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Article

Improved Outbreak Prediction for Common Pine Sawfly (Diprion pini L.) by Analyzing Floating ‘Climatic Windows’ as Keys for Changes in Voltinism

Head Office of Forest Protection, Brandenburg State Forestry Center of Excellence, 16225 Eberswalde, Germany
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Timothy A. Martin
Received: 6 July 2017 / Revised: 24 August 2017 / Accepted: 25 August 2017 / Published: 30 August 2017
The biology and population dynamics of pine sawfly Diprion pini L. are extremely complex and variable. Among other factors, climatic conditions determine the potential for mass outbreaks of the species. In this paper, we investigate this influence and describe a statistical approach to identify responsible climatic variables in floating time windows, thus identifying the factors responsible for the transition from latency to outbreak events. Analyses were built upon a data base comprising outbreak events and fine-scaled climatic data for the period 2002–2016 for a model region in the state of Brandenburg, Germany. By applying Random Forest statistic classification analyses, we isolated a set of four variables. They cover precipitation, temperature, and potential evapotranspiration in distinct periods during the current and the previous year. These periods are not fixed in their position but attached to the floating phenological date of bud burst of the host species Pinus sylvestris L. The complete set of variables was able to distinguish forests likely to be defoliated from those not threatened at high probabilities (95% true-positive rate, 98% true-negative rate). The identified climatic windows offer insights into population dynamics in the study region, support adjustments in current monitoring algorithms, and indicate starting points for further investigations covering other regions or different years. View Full-Text
Keywords: forest protection; mass outbreaks; defoliating insects; Diprion pini; Pinus sylvestris; climate change; Random Forest classification; voltinism forest protection; mass outbreaks; defoliating insects; Diprion pini; Pinus sylvestris; climate change; Random Forest classification; voltinism
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MDPI and ACS Style

Möller, K.; Hentschel, R.; Wenning, A.; Schröder, J. Improved Outbreak Prediction for Common Pine Sawfly (Diprion pini L.) by Analyzing Floating ‘Climatic Windows’ as Keys for Changes in Voltinism. Forests 2017, 8, 319. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/f8090319

AMA Style

Möller K, Hentschel R, Wenning A, Schröder J. Improved Outbreak Prediction for Common Pine Sawfly (Diprion pini L.) by Analyzing Floating ‘Climatic Windows’ as Keys for Changes in Voltinism. Forests. 2017; 8(9):319. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/f8090319

Chicago/Turabian Style

Möller, Katrin, Rainer Hentschel, Aline Wenning, and Jens Schröder. 2017. "Improved Outbreak Prediction for Common Pine Sawfly (Diprion pini L.) by Analyzing Floating ‘Climatic Windows’ as Keys for Changes in Voltinism" Forests 8, no. 9: 319. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/f8090319

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