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Article

Genetic, Morphological and Antigenic Relationships between Mesonivirus Isolates from Australian Mosquitoes and Evidence for Their Horizontal Transmission

1
School of Chemistry and Molecular Biosciences, University of Queensland, St Lucia, Queensland 4072, Australia
2
Australian Infectious Diseases Research Centre, University of Queensland, St Lucia, Queensland 4072, Australia
3
School of Veterinary Science, University of Queensland Gatton Campus, Gatton, Queensland 4343, Australia
4
Public Health Virology, Queensland Health Forensic and Scientific Services, Brisbane, Queensland 4108, Australia
5
Australian Defence Force Malaria and Infectious Disease Institute, Gallipoli Barracks, Enoggera, Queensland 4051, Australia
6
Defence Science & Technology Group, Fisherman’s Bend, Victoria 3207, Australia
7
NSW Health Pathology-ICPMR Westmead, Medical Entomology, Westmead Hospital, Westmead 2145, Australia
8
Australian Genome Research Facility Ltd., Parkville 3050, Australia
9
School of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Nedlands 6009, Australia
10
PathWest Laboratory Medicine, Nedlands 6009, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Received: 4 September 2020 / Revised: 8 October 2020 / Accepted: 8 October 2020 / Published: 13 October 2020
The Mesoniviridae are a newly assigned family of viruses in the order Nidovirales. Unlike other nidoviruses, which include the Coronaviridae, mesoniviruses are restricted to mosquito hosts and do not infect vertebrate cells. To date there is little information on the morphological and antigenic characteristics of this new group of viruses and a dearth of mesonivirus-specific research tools. In this study we determined the genetic relationships of recent Australian isolates of Alphamesonivirus 4 (Casuarina virus—CASV) and Alphamesonivirus 1 (Nam Dinh virus—NDiV), obtained from multiple mosquito species. Australian isolates of NDiV showed high-level similarity to the prototype NDiV isolate from Vietnam (99% nucleotide (nt) and amino acid (aa) identity). Isolates of CASV from Central Queensland were genetically very similar to the prototype virus from Darwin (95–96% nt and 91–92% aa identity). Electron microscopy studies demonstrated that virion diameter (≈80 nm) and spike length (≈10 nm) were similar for both viruses. Monoclonal antibodies specific to CASV and NDiV revealed a close antigenic relationship between the two viruses with 13/34 mAbs recognising both viruses. We also detected NDiV RNA on honey-soaked nucleic acid preservation cards fed on by wild mosquitoes supporting a possible mechanism of horizontal transmission between insects in nature. View Full-Text
Keywords: mesonivirus; nidovirus; insect-specific virus; monoclonal antibody; FTA card mesonivirus; nidovirus; insect-specific virus; monoclonal antibody; FTA card
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MDPI and ACS Style

Newton, N.D.; Colmant, A.M.G.; O’Brien, C.A.; Ledger, E.; Paramitha, D.; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, H.; Watterson, D.; McLean, B.J.; Hall-Mendelin, S.; Warrilow, D.; van den Hurk, A.F.; Liu, W.; Hoare, C.; Kizu, J.R.; Gauci, P.J.; Haniotis, J.; Doggett, S.L.; Shaban, B.; Johansen, C.A.; Hall, R.A.; Hobson-Peters, J. Genetic, Morphological and Antigenic Relationships between Mesonivirus Isolates from Australian Mosquitoes and Evidence for Their Horizontal Transmission. Viruses 2020, 12, 1159. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v12101159

AMA Style

Newton ND, Colmant AMG, O’Brien CA, Ledger E, Paramitha D, Bielefeldt-Ohmann H, Watterson D, McLean BJ, Hall-Mendelin S, Warrilow D, van den Hurk AF, Liu W, Hoare C, Kizu JR, Gauci PJ, Haniotis J, Doggett SL, Shaban B, Johansen CA, Hall RA, Hobson-Peters J. Genetic, Morphological and Antigenic Relationships between Mesonivirus Isolates from Australian Mosquitoes and Evidence for Their Horizontal Transmission. Viruses. 2020; 12(10):1159. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v12101159

Chicago/Turabian Style

Newton, Natalee D., Agathe M.G. Colmant, Caitlin A. O’Brien, Emma Ledger, Devina Paramitha, Helle Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Daniel Watterson, Breeanna J. McLean, Sonja Hall-Mendelin, David Warrilow, Andrew F. van den Hurk, Wenjun Liu, Christina Hoare, Joanne R. Kizu, Penelope J. Gauci, John Haniotis, Stephen L. Doggett, Babak Shaban, Cheryl A. Johansen, Roy A. Hall, and Jody Hobson-Peters. 2020. "Genetic, Morphological and Antigenic Relationships between Mesonivirus Isolates from Australian Mosquitoes and Evidence for Their Horizontal Transmission" Viruses 12, no. 10: 1159. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v12101159

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