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The Dynamic Life of Virus Capsids
Article

Infectious Norovirus Is Chronically Shed by Immunocompromised Pediatric Hosts

1
Department of Infectious Diseases, St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN 38105, USA
2
Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA
3
Department of Pathology, St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN 38105, USA
4
Department of Biostatistics, St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN 38105, USA
5
Department of Microbiology and Cell Science, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA
6
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Received: 20 April 2020 / Revised: 28 May 2020 / Accepted: 2 June 2020 / Published: 5 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Viruses)
Noroviruses are a leading cause of gastroenteritis worldwide. Although infections in healthy individuals are self-resolving, immunocompromised individuals are at risk for chronic disease and severe complications. Chronic norovirus infections in immunocompromised hosts are often characterized by long-term virus shedding, but it is unclear whether this shed virus remains infectious. We investigated the prevalence, genetic heterogeneity, and temporal aspects of norovirus infections in 1140 patients treated during a 6-year period at a pediatric research hospital. Additionally, we identified 20 patients with chronic infections lasting 37 to >418 days. Using a new human norovirus in vitro assay, we confirmed the continuous shedding of infectious virus for the first time. Shedding lasted longer in male patients and those with diarrheal symptoms. Prolonged shedding of infectious norovirus in immunocompromised hosts can potentially increase the likelihood of transmission, highlighting the importance of isolation precautions to prevent nosocomial infections. View Full-Text
Keywords: norovirus; immunocompromised host; infectious virus shedding; genotype; diarrhea; asymptomatic norovirus; immunocompromised host; infectious virus shedding; genotype; diarrhea; asymptomatic
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MDPI and ACS Style

Davis, A.; Cortez, V.; Grodzki, M.; Dallas, R.; Ferrolino, J.; Freiden, P.; Maron, G.; Hakim, H.; Hayden, R.T.; Tang, L.; Huys, A.; Kolawole, A.O.; Wobus, C.E.; Jones, M.K.; Karst, S.M.; Schultz-Cherry, S. Infectious Norovirus Is Chronically Shed by Immunocompromised Pediatric Hosts. Viruses 2020, 12, 619. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v12060619

AMA Style

Davis A, Cortez V, Grodzki M, Dallas R, Ferrolino J, Freiden P, Maron G, Hakim H, Hayden RT, Tang L, Huys A, Kolawole AO, Wobus CE, Jones MK, Karst SM, Schultz-Cherry S. Infectious Norovirus Is Chronically Shed by Immunocompromised Pediatric Hosts. Viruses. 2020; 12(6):619. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v12060619

Chicago/Turabian Style

Davis, Amy, Valerie Cortez, Marco Grodzki, Ronald Dallas, Jose Ferrolino, Pamela Freiden, Gabriela Maron, Hana Hakim, Randall T. Hayden, Li Tang, Adam Huys, Abimbola O. Kolawole, Christiane E. Wobus, Melissa K. Jones, Stephanie M. Karst, and Stacey Schultz-Cherry. 2020. "Infectious Norovirus Is Chronically Shed by Immunocompromised Pediatric Hosts" Viruses 12, no. 6: 619. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v12060619

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