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Article

Emergence of Salmonid Alphavirus Genotype 2 in Norway—Molecular Characterization of Viral Strains Circulating in Norway and Scotland

1
Norwegian Veterinary Institute, 1433 Ås, Norway
2
Veterinary Sciences Division, Agri-Food and Biosciences Institute of Northern Ireland, Stormont, Belfast BT4 3SD, UK
3
Department of Paraclinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, 1432 Ås, Norway
4
Center for Laboratory Medicine, Østfold Hospital Trust, 1714 Grålum, Norway
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Tae-Jin Choi
Received: 21 June 2021 / Revised: 27 July 2021 / Accepted: 29 July 2021 / Published: 6 August 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viruses Affecting Salmonids)
Pancreas disease (PD) and sleeping disease (SD), caused by an alphavirus, are endemic in European salmonid aquaculture, causing significant mortality, reduced growth and poor flesh quality. In 2010, a new variant of salmonid alphavirus emerged in Norway, marine salmonid alphavirus genotype 2 (SAV2). As this genotype is highly prevalent in Scotland, transmission through well boat traffic was hypothesized as one possible source of infection. In this study, we performed full-length genome sequencing of SAV2 sampled between 2006 and 2012 in Norway and Scotland, and present the first comprehensive full-length characterization of Norwegian marine SAV2 strains. We analyze their relationship with selected Scottish SAV2 strains and explore the genetic diversity of SAV. Our results show that all Norwegian marine SAV2 share a recent last common ancestor with marine SAV2 circulating in Scotland and a higher level of genomic diversity among the Scottish marine SAV2 strains compared to strains from Norway. These findings support the hypothesis of a single introduction of SAV2 to Norway sometime from 2006–2010, followed by horizontal spread along the coast. View Full-Text
Keywords: salmonid alphavirus; genotypes; SAV2; aquaculture; Norway; Scotland; phylogeography; molecular epidemiology; pancreas disease salmonid alphavirus; genotypes; SAV2; aquaculture; Norway; Scotland; phylogeography; molecular epidemiology; pancreas disease
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hjortaas, M.J.; Fringuelli, E.; Monjane, A.L.; Mikalsen, A.B.; Jonassen, C.M.; Savage, P.; Sindre, H. Emergence of Salmonid Alphavirus Genotype 2 in Norway—Molecular Characterization of Viral Strains Circulating in Norway and Scotland. Viruses 2021, 13, 1556. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v13081556

AMA Style

Hjortaas MJ, Fringuelli E, Monjane AL, Mikalsen AB, Jonassen CM, Savage P, Sindre H. Emergence of Salmonid Alphavirus Genotype 2 in Norway—Molecular Characterization of Viral Strains Circulating in Norway and Scotland. Viruses. 2021; 13(8):1556. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v13081556

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hjortaas, Monika J., Elena Fringuelli, Adérito L. Monjane, Aase B. Mikalsen, Christine M. Jonassen, Paul Savage, and Hilde Sindre. 2021. "Emergence of Salmonid Alphavirus Genotype 2 in Norway—Molecular Characterization of Viral Strains Circulating in Norway and Scotland" Viruses 13, no. 8: 1556. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v13081556

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