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Brief Report

Prognostic Role of Metabolic Syndrome in COVID-19 Patients: A Systematic Review Meta-Analysis

Department of Translational Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ferrara, 44100 Ferrara, Italy
Department of Cardiology, Santa Maria Della Misericordia Hospital, 45100 Rovigo, Italy
Division of Cardiology, West Vicenza General Hospitals, Arzignano, 36071 Vicenza, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Eric Piver
Received: 6 September 2021 / Revised: 17 September 2021 / Accepted: 23 September 2021 / Published: 27 September 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metabolic Syndrome and COVID-19)
Background: The prevalence and prognostic implications of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in patients infected by the SARS-CoV-2 remain unclear. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of prevalence and mortality risk in COVID-19 patients with MetS. Methods: Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines were followed in abstracting data and assessing validity. We searched MEDLINE and Scopus to locate every article published up to 1 September 2021, reporting data on MetS among COVID-19 patients. The pooled prevalence of MetS was calculated using a random effects model and presented using the related 95% confidence interval (CI), while the mortality risk was estimated using the Mantel-Haenszel random effects models with odds ratio (OR) and related 95% CI. Statistical heterogeneity was measured using the Higgins I2 statistic. Results: Six studies, enrolling 209.569 COVID-19 patients [mean age 57.2 years, 114.188 males (54.4%)] met the inclusion criteria and were included in the final analysis. The pooled prevalence of dyslipidaemia was 20.5% of cases (95% CI: 6.7–47.8%, p = 0.03), with high heterogeneity (I2 = 98.9%). Pre-existing MetS was significantly associated with higher risk of short-term mortality (OR: 2.30, 95% CI: 1.52–3.45, p < 0.001), with high heterogeneity (I2 = 89.4%). Meta-regression showed a direct correlation with male gender (p = 0.03), hypertension (p < 0.001), DM (p = 0.01) and hyperlipidaemia (p = 0.04), but no effect when considering age (p = 0.75) and chronic pulmonary disease (p = 0.86) as moderators. Conclusions: MetS represents a major comorbidity in about 20% of COVID-19 patients and it is associated with a 230% increased risk of short-term mortality. View Full-Text
Keywords: metabolic syndrome; COVID-19; prevalence; mortality; dyslipidaemia metabolic syndrome; COVID-19; prevalence; mortality; dyslipidaemia
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zuin, M.; Rigatelli, G.; Bilato, C.; Cervellati, C.; Zuliani, G.; Roncon, L. Prognostic Role of Metabolic Syndrome in COVID-19 Patients: A Systematic Review Meta-Analysis. Viruses 2021, 13, 1938.

AMA Style

Zuin M, Rigatelli G, Bilato C, Cervellati C, Zuliani G, Roncon L. Prognostic Role of Metabolic Syndrome in COVID-19 Patients: A Systematic Review Meta-Analysis. Viruses. 2021; 13(10):1938.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zuin, Marco, Gianluca Rigatelli, Claudio Bilato, Carlo Cervellati, Giovanni Zuliani, and Loris Roncon. 2021. "Prognostic Role of Metabolic Syndrome in COVID-19 Patients: A Systematic Review Meta-Analysis" Viruses 13, no. 10: 1938.

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