Next Article in Journal
Assessment of the Response of a Scots Pine Tree to Effective Wind Loading
Previous Article in Journal
Carbon and Nutrient Inputs by Litterfall in Evergreen and Deciduous Forests in Korea
Article

A Comparison of the Formation Rates and Composition of Tree-Related Microhabitats in Beech-Dominated Primeval Carpathian and Hyrcanian Forests

1
Department of Silviculture and Forest Ecology, Faculty of Forest Sciences, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Gorgan 4918943464, Iran
2
Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands, Tehran 13185-116, Iran
3
Department of Statistics, Faculty of Sciences, Golestan University, Golestan 49138-15759, Iran
4
Universite Grenoble Alpes, Irstea, UR EMGR, 2 rue de la Papeterie-BP76, F-38402 St-Martin-d’Heres, France
5
Roland Wirtz, Saarforsten, Im Klingelfloß, 66571 Eppelborn, Germany
6
Field Station Fabrikschleichach, Department of Animal Ecology and Tropical Biology, Julius-Maximilians-University Würzburg, 96181 Rauhenebrach, Germany
7
Bavarian Forest National Park, 94481 Grafenau, Germany
8
Université de Toulouse, INRAE, UMR DYNAFOR, 31320 Castanet-Tolosan, France
9
CNPF-CRPFOccitanie, 7chemin de la Lacade, 31320 Auzeville Tolosane, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 16 December 2019 / Revised: 18 January 2020 / Accepted: 22 January 2020 / Published: 26 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Forest Ecology and Management)
Primeval forests in the temperate zone exist only as a few remnants, but theses serve as important reference areas for conservation. As key habitats, tree-related microhabitats (TreMs) are of intense interest to forest ecologists, but little is known about their natural composition and dynamics in different tree species. Beech forms a major part of the temperate forests that extend from Europe, home to European beech Fagus sylvatica L. (Fs), eastward to Iran, where Oriental beech Fagus orientalis Lipsky (Fo) is the dominant species. In this study, we compared TreMs in primeval forests of both species, using data from Fo growing in 25 inventory plots throughout the Hyrcanian forest belt in Iran and from Fs growing in a 9 ha permanent plot in the Uholka Forest of Ukraine. TreMs based on 47 types and 11 subgroups were recorded. Beech trees in the Hyrcanian forest had a higher mean diameter at breast height (dbh) than beech trees in Uholka and contained twice as many TreMs per hectare. Although the mean richness of TreMs per TreM bearing tree was similar in the two species, on the basis of the comparison single trees in two groups (n = 405 vs. 2251), the composition of the TreMs clearly differed, as the proportions of rot holes, root-buttress concavities, and crown deadwood were higher in the Hyrcanian Forest, and those of bark losses, exposed heartwood, and burrs and cankers higher in Uholka Forest. Estimates of TreMs dynamics based on dbh and using Weibull models showed a significantly faster cumulative increase of TreMs in Fo, in which saturation occurred already in trees with a dbh of 70–80 cm. By contrast, the increase in TreMs in Fs was continuous. In both species, the probability density was highest at a dbh of about 30 cm, but was twice as high in Fo. Because of limitations of our study design, the reason behind observed differences of TreM formation and composition between regions remains unclear, as it could be either result of the tree species or the environment, or their interaction. However, the observed differences were more likely the result of differences in the environment than in the two tree species. Nevertheless, our findings demonstrate that the Hyrcanian Forest, recently designated as a natural heritage site in Iran, is unique, not only as a tertiary relict or due to its endemic trees, herbs and arthropods, but also because of its TreMs, which form a distinct and rich habitat for associated taxa, including endemic saproxylic species. View Full-Text
Keywords: TreMs; Fagus orientalis; Fagus sylvatica; primeval forest TreMs; Fagus orientalis; Fagus sylvatica; primeval forest
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Jahed, R.R.; Kavousi, M.R.; Farashiani, M.E.; Sagheb-Talebi, K.; Babanezhad, M.; Courbaud, B.; Wirtz, R.; Müller, J.; Larrieu, L. A Comparison of the Formation Rates and Composition of Tree-Related Microhabitats in Beech-Dominated Primeval Carpathian and Hyrcanian Forests. Forests 2020, 11, 144. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/f11020144

AMA Style

Jahed RR, Kavousi MR, Farashiani ME, Sagheb-Talebi K, Babanezhad M, Courbaud B, Wirtz R, Müller J, Larrieu L. A Comparison of the Formation Rates and Composition of Tree-Related Microhabitats in Beech-Dominated Primeval Carpathian and Hyrcanian Forests. Forests. 2020; 11(2):144. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/f11020144

Chicago/Turabian Style

Jahed, Razieh R., Mohammad R. Kavousi, Mohammad E. Farashiani, Khosro Sagheb-Talebi, Manoochehr Babanezhad, Benoit Courbaud, Roland Wirtz, Jörg Müller, and Laurent Larrieu. 2020. "A Comparison of the Formation Rates and Composition of Tree-Related Microhabitats in Beech-Dominated Primeval Carpathian and Hyrcanian Forests" Forests 11, no. 2: 144. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/f11020144

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop