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Algorithms, Volume 7, Issue 4 (December 2014) – 13 articles , Pages 492-702

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Article
Fusion of Multiple Pyroelectric Characteristics for Human Body Identification
Algorithms 2014, 7(4), 685-702; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/a7040685 - 18 Dec 2014
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3359
Abstract
Due to instability and poor identification ability of single pyroelectric infrared (PIR) detector for human target identification, this paper proposes a new approach to fuse the information collected from multiple PIR sensors for human identification. Firstly, Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), Short Time Fourier [...] Read more.
Due to instability and poor identification ability of single pyroelectric infrared (PIR) detector for human target identification, this paper proposes a new approach to fuse the information collected from multiple PIR sensors for human identification. Firstly, Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), Short Time Fourier Transform (STFT), Wavelet Transform (WT) and Wavelet Packet Transform (WPT) are adopted to extract features of the human body, which can be achieved by single PIR sensor. Then, we apply Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Support Vector Machine (SVM) to reduce the characteristic dimensions and to classify the human targets, respectively. Finally, Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation (FCE) is utilized to fuse recognition results from multiple PIR sensors to finalize human identification. The pyroelectric characteristics under scenarios with different people and/or different paths are analyzed by various experiments, and the recognition results with/without fusion procedure are also shown and compared. The experimental results demonstrate our scheme has improved efficiency for human identification. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Algorithms for Wireless Sensor Networks)
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Article
COOBBO: A Novel Opposition-Based Soft Computing Algorithm for TSP Problems
Algorithms 2014, 7(4), 663-684; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/a7040663 - 12 Dec 2014
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3313
Abstract
In this paper, we propose a novel definition of opposite path. Its core feature is that the sequence of candidate paths and the distances between adjacent nodes in the tour are considered simultaneously. In a sense, the candidate path and its corresponding opposite [...] Read more.
In this paper, we propose a novel definition of opposite path. Its core feature is that the sequence of candidate paths and the distances between adjacent nodes in the tour are considered simultaneously. In a sense, the candidate path and its corresponding opposite path have the same (or similar at least) distance to the optimal path in the current population. Based on an accepted framework for employing opposition-based learning, Oppositional Biogeography-Based Optimization using the Current Optimum, called COOBBO algorithm, is introduced to solve traveling salesman problems. We demonstrate its performance on eight benchmark problems and compare it with other optimization algorithms. Simulation results illustrate that the excellent performance of our proposed algorithm is attributed to the distinct definition of opposite path. In addition, its great strength lies in exploitation for enhancing the solution accuracy, not exploration for improving the population diversity. Finally, by comparing different version of COOBBO, another conclusion is that each successful opposition-based soft computing algorithm needs to adjust and remain a good balance between backward adjacent node and forward adjacent node. Full article
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Article
Time Series Prediction Method of Bank Cash Flow and Simulation Comparison
Algorithms 2014, 7(4), 650-662; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/a7040650 - 26 Nov 2014
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3573
Abstract
In order to improve the accuracy of all kinds of information in the cash business and enhance the linkage between cash inventory forecasting and cash management information in the commercial bank, the first moving average prediction method, the second moving average prediction method, [...] Read more.
In order to improve the accuracy of all kinds of information in the cash business and enhance the linkage between cash inventory forecasting and cash management information in the commercial bank, the first moving average prediction method, the second moving average prediction method, the first exponential smoothing prediction and the second exponential smoothing prediction methods are adopted to realize the time series prediction of bank cash flow, respectively. The prediction accuracy of the cash flow time series is improved by optimizing the algorithm parameters. The simulation experiments are carried out on the reality commercial bank’s cash flow data and the predictive performance comparison results show the effectiveness of the proposed methods. Full article
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Article
The Lobe Fissure Tracking by the Modified Ant Colony Optimization Framework in CT Images
Algorithms 2014, 7(4), 635-649; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/a7040635 - 24 Nov 2014
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 4113
Abstract
Chest computed tomography (CT) is the most commonly used technique for the inspection of lung lesions. However, the lobe fissures in lung CT is still difficult to observe owing to its imaging structure. Therefore, in this paper, we aimed to develop an efficient [...] Read more.
Chest computed tomography (CT) is the most commonly used technique for the inspection of lung lesions. However, the lobe fissures in lung CT is still difficult to observe owing to its imaging structure. Therefore, in this paper, we aimed to develop an efficient tracking framework to extract the lobe fissures by the proposed modified ant colony optimization (ACO) algorithm. We used the method of increasing the consistency of pheromone on lobe fissure to improve the accuracy of path tracking. In order to validate the proposed system, we had tested our method in a database from 15 lung patients. In the experiment, the quantitative assessment shows that the proposed ACO method achieved the average F-measures of 80.9% and 82.84% in left and right lungs, respectively. The experiments indicate our method results more satisfied performance, and can help investigators detect lung lesion for further examination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Data Processing Algorithms in Engineering)
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Article
Neural Networks for Muscle Forces Prediction in Cycling
Algorithms 2014, 7(4), 621-634; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/a7040621 - 13 Nov 2014
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 4351
Abstract
This paper documents the research towards the development of a system based on Artificial Neural Networks to predict muscle force patterns of an athlete during cycling. Two independent inverse problems must be solved for the force estimation: evaluation of the kinematic model and [...] Read more.
This paper documents the research towards the development of a system based on Artificial Neural Networks to predict muscle force patterns of an athlete during cycling. Two independent inverse problems must be solved for the force estimation: evaluation of the kinematic model and evaluation of the forces distribution along the limb. By solving repeatedly the two inverse problems for different subjects and conditions, a training pattern for an Artificial Neural Network was created. Then, the trained network was validated against an independent validation set, and compared to evaluate agreement between the two alternative approaches using Bland-Altman method. The obtained neural network for the different test patterns yields a normalized error well below 1% and the Bland-Altman plot shows a considerable correlation between the two methods. The new approach proposed herein allows a direct and fast computation for the inverse dynamics of a cyclist, opening the possibility of integrating such algorithm in a real time environment such as an embedded application. Full article
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Article
High-Order Entropy Compressed Bit Vectors with Rank/Select
Algorithms 2014, 7(4), 608-620; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/a7040608 - 03 Nov 2014
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3175
Abstract
We design practical implementations of data structures for compressing bit-vectors to support efficient rank-queries (counting the number of ones up to a given point). Unlike previous approaches, which either store the bit vectors plainly, or focus on compressing bit-vectors with low densities of [...] Read more.
We design practical implementations of data structures for compressing bit-vectors to support efficient rank-queries (counting the number of ones up to a given point). Unlike previous approaches, which either store the bit vectors plainly, or focus on compressing bit-vectors with low densities of ones or zeros, we aim at low entropies of higher order, for example 101010...10. Our implementations achieve very good compression ratios, while showing only a modest increase in query time. Full article
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Article
Eight-Scale Image Contrast Enhancement Based on Adaptive Inverse Hyperbolic Tangent Algorithm
Algorithms 2014, 7(4), 597-607; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/a7040597 - 28 Oct 2014
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3430
Abstract
The Eight-Scale parameter adjustment is a natural extension of Adaptive Inverse Hyperbolic Tangent (AIHT) algorithm. It has long been known that the Human Vision System (HVS) heavily depends on detail and edge in the understanding and perception of scenes. The main goal of [...] Read more.
The Eight-Scale parameter adjustment is a natural extension of Adaptive Inverse Hyperbolic Tangent (AIHT) algorithm. It has long been known that the Human Vision System (HVS) heavily depends on detail and edge in the understanding and perception of scenes. The main goal of this study is to produce a contrast enhancement technique to recover an image from blurring and darkness, and at the same time to improve visual quality. Eight-scale coefficient adjustments can provide a further local refinement in detail under the AIHT algorithm. The proposed Eight-Scale Adaptive Inverse Hyperbolic Tangent (8SAIHT) method uses the sub-band to calculate the local mean and local variance before the AIHT algorithm is applied. This study also shows that this approach is convenient and effective in the enhancement processes for various types of images. The 8SAIHT is also capable of adaptively enhancing the local contrast of the original image while simultaneously extruding more on object details. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Data Processing Algorithms in Engineering)
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Article
Processing KNN Queries in Grid-Based Sensor Networks
Algorithms 2014, 7(4), 582-596; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/a7040582 - 23 Oct 2014
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3204
Abstract
Recently, developing efficient processing techniques in spatio-temporal databases has been a much discussed topic. Many applications, such as mobile information systems, traffic control system, and geographical information systems, can benefit from efficient processing of spatio-temporal queries. In this paper, we focus on processing [...] Read more.
Recently, developing efficient processing techniques in spatio-temporal databases has been a much discussed topic. Many applications, such as mobile information systems, traffic control system, and geographical information systems, can benefit from efficient processing of spatio-temporal queries. In this paper, we focus on processing an important type of spatio-temporal queries, the K-nearest neighbor (KNN) queries. Different from the previous research, the locations of objects are located by the sensors which are deployed in a grid-based manner. As the positioning technique used is not the GPS technique, but the sensor network technique, this results in a greater uncertainty regarding object location. With the uncertain location information of objects, we try to develop an efficient algorithm to process the KNN queries. Moreover, we design a probability model to quantify the possibility of each object being the query result. Finally, extensive experiments are conducted to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed algorithms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Data Processing Algorithms in Engineering)
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Article
Parallelizing Particle Swarm Optimization in a Functional Programming Environment
Algorithms 2014, 7(4), 554-581; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/a7040554 - 23 Oct 2014
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 4004
Abstract
Many bioinspired methods are based on using several simple entities which search for a reasonable solution (somehow) independently. This is the case of Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), where many simple particles search for the optimum solution by using both their local information and [...] Read more.
Many bioinspired methods are based on using several simple entities which search for a reasonable solution (somehow) independently. This is the case of Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), where many simple particles search for the optimum solution by using both their local information and the information of the best solution found so far by any of the other particles. Particles are partially independent, and we can take advantage of this fact to parallelize PSO programs. Unfortunately, providing good parallel implementations for each specific PSO program can be tricky and time-consuming for the programmer. In this paper we introduce several parallel functional skeletons which, given a sequential PSO implementation, automatically provide the corresponding parallel implementations of it. We use these skeletons and report some experimental results. We observe that, despite the low effort required by programmers to use these skeletons, empirical results show that skeletons reach reasonable speedups. Full article
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Article
Predicting Student Academic Performance: A Comparison of Two Meta-Heuristic Algorithms Inspired by Cuckoo Birds for Training Neural Networks
Algorithms 2014, 7(4), 538-553; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/a7040538 - 16 Oct 2014
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 4087
Abstract
Predicting student academic performance with a high accuracy facilitates admission decisions and enhances educational services at educational institutions. This raises the need to propose a model that predicts student performance, based on the results of standardized exams, including university entrance exams, high school [...] Read more.
Predicting student academic performance with a high accuracy facilitates admission decisions and enhances educational services at educational institutions. This raises the need to propose a model that predicts student performance, based on the results of standardized exams, including university entrance exams, high school graduation exams, and other influential factors. In this study, an approach to the problem based on the artificial neural network (ANN) with the two meta-heuristic algorithms inspired by cuckoo birds and their lifestyle, namely, Cuckoo Search (CS) and Cuckoo Optimization Algorithm (COA) is proposed. In particular, we used previous exam results and other factors, such as the location of the student’s high school and the student’s gender as input variables, and predicted the student academic performance. The standard CS and standard COA were separately utilized to train the feed-forward network for prediction. The algorithms optimized the weights between layers and biases of the neuron network. The simulation results were then discussed and analyzed to investigate the prediction ability of the neural network trained by these two algorithms. The findings demonstrated that both CS and COA have potential in training ANN and ANN-COA obtained slightly better results for predicting student academic performance in this case. It is expected that this work may be used to support student admission procedures and strengthen the service system in educational institutions. Full article
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Article
Multi-Sensor Building Fire Alarm System with Information Fusion Technology Based on D-S Evidence Theory
Algorithms 2014, 7(4), 523-537; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/a7040523 - 14 Oct 2014
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 4904
Abstract
Multi-sensor and information fusion technology based on Dempster-Shafer evidence theory is applied in the system of a building fire alarm to realize early detecting and alarming. By using a multi-sensor to monitor the parameters of the fire process, such as light, smoke, temperature, [...] Read more.
Multi-sensor and information fusion technology based on Dempster-Shafer evidence theory is applied in the system of a building fire alarm to realize early detecting and alarming. By using a multi-sensor to monitor the parameters of the fire process, such as light, smoke, temperature, gas and moisture, the range of fire monitoring in space and time is expanded compared with a single-sensor system. Then, the D-S evidence theory is applied to fuse the information from the multi-sensor with the specific fire model, and the fire alarm is more accurate and timely. The proposed method can avoid the failure of the monitoring data effectively, deal with the conflicting evidence from the multi-sensor robustly and improve the reliability of fire warning significantly. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Data Processing Algorithms in Engineering)
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Article
A CR Spectrum Allocation Algorithm in Smart Grid Wireless Sensor Network
Algorithms 2014, 7(4), 510-522; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/a7040510 - 13 Oct 2014
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3805
Abstract
Cognitive radio (CR) method was introduced in smart grid communication systems to resolve potential maladies such as the coexistence of heterogeneous networks, overloaded data flow, diversity in data structures, and unstable quality of service (QOS). In this paper, a cognitive spectrum allocation algorithm [...] Read more.
Cognitive radio (CR) method was introduced in smart grid communication systems to resolve potential maladies such as the coexistence of heterogeneous networks, overloaded data flow, diversity in data structures, and unstable quality of service (QOS). In this paper, a cognitive spectrum allocation algorithm based on non-cooperative game theory is proposed. The CR spectrum allocation model was developed by modifying the traditional game model via the insertion of a time variable and a critical function. The computing simulation result shows that the improved spectrum allocation algorithm can achieve stable spectrum allocation strategies and avoid the appearance of multi-Nash equilibrium at the expense of certain sacrifices in the system utility. It is suitable for application in distributed cognitive networks in power grids, thus contributing to the improvement of the isomerism and data capacity of power communication systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Algorithms for Wireless Sensor Networks)
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Article
Power Cable Fault Recognition Based on an Annealed Chaotic Competitive Learning Network
Algorithms 2014, 7(4), 492-509; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/a7040492 - 26 Sep 2014
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3558
Abstract
In electric power systems, power cable operation under normal conditions is very important. Various cable faults will happen in practical applications. Recognizing the cable faults correctly and in a timely manner is crucial. In this paper we propose a method that an annealed [...] Read more.
In electric power systems, power cable operation under normal conditions is very important. Various cable faults will happen in practical applications. Recognizing the cable faults correctly and in a timely manner is crucial. In this paper we propose a method that an annealed chaotic competitive learning network recognizes power cable types. The result shows a good performance using the support vector machine (SVM) and improved Particle Swarm Optimization (IPSO)-SVM method. The experimental result shows that the fault recognition accuracy reached was 96.2%, using 54 data samples. The network training time is about 0.032 second. The method can achieve cable fault classification effectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Data Processing Algorithms in Engineering)
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