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Article

Prevalence and Molecular Characterization of Human Bocavirus Detected in Croatian Children with Respiratory Infection

1
Molecular Microbiology Department, Dr. Andrija Štampar Teaching Institute of Public Health, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
2
Medical Microbiology Department, University of Zagreb School of Medicine, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
3
Center of Excellence for Virus Immunology and Vaccines, Center for Research and Knowledge Transfer in Biotechnology, University of Zagreb, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
4
Department of Pulmonology, Allergy, Immunology and Rheumatology, Children’s Hospital Zagreb, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
5
Faculty for Dental Medicine and Healthcare/School of Medicine, Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek, 31000 Osijek, Croatia
6
Microbiology Department, General hospital Karlovac, Karlovac, 47000 Karlovac, Croatia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Oliver Schildgen
Received: 19 July 2021 / Revised: 24 August 2021 / Accepted: 26 August 2021 / Published: 31 August 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Virology Research in Croatia)
Human bocavirus (HBoV) 1 is considered an important respiratory pathogen, while the role of HBoV2-4 in clinical disease remains somewhat controversial. Since, they are characterized by a rapid evolution, worldwide surveillance of HBoVs’ genetics is necessary. This study explored the prevalence of HBoV genotypes in pediatric patients with respiratory tract infection in Croatia and studied their phylogeny. Using multiplex PCR for 15 respiratory viruses, we investigated 957 respiratory samples of children up to 18 years of age with respiratory tract infection obtained from May 2017 to March 2021 at two different hospitals in Croatia. Amplification of HBoV near-complete genome or three overlapping fragments was performed, sequenced, and their phylogenetic inferences constructed. HBoV was detected in 7.6% children with a median age of 1.36 years. Co-infection was observed in 82.2% samples. Sequencing was successfully performed on 29 HBoV positive samples, and all belonged to HBoV1. Croatian HBoV1 sequences are closely related to strains isolated worldwide, and no phylogenetic grouping based on mono- or co-infection cases or year of isolation was observed. Calculated rates of evolution for HBoV1 were 10−4 and 10−5 substitutions per site and year. Recombination was not detected among sequences from this study. View Full-Text
Keywords: bocavirus; respiratory tract; prevalence; Croatia; phylogeny; recombination bocavirus; respiratory tract; prevalence; Croatia; phylogeny; recombination
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ljubin-Sternak, S.; Slović, A.; Mijač, M.; Jurković, M.; Forčić, D.; Ivković-Jureković, I.; Tot, T.; Vraneš, J. Prevalence and Molecular Characterization of Human Bocavirus Detected in Croatian Children with Respiratory Infection. Viruses 2021, 13, 1728. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v13091728

AMA Style

Ljubin-Sternak S, Slović A, Mijač M, Jurković M, Forčić D, Ivković-Jureković I, Tot T, Vraneš J. Prevalence and Molecular Characterization of Human Bocavirus Detected in Croatian Children with Respiratory Infection. Viruses. 2021; 13(9):1728. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v13091728

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ljubin-Sternak, Sunčanica, Anamarija Slović, Maja Mijač, Mirna Jurković, Dubravko Forčić, Irena Ivković-Jureković, Tatjana Tot, and Jasmina Vraneš. 2021. "Prevalence and Molecular Characterization of Human Bocavirus Detected in Croatian Children with Respiratory Infection" Viruses 13, no. 9: 1728. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v13091728

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