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Article

Transcriptome Analysis of Elm (Ulmus pumila) Fruit to Identify Phytonutrients Associated Genes and Pathways

Key Lab of Plant Stress Research, College of Life Science, Shandong Normal University, Jinan 250014, China
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 August 2019 / Accepted: 26 August 2019 / Published: 27 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Forest, Foods and Nutrition)
Plant fruit is an important source of natural active phytonutrients that are profitable for human health. Elm (Ulmus pumila) fruit is considered as natural plant food in China that is rich in nutrients. In the present study, high-throughput RNA sequencing was performed in U. pumila edible fruits and leaves and 11,386 unigenes were filtered as dysregulated genes in fruit samples, including 5231 up- and 6155 downregulated genes. Hundreds of pathways were predicted to participate in seed development and phytonutrient biosynthesis in U. pumila by GO, MapMan, and KEGG enrichment analysis, including “seed maturation”, “glycine, serine, and threonine metabolism” and “phenylpropanoid biosynthesis”. ABA-mediated glucose response-related ethylene-activated signaling pathway (e.g., ABI4) were supposed to associate with elm fruit development; unsaturated fatty acids pathway (e.g., ACX2 and SAD) were predicted to participate in determination of fatty acid composition in elm fruit; flavonoid and coumarins biosynthesis (e.g., CYP98A3 and CCoAOMT1) were demonstrated to correlate with the bioactivity of elm fruits in human cancer and inflammation resistance. To provide more information about fruit developmental status, the qRT-PCR analysis for key genes of “phenylpropanoid biosynthesis” and “alpha-Linolenic acid metabolism” were conducted in samples of young fruits, ripe fruit, old fruit, and leaves. Two biosynthetic pathways for unsaturated fatty acid and Jasmonic acid (JA) were deduced to be involved in fruit development in U. pumila and the phenylpropanoid glycoside, syringin, was speculated to accumulate in the early development stages of elm fruit. Our transcriptome data supports molecular clues for seed development and biologically active substances in elm fruits. View Full-Text
Keywords: Ulmus pumila; transcriptome analysis; phytonutrients; seed development; phenylpropanoid biosynthesis Ulmus pumila; transcriptome analysis; phytonutrients; seed development; phenylpropanoid biosynthesis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zhang, L.; Zhang, X.; Li, M.; Wang, N.; Qu, X.; Fan, S. Transcriptome Analysis of Elm (Ulmus pumila) Fruit to Identify Phytonutrients Associated Genes and Pathways. Forests 2019, 10, 738. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/f10090738

AMA Style

Zhang L, Zhang X, Li M, Wang N, Qu X, Fan S. Transcriptome Analysis of Elm (Ulmus pumila) Fruit to Identify Phytonutrients Associated Genes and Pathways. Forests. 2019; 10(9):738. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/f10090738

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zhang, Luoyan, Xuejie Zhang, Mengfei Li, Ning Wang, Xiaojian Qu, and Shoujin Fan. 2019. "Transcriptome Analysis of Elm (Ulmus pumila) Fruit to Identify Phytonutrients Associated Genes and Pathways" Forests 10, no. 9: 738. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/f10090738

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