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Article

Host Immune Response Driving SARS-CoV-2 Evolution

1
Department of Mathematics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA
2
Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA
3
Department of Mathematics, Statistics, and Computer Science, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607, USA
4
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA
5
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 17 August 2020 / Revised: 12 September 2020 / Accepted: 21 September 2020 / Published: 27 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Collection Coronaviruses)
The transmission and evolution of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are of paramount importance in controlling and combating the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Currently, over 15,000 SARS-CoV-2 single mutations have been recorded, which have a great impact on the development of diagnostics, vaccines, antibody therapies, and drugs. However, little is known about SARS-CoV-2’s evolutionary characteristics and general trend. In this work, we present a comprehensive genotyping analysis of existing SARS-CoV-2 mutations. We reveal that host immune response via APOBEC and ADAR gene editing gives rise to near 65% of recorded mutations. Additionally, we show that children under age five and the elderly may be at high risk from COVID-19 because of their overreaction to the viral infection. Moreover, we uncover that populations of Oceania and Africa react significantly more intensively to SARS-CoV-2 infection than those of Europe and Asia, which may explain why African Americans were shown to be at increased risk of dying from COVID-19, in addition to their high risk of COVID-19 infection caused by systemic health and social inequities. Finally, our study indicates that for two viral genome sequences of the same origin, their evolution order may be determined from the ratio of mutation type, C > T over T > C. View Full-Text
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; APOBEC; ADAR; gene editing SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; APOBEC; ADAR; gene editing
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Figure 1

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  • Externally hosted supplementary file 1
    Link: https://users.math.msu.edu/users/weig/2019-nCoV-GeneEditing_Supporting_5.pdf
    Description: Supporting information is available for supplementary figures, including the distribution of 12 SNP types among non-unique mutations, the distribution of 12 SNP types among unique mutations from the United Kingdom, the United States, Australia, and India, the distribution of 12 SNP types between each pair of 10 coronaviruses, and 4-mer analysis of mutational signatures.
  • Externally hosted supplementary file 2
    Link: https://users.math.msu.edu/users/weig/Supporting_Tables.xlsx
    Description: Supplementary tables are available for GISAID IDs and GISAID acknowledgment.
MDPI and ACS Style

Wang, R.; Hozumi, Y.; Zheng, Y.-H.; Yin, C.; Wei, G.-W. Host Immune Response Driving SARS-CoV-2 Evolution. Viruses 2020, 12, 1095. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v12101095

AMA Style

Wang R, Hozumi Y, Zheng Y-H, Yin C, Wei G-W. Host Immune Response Driving SARS-CoV-2 Evolution. Viruses. 2020; 12(10):1095. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v12101095

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wang, Rui; Hozumi, Yuta; Zheng, Yong-Hui; Yin, Changchuan; Wei, Guo-Wei. 2020. "Host Immune Response Driving SARS-CoV-2 Evolution" Viruses 12, no. 10: 1095. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v12101095

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