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Dysregulated Interferon Response Underlying Severe COVID-19

Department of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, College of Agriculture, Tennessee State University, 3500 John A. Merritt Boulevard, Nashville, TN 37209, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally.
Academic Editor: Andrew Davidson
Received: 27 October 2020 / Revised: 6 December 2020 / Accepted: 9 December 2020 / Published: 13 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pathogenesis of Human and Animal Coronaviruses)
Innate immune interferons (IFNs), including type I and III IFNs, constitute critical antiviral mechanisms. Recent studies reveal that IFN dysregulation is key to determine COVID-19 pathogenesis. Effective IFN stimulation or prophylactic administration of IFNs at the early stage prior to severe COVID-19 may elicit an autonomous antiviral state, restrict the virus infection, and prevent COVID-19 progression. Inborn genetic flaws and autoreactive antibodies that block IFN response have been significantly associated with about 14% of patients with life-threatening COVID-19 pneumonia. In most severe COVID-19 patients without genetic errors in IFN-relevant gene loci, IFN dysregulation is progressively worsened and associated with the situation of pro-inflammation and immunopathy, which is prone to autoimmunity. In addition, the high correlation of severe COVID-19 with seniority, males, and individuals with pre-existing comorbidities will be plausibly explained by the coincidence of IFN aberrance in these situations. Collectively, current studies call for a better understanding of the IFN response regarding the spatiotemporal determination and subtype-specificity against SARS-CoV-2 infections, which are warranted to devise IFN-related prophylactics and therapies. View Full-Text
Keywords: COVID-19; interferons; interferon signaling; SARS-CoV-2; immunopathy COVID-19; interferons; interferon signaling; SARS-CoV-2; immunopathy
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lopez, L.; Sang, P.C.; Tian, Y.; Sang, Y. Dysregulated Interferon Response Underlying Severe COVID-19. Viruses 2020, 12, 1433. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v12121433

AMA Style

Lopez L, Sang PC, Tian Y, Sang Y. Dysregulated Interferon Response Underlying Severe COVID-19. Viruses. 2020; 12(12):1433. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v12121433

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lopez, LeAnn; Sang, Peter C.; Tian, Yun; Sang, Yongming. 2020. "Dysregulated Interferon Response Underlying Severe COVID-19" Viruses 12, no. 12: 1433. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v12121433

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