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Review

Dissemination of Internal Ribosomal Entry Sites (IRES) Between Viruses by Horizontal Gene Transfer

Department of Cell Biology, SUNY Downstate Health Sciences University, Brooklyn, NY 11203, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Received: 11 May 2020 / Revised: 1 June 2020 / Accepted: 2 June 2020 / Published: 4 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Virus Ecology and Evolution: Current Research and Future Directions)
Members of Picornaviridae and of the Hepacivirus, Pegivirus and Pestivirus genera of Flaviviridae all contain an internal ribosomal entry site (IRES) in the 5′-untranslated region (5′UTR) of their genomes. Each class of IRES has a conserved structure and promotes 5′-end-independent initiation of translation by a different mechanism. Picornavirus 5′UTRs, including the IRES, evolve independently of other parts of the genome and can move between genomes, most commonly by intratypic recombination. We review accumulating evidence that IRESs are genetic entities that can also move between members of different genera and even between families. Type IV IRESs, first identified in the Hepacivirus genus, have subsequently been identified in over 25 genera of Picornaviridae, juxtaposed against diverse coding sequences. In several genera, members have either type IV IRES or an IRES of type I, II or III. Similarly, in the genus Pegivirus, members contain either a type IV IRES or an unrelated type; both classes of IRES also occur in members of the genus Hepacivirus. IRESs utilize different mechanisms, have different factor requirements and contain determinants of viral growth, pathogenesis and cell type specificity. Their dissemination between viruses by horizontal gene transfer has unexpectedly emerged as an important facet of viral evolution. View Full-Text
Keywords: IRES; Flavivirus; Horizontal gene transfer; Hepacivirus; Pegivirus; Pestivirus; Picornavirus; recombination; translation IRES; Flavivirus; Horizontal gene transfer; Hepacivirus; Pegivirus; Pestivirus; Picornavirus; recombination; translation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Arhab, Y.; Bulakhov, A.G.; Pestova, T.V.; Hellen, C.U.T. Dissemination of Internal Ribosomal Entry Sites (IRES) Between Viruses by Horizontal Gene Transfer. Viruses 2020, 12, 612. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v12060612

AMA Style

Arhab Y, Bulakhov AG, Pestova TV, Hellen CUT. Dissemination of Internal Ribosomal Entry Sites (IRES) Between Viruses by Horizontal Gene Transfer. Viruses. 2020; 12(6):612. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v12060612

Chicago/Turabian Style

Arhab, Yani, Alexander G. Bulakhov, Tatyana V. Pestova, and Christopher U.T. Hellen 2020. "Dissemination of Internal Ribosomal Entry Sites (IRES) Between Viruses by Horizontal Gene Transfer" Viruses 12, no. 6: 612. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v12060612

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