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Article

The Prediction of miRNAs in SARS-CoV-2 Genomes: hsa-miR Databases Identify 7 Key miRs Linked to Host Responses and Virus Pathogenicity-Related KEGG Pathways Significant for Comorbidities

1
Institute of Biotechnology, Gebze Technical University, Gebze, 41400 Kocaeli, Turkey
2
Institute of Medical and Biomedical Education, St George’s University of London, Cranmer Terrace, Tooting, London SW17 0RE, UK
3
School of Life Sciences, University of Bedfordshire, Park Square, Luton LU1 3JU, UK
4
Department of Urology, Şişli Hamidiye Etfal Research and Training Hospital, 34360 Istanbul, Turkey
5
Thoracic Surgery Clinic, Memorial Hospital Sisli, Kaptanpasa Mah. Piyalepasa Bulvarı, 434385 Istanbul, Turkey
6
Tissue Architecture and Regeneration Research Group, School of Life Sciences, University of Westminster, London W1W 6UW, UK
7
Cancer Research Group, School of Life Sciences, University of Westminster, London W1W 6UW, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 May 2020 / Accepted: 2 June 2020 / Published: 4 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pathogenesis of Human and Animal Coronaviruses)
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a member of the betacoronavirus family, which causes COVID-19 disease. SARS-CoV-2 pathogenicity in humans leads to increased mortality rates due to alterations of significant pathways, including some resulting in exacerbated inflammatory responses linked to the “cytokine storm” and extensive lung pathology, as well as being linked to a number of comorbidities. Our current study compared five SARS-CoV-2 sequences from different geographical regions to those from SARS, MERS and two cold viruses, OC43 and 229E, to identify the presence of miR-like sequences. We identified seven key miRs, which highlight considerable differences between the SARS-CoV-2 sequences, compared with the other viruses. The level of conservation between the five SARS-CoV-2 sequences was identical but poor compared with the other sequences, with SARS showing the highest degree of conservation. This decrease in similarity could result in reduced levels of transcriptional control, as well as a change in the physiological effect of the virus and associated host-pathogen responses. MERS and the milder symptom viruses showed greater differences and even significant sequence gaps. This divergence away from the SARS-CoV-2 sequences broadly mirrors the phylogenetic relationships obtained from the whole-genome alignments. Therefore, patterns of mutation, occurring during sequence divergence from the longer established human viruses to the more recent ones, may have led to the emergence of sequence motifs that can be related directly to the pathogenicity of SARS-CoV-2. Importantly, we identified 7 key-microRNAs (miRs 8066, 5197, 3611, 3934-3p, 1307-3p, 3691-3p, 1468-5p) with significant links to KEGG pathways linked to viral pathogenicity and host responses. According to Bioproject data (PRJNA615032), SARS-CoV-2 mediated transcriptomic alterations were similar to the target pathways of the selected 7 miRs identified in our study. This mechanism could have considerable significance in determining the symptom spectrum of future potential pandemics. KEGG pathway analysis revealed a number of critical pathways linked to the seven identified miRs that may provide insight into the interplay between the virus and comorbidities. Based on our reported findings, miRNAs may constitute potential and effective therapeutic approaches in COVID-19 and its pathological consequences. View Full-Text
Keywords: COVID-19; SARS–CoV-2; coronavirus; microRNAs (miRs 8066, 5197, 3611, 3934-3p, 1307-3p, 3691-3p, 1468-5p); viral pathogenesis; cell signalling pathways; comorbidities COVID-19; SARS–CoV-2; coronavirus; microRNAs (miRs 8066, 5197, 3611, 3934-3p, 1307-3p, 3691-3p, 1468-5p); viral pathogenesis; cell signalling pathways; comorbidities
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MDPI and ACS Style

Arisan, E.D.; Dart, A.; Grant, G.H.; Arisan, S.; Cuhadaroglu, S.; Lange, S.; Uysal-Onganer, P. The Prediction of miRNAs in SARS-CoV-2 Genomes: hsa-miR Databases Identify 7 Key miRs Linked to Host Responses and Virus Pathogenicity-Related KEGG Pathways Significant for Comorbidities. Viruses 2020, 12, 614. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v12060614

AMA Style

Arisan ED, Dart A, Grant GH, Arisan S, Cuhadaroglu S, Lange S, Uysal-Onganer P. The Prediction of miRNAs in SARS-CoV-2 Genomes: hsa-miR Databases Identify 7 Key miRs Linked to Host Responses and Virus Pathogenicity-Related KEGG Pathways Significant for Comorbidities. Viruses. 2020; 12(6):614. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v12060614

Chicago/Turabian Style

Arisan, Elif D.; Dart, Alwyn; Grant, Guy H.; Arisan, Serdar; Cuhadaroglu, Songul; Lange, Sigrun; Uysal-Onganer, Pinar. 2020. "The Prediction of miRNAs in SARS-CoV-2 Genomes: hsa-miR Databases Identify 7 Key miRs Linked to Host Responses and Virus Pathogenicity-Related KEGG Pathways Significant for Comorbidities" Viruses 12, no. 6: 614. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v12060614

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