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Article

Early Humoral Response Correlates with Disease Severity and Outcomes in COVID-19 Patients

1
Vaccines and Immunotherapy Unit, King Fahd Medical Research Center, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia
2
Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia
3
Department of Medical Laboratories Technology, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Jazan University, Jazan 45142, Saudi Arabia
4
Medical Research Center, Jazan University, Jazan 45142, Saudi Arabia
5
Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia
6
Department of Medical Laboratory Technology, Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia
7
Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia
8
King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Ministry of National Guard Health Affairs, Jeddah 11426, Saudi Arabia
9
King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Ministry of National Guard Health Affairs, Riyadh 14611, Saudi Arabia
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Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Imam Mohammed Ibn Saud Islamic University, Riyadh 11432, Saudi Arabia
11
Infectious Diseases Department, King Abdullah Medical Complex, Jeddah 24246, Saudi Arabia
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Infectious Diseases Department, King Fahad Hospital, Almadinah Almunwarah 11525, Saudi Arabia
13
Plan and Research Department, General Directorate of Health Affairs Makkah Region, Ministry of Health, Makkah 11176, Saudi Arabia
14
Pathogen Genomics Laboratory, Division of Biological and Environmental Sciences and Engineering (BESE), Thuwal 23955, Saudi Arabia
15
Research Center for Zoonosis Control, Hokkaido University, N20 W10, Kita-ku, Sapporo 001-0030, Japan
16
Nuffield Division of Clinical Laboratory Sciences (NDCLS), University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 9DU, UK
17
Department of Medical Laboratory Technology, University of Tabuk, Tabuk 71491, Saudi Arabi
18
Immunology Research Program, King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, Riyadh 14611, Saudi Arabia
19
Center for Genetics and Inherited Diseases, Taibah University, Almadinah Almunwarah 71491, Saudi Arabia
20
College of Applied Medical Sciences, Taibah University, Almadinah Almunwarah 71491, Saudi Arabia
21
Centre for Biologics Evaluation, Biologics and Genetic Therapies Directorate, Health Products and Food Branch (HPFB), Health Canada and WHO Collaborating Center for Standardization and Evaluation of Biologicals, Ottawa, ON K1A 0K9, Canada
22
Department of Biochemistry, Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON K1H 8M5, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editors: Luis Martinez-Sobrido and Fernando Almazan Toral
Received: 31 October 2020 / Revised: 29 November 2020 / Accepted: 30 November 2020 / Published: 4 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Collection Coronaviruses)
The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by SARS-CoV-2, continues to spread globally with significantly high morbidity and mortality rates. Antigen-specific responses are of unquestionable value for clinical management of COVID-19 patients. Here, we investigated the kinetics of IgM, IgG against the spike (S) and nucleoproteins (N) proteins and their neutralizing capabilities in hospitalized COVID-19 patients with different disease presentations (i.e., mild, moderate or severe), need for intensive care units (ICU) admission or outcomes (i.e., survival vs death). We show that SARS-CoV-2 specific IgG, IgM and neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) were readily detectable in almost all COVID-19 patients with various clinical presentations. Interestingly, significantly higher levels of nAbs as well as anti-S1 and -N IgG and IgM antibodies were found in patients with more severe symptoms, patients requiring admission to ICU or those with fatal outcomes. More importantly, early after symptoms onset, we found that the levels of anti-N antibodies correlated strongly with disease severity. Collectively, these findings provide new insights into the kinetics of antibody responses in COVID-19 patients with different disease severity. View Full-Text
Keywords: COVID19; anti-N antibodies; neutralizing antibodies; SARS-CoV-2 COVID19; anti-N antibodies; neutralizing antibodies; SARS-CoV-2
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hashem, A.M.; Algaissi, A.; Almahboub, S.A.; Alfaleh, M.A.; Abujamel, T.S.; Alamri, S.S.; Alluhaybi, K.A.; Hobani, H.I.; AlHarbi, R.H.; Alsulaiman, R.M.; ElAssouli, M.-Z.; Hala, S.; Alharbi, N.K.; Alhabbab, R.Y.; AlSaieedi, A.A.; Abdulaal, W.H.; Bukhari, A.; AL-Somali, A.A.; Alofi, F.S.; Khogeer, A.A.; Pain, A.; Alkayyal, A.A.; Almontashiri, N.A.M.; Ahmad, B.M.; Li, X. Early Humoral Response Correlates with Disease Severity and Outcomes in COVID-19 Patients. Viruses 2020, 12, 1390. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v12121390

AMA Style

Hashem AM, Algaissi A, Almahboub SA, Alfaleh MA, Abujamel TS, Alamri SS, Alluhaybi KA, Hobani HI, AlHarbi RH, Alsulaiman RM, ElAssouli M-Z, Hala S, Alharbi NK, Alhabbab RY, AlSaieedi AA, Abdulaal WH, Bukhari A, AL-Somali AA, Alofi FS, Khogeer AA, Pain A, Alkayyal AA, Almontashiri NAM, Ahmad BM, Li X. Early Humoral Response Correlates with Disease Severity and Outcomes in COVID-19 Patients. Viruses. 2020; 12(12):1390. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v12121390

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hashem, Anwar M.; Algaissi, Abdullah; Almahboub, Sarah A.; Alfaleh, Mohamed A.; Abujamel, Turki S.; Alamri, Sawsan S.; Alluhaybi, Khalid A.; Hobani, Haya I.; AlHarbi, Rahaf H.; Alsulaiman, Reem M.; ElAssouli, M-Zaki; Hala, Sharif; Alharbi, Naif K.; Alhabbab, Rowa Y.; AlSaieedi, Ahdab A.; Abdulaal, Wesam H.; Bukhari, Abdullah; AL-Somali, Afrah A.; Alofi, Fadwa S.; Khogeer, Asim A.; Pain, Arnab; Alkayyal, Almohanad A.; Almontashiri, Naif A.M.; Ahmad, Bakur M.; Li, Xuguang. 2020. "Early Humoral Response Correlates with Disease Severity and Outcomes in COVID-19 Patients" Viruses 12, no. 12: 1390. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v12121390

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