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Article

Survival of Human Norovirus Surrogates in Water upon Exposure to Thermal and Non-Thermal Antiviral Treatments

1
Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA
2
Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, IFAS, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA
3
Department of Microbiology and Cell Science, IFAS, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 March 2020 / Accepted: 16 April 2020 / Published: 19 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Viruses)
Human noroviruses are the leading cause of foodborne gastroenteritis worldwide and disease outbreaks have been linked to contaminated surface waters as well as to produce consumption. Noroviruses are extremely stable in water and their presence is being detected with increasing frequency, yet there are no viable methods for reducing norovirus contamination in environmental water. Despite this, there is little knowledge regarding the physical and chemical factors that influence the environmental persistence of this pathogen. This study evaluated the impact of common chemical and physical properties of surface water on the stability of murine norovirus and examined the effect of food-safe chitosan microparticles on infectivity of two human norovirus surrogates. While chemical additives had a minor impact on virus survival, chitosan microparticles significantly reduced infectious titers of both murine norovirus and MS2 bacteriophage. View Full-Text
Keywords: antiviral treatment; chitosan microparticles; disinfection; enteric virus; food safety; surface water; norovirus; public health; surrogates antiviral treatment; chitosan microparticles; disinfection; enteric virus; food safety; surface water; norovirus; public health; surrogates
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zhu, S.; Barnes, C.; Bhar, S.; Hoyeck, P.; Galbraith, A.N.; Devabhaktuni, D.; Karst, S.M.; Montazeri, N.; Jones, M.K. Survival of Human Norovirus Surrogates in Water upon Exposure to Thermal and Non-Thermal Antiviral Treatments. Viruses 2020, 12, 461. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v12040461

AMA Style

Zhu S, Barnes C, Bhar S, Hoyeck P, Galbraith AN, Devabhaktuni D, Karst SM, Montazeri N, Jones MK. Survival of Human Norovirus Surrogates in Water upon Exposure to Thermal and Non-Thermal Antiviral Treatments. Viruses. 2020; 12(4):461. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v12040461

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zhu, Shu, Candace Barnes, Sutonuka Bhar, Papa Hoyeck, Annalise N. Galbraith, Divya Devabhaktuni, Stephanie M. Karst, Naim Montazeri, and Melissa K. Jones 2020. "Survival of Human Norovirus Surrogates in Water upon Exposure to Thermal and Non-Thermal Antiviral Treatments" Viruses 12, no. 4: 461. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v12040461

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