its the good breathability with low thermal conductivity. The bamboo and Coolmax®/bamboo fabrics are suitable for summer clothing with a cool feel because of their high thermal conductivity with good breathability. Overall, ecofriendly fibers (bamboo and Tencel) are of practical use for marketing environmentallyfriendly high-performance clothing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Materials for Clothing and Textile Engineering)
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Article
Critical State Theory for the Magnetic Coupling between Soft Ferromagnetic Materials and Type-II Superconductors
Materials 2021, 14(20), 6204; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma14206204 - 19 Oct 2021
Viewed by 309
Abstract
Improving our understanding of the physical coupling between type-II superconductors (SC) and soft ferromagnetic materials (SFM) is the root for progressing to the application of SC-SFM metastructures in scenarios such as magnetic cloaking, magnetic shielding, and power transmission systems. However, in the latter, [...] Read more.
Improving our understanding of the physical coupling between type-II superconductors (SC) and soft ferromagnetic materials (SFM) is the root for progressing to the application of SC-SFM metastructures in scenarios such as magnetic cloaking, magnetic shielding, and power transmission systems. However, in the latter, some intriguing and yet unexplained phenomena occurred, such as a noticeable rise in the SC energy losses, and a local but not isotropic deformation of its magnetic flux density. These phenomena, which are in apparent contradiction with the most fundamental theory of electromagnetism for superconductivity, that is, the critical state theory (CST), have remained unexplained for about 20 years, given the acceptance of the controversial and yet paradigmatic existence of the so-called overcritical current densities. Therefore, aiming to resolve these long-standing problems, we extended the CST by incorporating a semi-analytical model for cylindrical monocore SC-SFM heterostructures, setting the standards for its validation with a variational approach of multipole functionals for the magnetic coupling between Sc and SFM materials. It is accompanied by a comprehensive numerical study for SFM sheaths of arbitrary dimensions and magnetic relative permeabilities μr, ranging from μr=5 (NiZn ferrites) to μr = 350,000 (pure Iron), showing how the AC-losses of the SC-SFM metastructure radically changes as a function of the SC and the SFM radius for μr100. Our numerical technique and simulations also revealed a good qualitative agreement with the magneto optical imaging observations that were questioning the CST validness, proving therefore that the reported phenomena for self-field SC-SFM heterostructures can be understood without including the ansatz of overcritical currents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Engineering Properties of Superconducting Materials (Second Volume))
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Article
Thermal Study and Emission Characteristics of Rice Husk Using TG-MS
Materials 2021, 14(20), 6203; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma14206203 - 19 Oct 2021
Viewed by 294
Abstract
Rice husks are a by-product that is generated in large quantities in Spain. However, they are not used efficiently. One of their possible applications is its thermal use in power generation equipment. For that purpose, it is important to know the characteristics of [...] Read more.
Rice husks are a by-product that is generated in large quantities in Spain. However, they are not used efficiently. One of their possible applications is its thermal use in power generation equipment. For that purpose, it is important to know the characteristics of rice husks and their thermal behavior, as well as their possible pollutant emission to the atmosphere with respect to its thermal use as a biofuel. In this work, the thermal characteristics of rice husks and their thermal behavior were studied by using thermogravimetry and mass spectroscopy for two different atmospheres (oxidizing and inert). This way, the thermal profiles and the main characteristics were studied, as well as the emission of possible pollutants to the atmosphere, such as CO2, CH4, NO2, NH3, SO2, and H2S. Moreover, three different methods (FWO, KAS, and Starink) were used to carry out a thermal analysis, in order to obtain the main thermal parameters such as activation energy. The results of the analysis predicted that rice husks could be used as biofuel in industrial thermal equipment based on its acceptable calorific value, good thermal characteristics, and low gas emissions both in oxidizing and inert atmosphere (although they have a high ash content). Full article
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Article
Soft-Landing Dynamic Analysis of a Manned Lunar Lander Em-Ploying Energy Absorption Materials of Carbon Nanotube Buckypaper
Materials 2021, 14(20), 6202; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma14206202 - 19 Oct 2021
Viewed by 294
Abstract
With the rapid development of the aerospace field, traditional energy absorption materials are becoming more and more inadequate and cannot meet the requirements of having a light weight, high energy absorption efficiency, and high energy absorption density. Since existing studies have shown that [...] Read more.
With the rapid development of the aerospace field, traditional energy absorption materials are becoming more and more inadequate and cannot meet the requirements of having a light weight, high energy absorption efficiency, and high energy absorption density. Since existing studies have shown that carbon nanotube (CNT) buckypaper is a promising candidate for energy absorption, owing to its extremely high energy absorption efficiency and remarkable mass density of energy absorption, this study explores the application of buckypaper as the landing buffer material in a manned lunar lander. Firstly, coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations were implemented to investigate the compression stress-strain relationships of buckypapers with different densities and the effect of the compression rate within the range of the landing velocity. Then, based on a self-designed manned lunar lander, buckypapers of appropriate densities were selected to be the energy absorption materials within the landing mechanisms of the lander. For comparison, suitable aluminum honeycomb materials, the most common energy absorption materials in lunar landers, were determined for the same landing mechanisms. Afterwards, the two soft-landing multibody dynamic models are established, respectively, and their soft-landing performances under three severe landing cases are analyzed, respectively. The results depicted that the landers, respectively, adopting the two energy absorption materials well, satisfy the soft-landing performance requirements in all the cases. It is worth mentioning that the lander employing the buckypaper is proved to demonstrate a better soft-landing performance, mainly reflected in reducing the mass of the energy absorption element by 8.14 kg and lowing the maximum center-of-mass overload of the lander by 0.54 g. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances and Applications of Carbon Nanotubes)
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Article
Alumina and Zirconia-Reinforced Polyamide PA-12 Composites for Biomedical Additive Manufacturing
Materials 2021, 14(20), 6201; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma14206201 - 19 Oct 2021
Viewed by 412
Abstract
This work aimed to prepare a composite with a polyamide (PA) matrix and surface-modified ZrO2 or Al2O3 to be used as ceramic fillers (CFs). Those composites contained 30 wt.% ceramic powder to 70 wt.% polymer. Possible applications for this [...] Read more.
This work aimed to prepare a composite with a polyamide (PA) matrix and surface-modified ZrO2 or Al2O3 to be used as ceramic fillers (CFs). Those composites contained 30 wt.% ceramic powder to 70 wt.% polymer. Possible applications for this type of composite include bioengineering applications especially in the fields of dental prosthetics and orthopaedics. The ceramic fillers were subjected to chemical surface modification with Piranha Solution and suspension in 10 M sodium hydroxide and Si3N4 to achieve the highest possible surface development and to introduce additional functional groups. This was to improve the bonding between the CFs and the polymer matrix. Both CFs were examined for particle size distribution (PSD), functional groups (FTIR), chemical composition (XPS), phase composition (XRD), and morphology and chemical composition (SEM/EDS). Filaments were created from the powders prepared in this way and were then used for 3D FDM printing. Samples were subjected to mechanical tests (tensility, hardness) and soaking tests in a high-pressure autoclave in artificial saliva for 14, 21, and 29 days. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Friction and Wear of Materials Surfaces)
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Article
The Effect of Different Condition of Pulpal Pressure on Microtensile Bond Strength of Several Dentin Bonding Agents on Deep and Superficial Dentin
Materials 2021, 14(20), 6200; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma14206200 - 19 Oct 2021
Viewed by 378
Abstract
The objective of this study was to examine the effect of different conditions of simulated hydrostatic pulpal pressure on the μTBS of HEMA-based and HEMA-free dentin bonding agents (DBAs). The influence of dentin location (deep and superficial) on μTBS was also evaluated. Flat [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to examine the effect of different conditions of simulated hydrostatic pulpal pressure on the μTBS of HEMA-based and HEMA-free dentin bonding agents (DBAs). The influence of dentin location (deep and superficial) on μTBS was also evaluated. Flat coronal dentin surfaces of extracted human molars were prepared. Three groups of resin-bonded specimens were exposed to different pulpal pressures. Pulpal pressure was maintained for 20 min for each group. A flowable resin composite was used for coronal build-up. The bonded teeth were sectioned and, after 24 h of water storage, stressed to failure using the microtensile tester (μTBS). Failed samples were analyzed by SEM inspection. HEMA-based DBAs were much more sensitive to pulpal pressure conditions than non-HEMA-containing DBAs. Pulpal pressure had a greater influence in deep dentin. The HEMA-free DBA was insensitive to the presence or absence of pulpal pressure condition. SEM inspection confirmed a relationship between the presence of voids inside the HEMA-based DBAs layer and the lower μTBS results. HEMA-based DBAs are more sensitive to pulpal pressure conditions than HEMA-free DBAs. Interestingly, HEMA-free DBA showed a greater number of water droplets at resin–dentin interface in all tested conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endodontics)
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Article
Fabricated CAD/CAM Post-Core Using Glass Fiber-Reinforced Resin Shows Innovative Potential in Restoring Pulpless Teeth
Materials 2021, 14(20), 6199; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma14206199 - 19 Oct 2021
Viewed by 381
Abstract
The prevention of root fractures of pulpless teeth is an important clinical issue to maintain healthy teeth through lifetime. The aim of this study was to examine a clinically effective treatment method for strengthening vulnerable pulpless teeth using CAD/CAM (computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing) fiber-reinforced [...] Read more.
The prevention of root fractures of pulpless teeth is an important clinical issue to maintain healthy teeth through lifetime. The aim of this study was to examine a clinically effective treatment method for strengthening vulnerable pulpless teeth using CAD/CAM (computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing) fiber-reinforced post-core by conducting a fracture resistance test. A post-core made with a fiber-reinforced resin disk TRINIA (TR, SHOFU, Kyoto, Japan) was fabricated using a CAD/CAM system. The fiber-layer orientation of the CAD/CAM post-core was parallel to the axis of the restored tooth. A post-core using a conventional composite and a fiber post (CF) was also prepared. A fracture resistance test of teeth restored with the post-cores and zirconia crowns was conducted using a universal testing machine, and fracture patterns were identified by micro-CT observation. The fracture load of the roots restored with TR was 1555.9 ± 231.8 N, whereas that of CF was 1082.1 ± 226.7 N. The fracture load of TR was 43.8% that was significantly higher than that of CF (Student’s t-test, p < 0.05). The restored teeth with CAD/CAM resin post-core were found to be repairable even after fracture. These results suggest that the CAD/CAM indirect fiber post-core has the potential to strengthen the vulnerable pulpless teeth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fiber Reinforced Polymers for Structural Strengthening)
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