Next Issue
Volume 14, June
Previous Issue
Volume 14, April

Viruses, Volume 14, Issue 5 (May 2022) – 274 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Metabolic reprogramming is a phenomenon that commonly occurs in cancer but has recently been implicated in viral infections. During metabolic reprogramming, PEP conversion to pyruvate is decreased during glycolysis due to altered expression of PKM isoforms, the enzyme that catalyzes this reaction. The resulting build-up of glycolytic intermediates can lead to accumulation of AGEs. We use a combination of methods including qPCR and β-gal staining to show how SARS-CoV-2 alters lung cell metabolism through increased PKM2 expression, leading to high AGE production and RAGE signaling. We also show how this metabolic reprogramming contributes to the induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines and subsequent cellular senescence, thus implicating RAGE signaling in SARS-CoV-2-dependent inflammation. View this paper
  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Order results
Result details
Section
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
Article
Frequent Occurrence of Simultaneous Infection with Multiple Rotaviruses in Swiss Pigs
Viruses 2022, 14(5), 1117; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v14051117 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 596
Abstract
Rotavirus (RV) infections are the most important viral cause of diarrhea in piglets in Switzerland and are thought to cause substantial economic losses to the pig industry. However, no data are available on the occurrence and dynamics of the main porcine RV species, [...] Read more.
Rotavirus (RV) infections are the most important viral cause of diarrhea in piglets in Switzerland and are thought to cause substantial economic losses to the pig industry. However, no data are available on the occurrence and dynamics of the main porcine RV species, namely RVA, RVB, and RVC, and the diversity of the circulating strains. We therefore tested fecal samples from a cross-sectional (n = 95) and a longitudinal (n = 48) study for RVA, RVB, and RVC by real-time RT-PCR and compared the results of the cross-sectional study to postmortem findings. In addition, eight samples were fully genotyped by using next-generation sequencing. In the cross-sectional study, triple RV infections significantly correlated with diarrhea and wasting and were most frequent in the weaned age group. In the longitudinal study, the shedding of RV peaked one week after weaning and decreased thereafter. Here, mainly double infections were seen, and only a few animals showed diarrhea. The full-genome sequencing revealed a genotype pattern similar to other European countries and, importantly, co-infection by up to four RVA strains. Our results imply that the weaning of piglets may trigger not only RV shedding but facilitate co-infection of multiple RV species and strains in the same host. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enteric and Respiratory Viruses in Animals 3.0)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Brief Report
HuH-7-Lunet BLR Cells Propagate Rat Hepatitis E Virus (HEV) in a Cell Culture System Optimized for HEV
Viruses 2022, 14(5), 1116; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v14051116 - 23 May 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 567
Abstract
The family Hepeviridae comprises the species Orthohepevirus A–D (HEV-A to -D). HEV-C genotype 1 (HEV-C1, rat HEV) is able to infect humans. This study investigated whether an optimized HEV-A cell culture system is able to propagate the cell culture-derived rat HEV, and if [...] Read more.
The family Hepeviridae comprises the species Orthohepevirus A–D (HEV-A to -D). HEV-C genotype 1 (HEV-C1, rat HEV) is able to infect humans. This study investigated whether an optimized HEV-A cell culture system is able to propagate the cell culture-derived rat HEV, and if de novo isolation of the virus from rat liver is possible. We tested the liver carcinoma cell lines PLC/PRF/5, HuH-7, and HuH-7-Lunet BLR for their susceptibility to HEV-C1 strains. Cells were infected with the cell culture-derived HEV-C1 strain R63 and rat liver-derived strain R68. Cells were maintained in MEMM medium, which was refreshed every 3–4 days. The viral load of HEV-C1 was determined by RT-qPCR in the supernatant and expressed as genome copies per mL (c/mL). Rat HEV replication was most efficient in the newly introduced HuH-7-Lunet BLR cell line. Even if the rat HEV isolate had been pre-adapted to PLC/PRF/5 by multiple passages, replication in HuH-7-Lunet BLR was still at least equally effective. Only HuH-7-Lunet BLR cells were susceptible to the isolation of HEV-C1 from the liver homogenate. These results suggest HuH-7-Lunet BLR as the most permissive cell line for rat HEV. Our HEV-C1 cell culture system may be useful for basic research, the animal-free generation of large amounts of the virus as well as for the testing of antiviral compounds and drugs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rodent-Borne Viruses 2.0)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Stress Hormones Epinephrine and Corticosterone Selectively Reactivate HSV-1 and HSV-2 in Sympathetic and Sensory Neurons
Viruses 2022, 14(5), 1115; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v14051115 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 560
Abstract
Herpes simplex viruses 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2) establish latency in sensory and autonomic neurons, from which they can reactivate to cause recurrent disease throughout the life of the host. Stress is strongly associated with HSV recurrences in humans and animal models. [...] Read more.
Herpes simplex viruses 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2) establish latency in sensory and autonomic neurons, from which they can reactivate to cause recurrent disease throughout the life of the host. Stress is strongly associated with HSV recurrences in humans and animal models. However, the mechanisms through which stress hormones act on the latent virus to cause reactivation are unknown. We show that the stress hormones epinephrine (EPI) and corticosterone (CORT) induce HSV-1 reactivation selectively in sympathetic neurons, but not sensory or parasympathetic neurons. Activation of multiple adrenergic receptors is necessary for EPI-induced HSV-1 reactivation, while CORT requires the glucocorticoid receptor. In contrast, CORT, but not EPI, induces HSV-2 reactivation in both sensory and sympathetic neurons through either glucocorticoid or mineralocorticoid receptors. Reactivation is dependent on different transcription factors for EPI and CORT, and coincides with rapid changes in viral gene expression, although genes differ for HSV-1 and HSV-2, and temporal kinetics differ for EPI and CORT. Thus, stress-induced reactivation mechanisms are neuron-specific, stimulus-specific and virus-specific. These findings have implications for differences in HSV-1 and HSV-2 recurrent disease patterns and frequencies, as well as development of targeted, more effective antivirals that may act on different responses in different types of neurons. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Herpesvirus Latency)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
DVGfinder: A Metasearch Tool for Identifying Defective Viral Genomes in RNA-Seq Data
Viruses 2022, 14(5), 1114; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v14051114 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 1000
Abstract
The generation of different types of defective viral genomes (DVG) is an unavoidable consequence of the error-prone replication of RNA viruses. In recent years, a particular class of DVGs, those containing long deletions or genome rearrangements, has gain interest due to their potential [...] Read more.
The generation of different types of defective viral genomes (DVG) is an unavoidable consequence of the error-prone replication of RNA viruses. In recent years, a particular class of DVGs, those containing long deletions or genome rearrangements, has gain interest due to their potential therapeutic and biotechnological applications. Identifying such DVGs in high-throughput sequencing (HTS) data has become an interesting computational problem. Several algorithms have been proposed to accomplish this goal, though all incur false positives, a problem of practical interest if such DVGs have to be synthetized and tested in the laboratory. We present a metasearch tool, DVGfinder, that wraps the two most commonly used DVG search algorithms in a single workflow for the identification of the DVGs in HTS data. DVGfinder processes the results of ViReMa-a and DI-tector and uses a gradient boosting classifier machine learning algorithm to reduce the number of false-positive events. The program also generates output files in user-friendly HTML format, which can help users to explore the DVGs identified in the sample. We evaluated the performance of DVGfinder compared to the two search algorithms used separately and found that it slightly improves sensitivities for low-coverage synthetic HTS data and DI-tector precision for high-coverage samples. The metasearch program also showed higher sensitivity on a real sample for which a set of copy-backs were previously validated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Virus Bioinformatics 2022)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Retroviral RNA Processing
Viruses 2022, 14(5), 1113; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v14051113 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 592
Abstract
This review is an accompaniment to a Special Issue on “Retroviral RNA Processing”. It discusses post-transcriptional regulation of retroviruses, ranging from the ancient foamy viruses to more modern viruses, such as HIV-1, HTLV-1, Rous sarcoma virus, murine leukemia virus, mouse mammary tumor virus, [...] Read more.
This review is an accompaniment to a Special Issue on “Retroviral RNA Processing”. It discusses post-transcriptional regulation of retroviruses, ranging from the ancient foamy viruses to more modern viruses, such as HIV-1, HTLV-1, Rous sarcoma virus, murine leukemia virus, mouse mammary tumor virus, and Mason-Pfizer monkey virus. This review is not comprehensive. However, it tries to address some of the major questions in the field with examples of how different retroviruses express their genes. It is amazing that a single primary RNA transcript can have so many possible fates: genomic RNA, unspliced mRNA, and up to 50 different alternatively spliced mRNAs. This review will discuss the sorting of RNAs for packaging or translation, RNA nuclear export mechanisms, splicing, translation, RNA modifications, and avoidance of nonsense-mediated RNA decay. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Retroviral RNA Processing)
Brief Report
Deletion of African Swine Fever Virus Histone-like Protein, A104R from the Georgia Isolate Drastically Reduces Virus Virulence in Domestic Pigs
Viruses 2022, 14(5), 1112; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v14051112 - 22 May 2022
Viewed by 609
Abstract
African swine fever virus (ASFV) is the etiological agent of a frequently lethal disease, ASF, affecting domestic and wild swine. Currently, ASF is causing a pandemic affecting pig production in Eurasia. There are no vaccines available, and therefore control of the disease is [...] Read more.
African swine fever virus (ASFV) is the etiological agent of a frequently lethal disease, ASF, affecting domestic and wild swine. Currently, ASF is causing a pandemic affecting pig production in Eurasia. There are no vaccines available, and therefore control of the disease is based on culling infected animals. We report here that deletion of the ASFV gene A104R, a virus histone-like protein, from the genome of the highly virulent ASFV-Georgia2010 (ASFV-G) strain induces a clear decrease in virus virulence when experimentally inoculated in domestic swine. A recombinant virus lacking the A104R gene, ASFV-G-∆A104R, was developed to assess the role of the A104R gene in disease production in swine. Domestic pigs were intramuscularly inoculated with 102 HAD50 of ASFV-G-∆A104R, and compared with animals that received a similar dose of virulent ASFV-G. While all ASFV-G inoculated animals developed a fatal form of the disease, animals receiving ASFV-G-∆A104R survived the challenge, remaining healthy during the 28-day observational period, with the exception of only one showing a protracted but fatal form of the disease. ASFV-G-∆A104R surviving animals presented protracted viremias with reduced virus titers when compared with those found in animals inoculated with ASFV-G, and all of them developed a strong virus-specific antibody response. This is the first report demonstrating that the A104R gene is involved in ASFV virulence in domestic swine, suggesting that A104R deletion may be used to increase the safety profile of currently experimental vaccines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endemic and Emerging Swine Viruses 2022)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Time to Revise the WHO Categories for Severe Rabies Virus Exposures–Category IV?
Viruses 2022, 14(5), 1111; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v14051111 - 22 May 2022
Viewed by 584
Abstract
Rabies is a devastating disease and affects millions of people globally, yet it is preventable with appropriate and timely postexposure prophylaxis (PEP). The current WHO exposure categories (Categories I, II, and III) need revision, with a special Category IV for severe exposures. Rare [...] Read more.
Rabies is a devastating disease and affects millions of people globally, yet it is preventable with appropriate and timely postexposure prophylaxis (PEP). The current WHO exposure categories (Categories I, II, and III) need revision, with a special Category IV for severe exposures. Rare cases of PEP failure have occurred in severe bites to the head and neck. Multiple factors, including route, wound severity, depth, contamination, viral dose, proximity to highly innervated areas and the CNS, and the number of lesions, remain unconsidered. Injuries in areas of high neural density are the most significant considering lyssavirus pathophysiology. Current recommendations do not account for these factors. A Category IV designation would acknowledge the severity and the increased risk of progression. Subsequently, patient management would be optimized with wound care and the appropriate administration of rabies-immune globulin/monoclonal antibodies (RIG/MAbs). All Category IV exposures would be infiltrated with the full dose of intact RIG (i.e., human RIG or MAbs) if the patient was previously unvaccinated. More concentrated RIG/MAb formulations would be preferred. As a world rabies community, we cannot tolerate PEP failures. A fourth WHO categorization will improve the care of these high-risk patients and highlight the global health urgency of this neglected disease. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Porcine Intestinal Organoids: Overview of the State of the Art
Viruses 2022, 14(5), 1110; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v14051110 - 21 May 2022
Viewed by 520
Abstract
The intestinal tract is a crucial part of the body for growth and development, and its dysregulation can cause several diseases. The lack of appropriate in vitro models hampers the development of effective preventions and treatments against these intestinal tract diseases. Intestinal organoids [...] Read more.
The intestinal tract is a crucial part of the body for growth and development, and its dysregulation can cause several diseases. The lack of appropriate in vitro models hampers the development of effective preventions and treatments against these intestinal tract diseases. Intestinal organoids are three-dimensional (3D) polarized structures composed of different types of cells capable of self-organization and self-renewal, resembling their organ of origin in architecture and function. Porcine intestinal organoids (PIOs) have been cultured and are used widely in agricultural, veterinary, and biomedical research. Based on the similarity of the genomic sequence, anatomic morphology, and drug metabolism with humans and the difficulty in obtaining healthy human tissue, PIOs are also considered ideal models relative to rodents. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on PIOs, emphasizing their culturing, establishment and development, and applications in the study of host–microbe interactions, nutritional development, drug discovery, and gene editing potential. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Veterinary Virology Research in China)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Advances in Bovine Coronavirus Epidemiology
Viruses 2022, 14(5), 1109; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v14051109 - 21 May 2022
Viewed by 650
Abstract
Bovine coronavirus (BCoV) is a causative agent of enteric and respiratory disease in cattle. BCoV has also been reported to cause a variety of animal diseases and is closely related to human coronaviruses, which has attracted extensive attention from both cattle farmers and [...] Read more.
Bovine coronavirus (BCoV) is a causative agent of enteric and respiratory disease in cattle. BCoV has also been reported to cause a variety of animal diseases and is closely related to human coronaviruses, which has attracted extensive attention from both cattle farmers and researchers. However, there are few comprehensive epidemiological reviews, and key information regarding the effect of S-gene differences on tissue tendency and potential cross-species transmission remain unclear. In this review, we summarize BCoV epidemiology, including the transmission, infection-associated factors, co-infection, pathogenicity, genetic evolution, and potential cross-species transmission. Furthermore, the potential two-receptor binding motif system for BCoV entry and the association between BCoV and SARS-CoV-2 are also discussed in this review. Our aim is to provide valuable information for the prevention and treatment of BCoV infection throughout the world. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Veterinary Virology Research in China)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Editorial
An Inspiring Journey of Hope and Persistence: Life Lessons with Françoise Barré-Sinoussi
Viruses 2022, 14(5), 1108; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v14051108 - 21 May 2022
Viewed by 424
Abstract
Three early-career female virologists sat down with a distinguished Nobel laureate to discuss two pandemics, 39 years apart [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Women in Virology)
Review
Type I and Type II Interferon Antagonism Strategies Used by Paramyxoviridae: Previous and New Discoveries, in Comparison
Viruses 2022, 14(5), 1107; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v14051107 - 21 May 2022
Viewed by 505
Abstract
Paramyxoviridae is a viral family within the order of Mononegavirales; they are negative single-strand RNA viruses that can cause significant diseases in both humans and animals. In order to replicate, paramyxoviruses–as any other viruses–have to bypass an important protective mechanism developed by [...] Read more.
Paramyxoviridae is a viral family within the order of Mononegavirales; they are negative single-strand RNA viruses that can cause significant diseases in both humans and animals. In order to replicate, paramyxoviruses–as any other viruses–have to bypass an important protective mechanism developed by the host’s cells: the defensive line driven by interferon. Once the viruses are recognized, the cells start the production of type I and type III interferons, which leads to the activation of hundreds of genes, many of which encode proteins with the specific function to reduce viral replication. Type II interferon is produced by active immune cells through a different signaling pathway, and activates a diverse range of genes with the same objective to block viral replication. As a result of this selective pressure, viruses have evolved different strategies to avoid the defensive function of interferons. The strategies employed by the different viral species to fight the interferon system include a number of sophisticated mechanisms. Here we analyzed the current status of the various strategies used by paramyxoviruses to subvert type I, II, and III interferon responses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immunopathogenesis of Paramyxoviridae and Pneumoviridae)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Evidence of Infection with Zoonotic Mosquito-Borne Flaviviruses in Saltwater Crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus) in Northern Australia
Viruses 2022, 14(5), 1106; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v14051106 - 21 May 2022
Viewed by 631
Abstract
The risk of flavivirus infections among the crocodilian species was not recognised until West Nile virus (WNV) was introduced into the Americas. The first outbreaks caused death and substantial economic losses in the alligator farming industry. Several other WNV disease episodes have been [...] Read more.
The risk of flavivirus infections among the crocodilian species was not recognised until West Nile virus (WNV) was introduced into the Americas. The first outbreaks caused death and substantial economic losses in the alligator farming industry. Several other WNV disease episodes have been reported in crocodilians in other parts of the world, including Australia and Africa. Considering that WNV shares vectors with other flaviviruses, crocodilians are highly likely to also be exposed to flaviviruses other than WNV. A serological survey for flaviviral infections was conducted on saltwater crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus) at farms in the Northern Territory, Australia. Five hundred serum samples, collected from three crocodile farms, were screened using a pan-flavivirus-specific blocking ELISA. The screening revealed that 26% (n = 130/500) of the animals had antibodies to flaviviruses. Of these, 31.5% had neutralising antibodies to WNVKUN (Kunjin strain), while 1.5% had neutralising antibodies to another important flavivirus pathogen, Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVEV). Of the other flaviviruses tested for, Fitzroy River virus (FRV) was the most frequent (58.5%) in which virus neutralising antibodies were detected. Our data indicate that farmed crocodiles in the Northern Territory are exposed to a range of potentially zoonotic flaviviruses, in addition to WNVKUN. While these flaviviruses do not cause any known diseases in crocodiles, there is a need to investigate whether infected saltwater crocodiles can develop a viremia to sustain the transmission cycle or farmed crocodilians can be used as sentinels to monitor the dynamics of arboviral infections in tropical areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flaviviruses and Flavivirus Vaccines)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
A Therapeutically Active Minibody Exhibits an Antiviral Activity in Oseltamivir-Resistant Influenza-Infected Mice via Direct Hydrolysis of Viral RNAs
Viruses 2022, 14(5), 1105; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v14051105 - 21 May 2022
Viewed by 587
Abstract
Emerging Oseltamivir-resistant influenza strains pose a critical public health threat due to antigenic shifts and drifts. We report an innovative strategy for controlling influenza A infections by use of a novel minibody of the 3D8 single chain variable fragment (scFv) showing intrinsic viral [...] Read more.
Emerging Oseltamivir-resistant influenza strains pose a critical public health threat due to antigenic shifts and drifts. We report an innovative strategy for controlling influenza A infections by use of a novel minibody of the 3D8 single chain variable fragment (scFv) showing intrinsic viral RNA hydrolyzing activity, cell penetration activity, and epidermal cell penetration ability. In this study, we examined 3D8 scFv’s antiviral activity in vitro on three different H1N1 influenza strains, one Oseltamivir-resistant (A/Korea/2785/2009pdm) strain, and two Oseltamivir-sensitive (A/PuertoRico/8/1934 and A/X-31) strains. Interestingly, the 3D8 scFv directly digested viral RNAs in the ribonucleoprotein complex. scFv’s reduction of influenza viral RNA including viral genomic RNA, complementary RNA, and messenger RNA during influenza A infection cycles indicated that this minibody targets all types of viral RNAs during the early, intermediate, and late stages of the virus’s life cycle. Moreover, we further addressed the antiviral effects of 3D8 scFv to investigate in vivo clinical outcomes of influenza-infected mice. Using both prophylactic and therapeutic treatments of intranasal administered 3D8 scFv, we found that Oseltamivir-resistant H1N1-infected mice showed 90% (prophylactic effects) and 40% (therapeutic effects) increased survival rates, respectively, compared to the control group. The pathological signs of influenza A in the lung tissues, and quantitative analyses of the virus proliferations supported the antiviral activity of the 3D8 single chain variable fragment. Taken together, these results demonstrate that 3D8 scFv has antiviral therapeutic potentials against a wide range of influenza A viruses via the direct viral RNA hydrolyzing activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antiviral Agents to Influenza Virus)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Differential Transmission of Old and New World Begomoviruses by Middle East-Asia Minor 1 (MEAM1) and Mediterranean (MED) Cryptic Species of Bemisia tabaci
Viruses 2022, 14(5), 1104; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v14051104 - 20 May 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 583
Abstract
Middle East-Asia Minor 1 (MEAM1) and Mediterranean (MED) are two of the most invasive members of the sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, cryptic species complexes and are efficient vectors of begomoviruses. Bemisia tabaci MEAM1 is the predominant vector of begomoviruses in open-field vegetable crops [...] Read more.
Middle East-Asia Minor 1 (MEAM1) and Mediterranean (MED) are two of the most invasive members of the sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, cryptic species complexes and are efficient vectors of begomoviruses. Bemisia tabaci MEAM1 is the predominant vector of begomoviruses in open-field vegetable crops in the southeastern United States. However, recently B. tabaci MED also has been detected in the landscape outside of greenhouses in Florida and Georgia. This study compared the transmission efficiency of one Old-World (OW) and two New-World (NW) begomoviruses prevalent in the southeastern United States, viz., tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), cucurbit leaf crumple virus (CuLCrV), and sida golden mosaic virus (SiGMV) between B. tabaci MEAM1 and B. tabaci MED. Bemisia tabaci MEAM1 efficiently transmitted TYLCV, CuLCrV, or SiGMV, whereas B. tabaci MED only transmitted TYLCV. Percent acquisition and retention of OW TYLCV following a 72 h acquisition access period was significantly higher for B. tabaci MED than B. tabaci MEAM1. In contrast, B. tabaci MEAM1 acquired and retained significantly more NW bipartite begomoviruses, CuLCrV or SiGMV, than B. tabaci MED. Quantitative analysis (qPCR) of virus DNA in whitefly internal tissues revealed reduced accumulation of CuLCrV or SiGMV in B. tabaci MED than in B. tabaci MEAM1. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) showed localization of CuLCrV or SiGMV in the midgut of B. tabaci MED and B. tabaci MEAM1. However, localization of CuLCrV or SiGMV was only observed in the primary salivary glands of B. tabaci MEAM1 and not B. tabaci MED. TYLCV localization was observed in all internal tissues of B. tabaci MEAM1 and B. tabaci MED. Overall, results demonstrate that both B. tabaci MEAM1 and B. tabaci MED are efficient vectors of OW TYLCV. However, for the NW begomoviruses, CuLCrV and SiGMV, B. tabaci MEAM1 seems to a better vector. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structure, Assembly and Transmission of Plant Viruses)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
In Silico Evaluation of Paxlovid’s Pharmacometrics for SARS-CoV-2: A Multiscale Approach
Viruses 2022, 14(5), 1103; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v14051103 - 20 May 2022
Viewed by 623
Abstract
Paxlovid is a promising, orally bioavailable novel drug for SARS-CoV-2 with excellent safety profiles. Our main goal here is to explore the pharmacometric features of this new antiviral. To provide a detailed assessment of Paxlovid, we propose a hybrid multiscale mathematical approach. We [...] Read more.
Paxlovid is a promising, orally bioavailable novel drug for SARS-CoV-2 with excellent safety profiles. Our main goal here is to explore the pharmacometric features of this new antiviral. To provide a detailed assessment of Paxlovid, we propose a hybrid multiscale mathematical approach. We demonstrate that the results of the present in silico evaluation match the clinical expectations remarkably well: on the one hand, our computations successfully replicate the outcome of an actual in vitro experiment; on the other hand, we verify both the sufficiency and the necessity of Paxlovid’s two main components (nirmatrelvir and ritonavir) for a simplified in vivo case. Moreover, in the simulated context of our computational framework, we visualize the importance of early interventions and identify the time window where a unit-length delay causes the highest level of tissue damage. Finally, the results’ sensitivity to the diffusion coefficient of the virus is explored in detail. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Mathematical Modeling of Viral Infection)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Communication
Evaluation of Vector Competence of Ixodes Ticks for Kemerovo Virus
Viruses 2022, 14(5), 1102; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v14051102 - 20 May 2022
Viewed by 512
Abstract
Tick-borne viruses are responsible for various symptoms in humans and animals, ranging from simple fever to neurological disorders or haemorrhagic fevers. The Kemerovo virus (KEMV) is a tick-borne orbivirus, and it has been suspected to be responsible for human encephalitis cases in Russia [...] Read more.
Tick-borne viruses are responsible for various symptoms in humans and animals, ranging from simple fever to neurological disorders or haemorrhagic fevers. The Kemerovo virus (KEMV) is a tick-borne orbivirus, and it has been suspected to be responsible for human encephalitis cases in Russia and central Europe. It has been isolated from Ixodes persulcatus and Ixodes ricinus ticks. In a previous study, we assessed the vector competence of I. ricinus larvae from Slovakia for KEMV, using an artificial feeding system. In the current study, we used the same system to infect different tick population/species, including I. ricinus larvae from France and nymphs from Slovakia, and I. persulcatus larvae from Russia. We successfully confirmed the first two criteria of vector competence, namely, virus acquisition and trans-stadial transmission, for both tick species that we tested. The estimated infection rates of engorged and moulted ticks suggest specificities between viral strains and tick species/developmental stages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Virus-Vector Interactions)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Cranberry Pomace Extract Exerts Antiviral Activity against Zika and Dengue Virus at Safe Doses for Adult Zebrafish
Viruses 2022, 14(5), 1101; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v14051101 - 20 May 2022
Viewed by 568
Abstract
Mosquito-borne dengue virus (DENV) and zika virus (ZIKV) infections constitute a global health emergency. Antivirals directly targeting the virus infectious cycle are still needed to prevent dengue hemorrhagic fever and congenital zika syndrome. In the present study, we demonstrated that Cranberry Pomace (CP) [...] Read more.
Mosquito-borne dengue virus (DENV) and zika virus (ZIKV) infections constitute a global health emergency. Antivirals directly targeting the virus infectious cycle are still needed to prevent dengue hemorrhagic fever and congenital zika syndrome. In the present study, we demonstrated that Cranberry Pomace (CP) extract, a polyphenol-rich agrifood byproduct recovered following cranberry juice extraction, blocks DENV and ZIKV infection in human Huh7.5 and A549 cell lines, respectively, in non-cytotoxic concentrations. Our virological assays identified CP extract as a potential inhibitor of virus entry into the host-cell by acting directly on viral particles, thus preventing their attachment to the cell surface. At effective antiviral doses, CP extract proved safe and tolerable in a zebrafish model. In conclusion, polyphenol-rich agrifood byproducts such as berry extracts are a promising source of safe and naturally derived nutraceutical antivirals that target medically important pathogens. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antivirals for Arboviruses)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Climate Anomalies and Spillover of Bat-Borne Viral Diseases in the Asia–Pacific Region and the Arabian Peninsula
Viruses 2022, 14(5), 1100; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v14051100 - 20 May 2022
Viewed by 530
Abstract
Climate variability and anomalies are known drivers of the emergence and outbreaks of infectious diseases. In this study, we investigated the potential association between climate factors and anomalies, including El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and land surface temperature anomalies, as well as the [...] Read more.
Climate variability and anomalies are known drivers of the emergence and outbreaks of infectious diseases. In this study, we investigated the potential association between climate factors and anomalies, including El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and land surface temperature anomalies, as well as the emergence and spillover events of bat-borne viral diseases in humans and livestock in the Asia–Pacific region and the Arabian Peninsula. Our findings from time series analyses, logistic regression models, and structural equation modelling revealed that the spillover patterns of the Nipah virus in Bangladesh and the Hendra virus in Australia were differently impacted by climate variability and with different time lags. We also used event coincidence analysis to show that the emergence events of most bat-borne viral diseases in the Asia–Pacific region and the Arabian Peninsula were statistically associated with ENSO climate anomalies. Spillover patterns of the Nipah virus in Bangladesh and the Hendra virus in Australia were also significantly associated with these events, although the pattern and co-influence of other climate factors differed. Our results suggest that climate factors and anomalies may create opportunities for virus spillover from bats to livestock and humans. Ongoing climate change and the future intensification of El Niño events will therefore potentially increase the emergence and spillover of bat-borne viral diseases in the Asia–Pacific region and the Arabian Peninsula. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viral Zoonoses: Interactions and Factors Driving Virus Transmission)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Communication
A GoldenBraid-Compatible Virus-Based Vector System for Transient Expression of Heterologous Proteins in Plants
Viruses 2022, 14(5), 1099; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v14051099 - 20 May 2022
Viewed by 417
Abstract
We have developed a Potato virus X (PVX)-based vector system compatible with the GoldenBraid 2.0 (GB) cloning strategy to transiently express heterologous proteins or peptides in plants for biotechnological purposes. This vector system consists of three domestication vectors carrying three GB parts—the cauliflower [...] Read more.
We have developed a Potato virus X (PVX)-based vector system compatible with the GoldenBraid 2.0 (GB) cloning strategy to transiently express heterologous proteins or peptides in plants for biotechnological purposes. This vector system consists of three domestication vectors carrying three GB parts—the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter with PVX upstream of the second subgenomic promoter of the PVX coat protein (PVX CP SGP), nopaline synthase (NOS) terminator with PVX downstream of the first PVX CP SGP and the gene of interest (GOI). The full-length PVX clone carrying the sequence encoding a green fluorescent protein (GFP) as GOI was incorporated into the binary GB vector in a one-step reaction of three GB parts using the four-nucleotide GB standard syntax. We investigated whether the obtained vector named GFP/pGBX enables systemic PVX infection and expression of GFP in Nicotiana benthamiana plants. We show that this GB-compatible vector system can be used for simple and efficient assembly of PVX-based expression constructs and that it meets the current need for interchange of standard biological parts used in different expression systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Viruses of Plants, Fungi and Protozoa)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Brief Report
Proof of Proficiency of Decentralized Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Diagnostics in Germany
Viruses 2022, 14(5), 1098; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v14051098 - 20 May 2022
Viewed by 445
Abstract
A proficiency test was performed to verify that the regional veterinary laboratories in Germany can provide reliable foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) diagnostics. Overall, 24 samples were to be analyzed for FMDV-specific nucleic acids by real-time RT-PCR, and 16 samples had to be tested [...] Read more.
A proficiency test was performed to verify that the regional veterinary laboratories in Germany can provide reliable foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) diagnostics. Overall, 24 samples were to be analyzed for FMDV-specific nucleic acids by real-time RT-PCR, and 16 samples had to be tested by ELISA for antibodies against non-structural proteins of FMDV. For both methods, a range of dilutions of the original materials (inactivated FMDV vaccine or convalescent serum from infected animals, respectively) was prepared, and negative samples were included as well. All 23 participating laboratories were able to detect FMDV genome down to a dilution of 1:100,000 of the vaccine preparation. Even at a dilution of 1:1,000,000, FMDV genome was detected by more than half of the participants. With the antibody ELISA, all sera were correctly identified by all participating laboratories. No false-positive results were returned with either method. All participating laboratories were found to be fully proficient in FMDV diagnostics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Global Foot-and-Mouth Disease Control)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Adaptation of Two Wild Bird-Origin H3N8 Avian Influenza Viruses to Mammalian Hosts
Viruses 2022, 14(5), 1097; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v14051097 - 19 May 2022
Viewed by 863
Abstract
Wild birds play an important role in the emergence, evolution, and spread of zoonotic avian influenza viruses (AIVs). However, there are few studies on the cross-species transmission of the H3N8 AIV originating from wild birds. In this study, we investigated the transmissibility and [...] Read more.
Wild birds play an important role in the emergence, evolution, and spread of zoonotic avian influenza viruses (AIVs). However, there are few studies on the cross-species transmission of the H3N8 AIV originating from wild birds. In this study, we investigated the transmissibility and pathogenicity of two H3N8 low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIVs) isolated from wild birds, GZA1 and XJ47, to mammals. The HA genes of both strains belonged to Eurasian isolates, while the other genes were derived from a variety of other subtypes of AIVs. Both strains can infect specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens, BALB/c mice, and guinea pigs. The XJ47 strain spread horizontally in SPF chickens and guinea pigs. The GZA1 strain did not spread horizontally but caused higher weight loss and mild lung inflammation in mice. P12-GZA1- and P12-XJ47-adapted strains obtained after 12 passages in the lung of mice showed enhanced pathogenicity in mice, which led to obvious clinical symptoms, lung inflammation, and 100% death. Both adapted strains have the reported mutation T97I in the PA, and the reported mutation D701N in PB2 has been found in the P12-GZA1-adapted strain. This study provides an important scientific basis for the continuous monitoring of wild AIVs and the mechanism underlying AIV cross-species transmission. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Veterinary Infectious Diseases)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Elimination of Hepatitis C in Southern Italy: A Model of HCV Screening and Linkage to Care among Hospitalized Patients at Different Hospital Divisions
Viruses 2022, 14(5), 1096; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v14051096 - 19 May 2022
Viewed by 414
Abstract
Background: Free-of-charge HCV screening in some key populations and in 1969–1989 birth cohorts has been funded in Italy as the first step to diagnosing individuals who are infected but asymptomatic. The aim of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of an opportunistic [...] Read more.
Background: Free-of-charge HCV screening in some key populations and in 1969–1989 birth cohorts has been funded in Italy as the first step to diagnosing individuals who are infected but asymptomatic. The aim of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of an opportunistic HCV screening and its linkage to care. Methods: A hospital-based HCV screening was conducted as a routine test for in-patients admitted to the Evangelical Hospital Betania of Naples from January 2020 to May 2021. All consecutive in-patients were screened for the HCV antibody (HCV-Ab) at the time of their admission to the hospital, and those born prior to year 2000 were included in the study. HCV-RNA testing was required for those not previously treated and without antiviral treatment contraindications. For in-patients with an active infection, treatment started soon after hospital admission. Results: Among 12,665 inpatients consecutively screened, 510 (4%) were HCV-Ab positive. The HCV-Ab positivity rate increased with age, reaching the highest prevalence (9.49%) in those born before 1947. Among patients positive for HCV, 118 (23.1%) had been previously treated, 172 (33.9%) had been discharged before being tested for HCV-RNA, and 26 (5.1%) had not been tested for short life expectancy. Of 194 (38% of HCV-Ab+) patients who were tested for HCV-RNA, 91 (46.2%) were HCV-RNA positive. Of patients with active infection, 33 (36%) were admitted to the liver unit with signs of liver damage either not previously diagnosed or diagnosed but unlinked to care for HCV infection. Of the patients positive for HCV-RNA, 87 (95.6%) started treatment; all achieved sustained virological response. Conclusion: HCV active infection has been frequently found in patients with comorbidities admitted in the hospital in Southern Italy. To achieve HCV elimination in Italy, broader screening strategies are required. In addition to screening of the 1969–1989 birth cohort of individuals unaware of their infection status, diagnosis and linkage to care of patients with known liver damage is strictly required. Hospital screening is feasible, but prompt reflex testing for identifying HCV-active infections is necessary to increase diagnosis and subsequent linkage to care. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ways to Eliminate Viral Hepatitis as a Global Health Threat)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Dating the Emergence of Human Endemic Coronaviruses
Viruses 2022, 14(5), 1095; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v14051095 - 19 May 2022
Viewed by 623
Abstract
Four endemic coronaviruses infect humans and cause mild symptoms. Because previous analyses were based on a limited number of sequences and did not control for effects that affect molecular dating, we re-assessed the timing of endemic coronavirus emergence. After controlling for recombination, selective [...] Read more.
Four endemic coronaviruses infect humans and cause mild symptoms. Because previous analyses were based on a limited number of sequences and did not control for effects that affect molecular dating, we re-assessed the timing of endemic coronavirus emergence. After controlling for recombination, selective pressure, and molecular clock model, we obtained similar tMRCA (time to the most recent common ancestor) estimates for the four coronaviruses, ranging from 72 (HCoV-229E) to 54 (HCoV-NL63) years ago. The split times of HCoV-229E and HCoV-OC43 from camel alphacoronavirus and bovine coronavirus were dated ~268 and ~99 years ago. The split times of HCoV-HKU1 and HCoV-NL63 could not be calculated, as their zoonoticic sources are unknown. To compare the timing of coronavirus emergence to that of another respiratory virus, we recorded the occurrence of influenza pandemics since 1500. Although there is no clear relationship between pandemic occurrence and human population size, the frequency of influenza pandemics seems to intensify starting around 1700, which corresponds with the initial phase of exponential increase of human population and to the emergence of HCoV-229E. The frequency of flu pandemics in the 19th century also suggests that the concurrence of HCoV-OC43 emergence and the Russian flu pandemic may be due to chance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Population Genomics of Human Viruses)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Human Retrovirus Genomic RNA Packaging
Viruses 2022, 14(5), 1094; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v14051094 - 19 May 2022
Viewed by 456
Abstract
Two non-covalently linked copies of the retrovirus genome are specifically recruited to the site of virus particle assembly and packaged into released particles. Retroviral RNA packaging requires RNA export of the unspliced genomic RNA from the nucleus, translocation of the genome to virus [...] Read more.
Two non-covalently linked copies of the retrovirus genome are specifically recruited to the site of virus particle assembly and packaged into released particles. Retroviral RNA packaging requires RNA export of the unspliced genomic RNA from the nucleus, translocation of the genome to virus assembly sites, and specific interaction with Gag, the main viral structural protein. While some aspects of the RNA packaging process are understood, many others remain poorly understood. In this review, we provide an update on recent advancements in understanding the mechanism of RNA packaging for retroviruses that cause disease in humans, i.e., HIV-1, HIV-2, and HTLV-1, as well as advances in the understanding of the details of genomic RNA nuclear export, genome translocation to virus assembly sites, and genomic RNA dimerization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 40 Years Anniversary of HTLV-1 Discovery)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Communication
Development of a Scoring System to Differentiate Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome from Scrub Typhus
Viruses 2022, 14(5), 1093; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v14051093 - 19 May 2022
Viewed by 429
Abstract
Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) and scrub typhus are disorders with similar clinical features; therefore, differentiating between them is difficult. We retrospectively collected data from 183 SFTS and 178 scrub typhus patients and validated an existing scoring system to develop a more [...] Read more.
Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) and scrub typhus are disorders with similar clinical features; therefore, differentiating between them is difficult. We retrospectively collected data from 183 SFTS and 178 scrub typhus patients and validated an existing scoring system to develop a more sensitive, specific, and objective scoring system. We first applied the scoring systems proposed by Kim et al. to differentiate SFTS from scrub typhus. Multivariable logistic regression revealed that altered mental status, leukopenia, prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), and normal C-reactive protein (CRP) level (≤1.0 mg/dL) were significantly associated with SFTS. We changed the normal CRP level from ≤1.0 mg/dL to ≤3.0 mg/dL and replaced altered mental status with the creatine kinase (CK) level. The modified scoring system showed 97% sensitivity and 96% specificity for SFTS (area under the curve (AUC): 0.983) and a higher accuracy than the original scoring system (p = 0.0308). This study’s scoring system had 97% sensitivity and 98% specificity for SFTS (AUC: 0.992) and a higher accuracy than Kim et al.’s original scoring system (p = 0.0308). Our scoring system that incorporated leukopenia, prolonged aPTT, normal CRP level (≤3.0 mg/dL), and elevated CK level (>1000 IU/L) easily differentiated SFTS from scrub typhus in an endemic area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus 2022)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Human Cell Organelles in SARS-CoV-2 Infection: An Up-to-Date Overview
Viruses 2022, 14(5), 1092; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v14051092 - 19 May 2022
Viewed by 592
Abstract
Since the end of 2019, the whole world has been struggling with the life-threatening pandemic amongst all age groups and geographic areas caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2). The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, which has led to more than 468 [...] Read more.
Since the end of 2019, the whole world has been struggling with the life-threatening pandemic amongst all age groups and geographic areas caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2). The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, which has led to more than 468 million cases and over 6 million deaths reported worldwide (as of 20 March 2022), is one of the greatest threats to human health in history. Meanwhile, the lack of specific and irresistible treatment modalities provoked concentrated efforts in scientists around the world. Various mechanisms of cell entry and cellular dysfunction were initially proclaimed. Especially, mitochondria and cell membrane are crucial for the course of infection. The SARS-CoV-2 invasion depends on angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2), and cluster of differentiation 147 (CD147), expressed on host cells. Moreover, in this narrative review, we aim to discuss other cell organelles targeted by SARS-CoV-2. Lastly, we briefly summarize the studies on various drugs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Host Cell Organelles in Viral Infections: Friends and Foes)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Adaptation of the H7N2 Feline Influenza Virus to Human Respiratory Cell Culture
Viruses 2022, 14(5), 1091; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v14051091 - 19 May 2022
Viewed by 639
Abstract
During 2016–2017, the H7N2 feline influenza virus infected more than 500 cats in animal shelters in New York, USA. A veterinarian who had treated the cats became infected with this feline virus and showed mild respiratory symptoms. This suggests that the H7N2 feline [...] Read more.
During 2016–2017, the H7N2 feline influenza virus infected more than 500 cats in animal shelters in New York, USA. A veterinarian who had treated the cats became infected with this feline virus and showed mild respiratory symptoms. This suggests that the H7N2 feline influenza virus may evolve into a novel pandemic virus with a high pathogenicity and transmissibility as a result of mutations in humans. In this study, to gain insight into the molecular basis of the transmission of the feline virus to humans, we selected mutant viruses with enhanced growth in human respiratory A549 cells via successive passages of the virus and found almost all mutations to be in the envelope glycoproteins, such as hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA). The reverse genetics approach revealed that the HA mutations, HA1-H16Q, HA2-I47T, or HA2-Y119H, in the stalk region can lead to a high growth of mutant viruses in A549 cells, possibly by changing the pH threshold for membrane fusion. Furthermore, NA mutation, I28S/L, or three-amino-acid deletion in the transmembrane region can enhance viral growth in A549 cells, possibly by changing the HA–NA functional balance. These findings suggest that the H7N2 feline influenza virus has the potential to become a human pathogen by adapting to human respiratory cells, owing to the synergistic biological effect of the mutations in its envelope glycoproteins. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Viruses)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Brief Report
Experimental Infection of Domestic Pigs with an African Swine Fever Virus Field Strain Isolated in 2021 from the Dominican Republic
Viruses 2022, 14(5), 1090; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v14051090 - 19 May 2022
Viewed by 681
Abstract
African swine fever virus (ASFV) is the etiological agent of African swine fever (ASF), a disease of domestic and wild swine that has spread throughout a large geographical area including Central Europe, East and Southeast Asia, and Southern Africa. Typically, the clinical presentation [...] Read more.
African swine fever virus (ASFV) is the etiological agent of African swine fever (ASF), a disease of domestic and wild swine that has spread throughout a large geographical area including Central Europe, East and Southeast Asia, and Southern Africa. Typically, the clinical presentation of the disease in affected swine heavily depends on the virulence of the ASFV strain. Very recently, ASFV was detected in the Dominican Republic (DR) and Haiti, constituting the first diagnosis of ASFV in more than 40 years in the Western hemisphere. In this report, the clinical presentation of the disease in domestic pigs inoculated with an ASFV field strain isolated from samples collected in the DR (ASFV-DR21) was observed. Two groups of domestic pigs were inoculated either intramuscularly (IM) or oronasally (ON) with ASFV-DR21 (104 hemadsorbing dose-50% (HAD50)). A group of naïve pigs (designated as the contact group) was co-housed with the ASFV-DR21 IM-inoculated animals to evaluate ASFV transmission and disease manifestation. Animals inoculated IM with ASFV-DR21 developed an acute disease leading to humane euthanasia at approximately day 7 post-inoculation (pi). Interestingly, animals inoculated via the ON route with ASFV-DR21 developed a heterogeneous pattern of disease kinetics. One animal developed an acute form of the disease and was euthanized on day 7 pi, another animal experienced a protracted presentation of the disease with euthanasia by day 16 pi, and the remaining two animals presented a milder form of the disease, surviving through the 28-day observational period. The contact animals also presented with a heterogenous presentation of the disease. Three of the animals presented protracted but severe forms of the disease being euthanized at days 14, 15 and 21 pi. The other two animals presented with a milder form of the disease, surviving the entire observational period. In general, virus titers in the blood of animals in all study groups closely followed the clinical presentation of the disease, both in length and extent. Importantly, all animals presenting with a prolonged form of the disease, as well as those surviving throughout the observational period, developed a strong ASFV-specific antibody response. These results suggest that ASFV-DR21, unless inoculated parenterally, produces a spectrum of clinical disease, with some animals experiencing an acute fatal form while others presented with a mild transient disease accompanied by the induction of a strong antibody response. At the time of publication, this is the first report characterizing the virulent phenotype of an ASFV field strain isolated from samples collected in the DR during the 2021 outbreak and provides information that may be used in developing epidemiological management measures to control ASF on the island of Hispaniola. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endemic and Emerging Swine Viruses 2022)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Titers Predict the Severity of COVID-19
Viruses 2022, 14(5), 1089; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v14051089 - 18 May 2022
Viewed by 782
Abstract
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) due to SARS-CoV-2 is associated with a wide spectrum of disease, ranging from asymptomatic infection to acute respiratory distress syndrome. Some biomarkers may predict disease severity. Among them, the anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody response has been related to severe disease. The [...] Read more.
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) due to SARS-CoV-2 is associated with a wide spectrum of disease, ranging from asymptomatic infection to acute respiratory distress syndrome. Some biomarkers may predict disease severity. Among them, the anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody response has been related to severe disease. The aim of this study was to assess the correlation between the anti-SARS-CoV-2 serological response and COVID-19 outcome. Demographic, clinical, and biological data from nasopharyngeal-PCR confirmed COVID-19 hospitalized patients were prospectively collected between April and August 2020 at our institution. All patients had serial weekly serology testing for a maximum of three blood samples or until discharge. Two different serological assays were used: a chemiluminescent assay and an in-house developed Luminex immunoassay. Kinetics of the serological response and correlation between the antibody titers and outcome were assessed. Among the 70 patients enrolled in the study, 22 required invasive ventilation, 29 required non-invasive ventilation or oxygen supplementation, and 19 did not require any oxygen supplementation. Median duration of symptoms upon admission for the three groups were 13, 8, and 9 days, respectively. Antibody titers gradually increased for up to 3 weeks since the onset of symptoms for patients requiring oxygen supplementation with significantly higher antibody titers for patients requiring invasive ventilation. Antibody titers on admission were also significantly higher in severely ill patients and serology performed well in predicting the necessity of invasive ventilation (AUC: 0.79, 95% CI: 0.67–0.9). Serology testing at admission may be a good indicator to identify severe COVID-19 patients who will require invasive mechanical ventilation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Risk Factors for COVID-19 Infection)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Resistance of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae to Lytic Phage X2 by Spontaneous Mutation of Lipopolysaccharide Synthesis-Related Glycosyltransferase
Viruses 2022, 14(5), 1088; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v14051088 - 18 May 2022
Viewed by 506
Abstract
Phage therapy is a promising biocontrol management on plant diseases caused by bacterial pathogens due to its specificity, efficiency and environmental friendliness. The emergence of natural phage-resistant bacteria hinders the application of phage therapy. Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) is the causal agent [...] Read more.
Phage therapy is a promising biocontrol management on plant diseases caused by bacterial pathogens due to its specificity, efficiency and environmental friendliness. The emergence of natural phage-resistant bacteria hinders the application of phage therapy. Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) is the causal agent of the devastating bacterial leaf blight disease of rice. Here, we obtained a spontaneous mutant C2R of an Xoo strain C2 showing strong resistance to the lytic phage X2. Analysis of the C2R genome found that the CDS2289 gene encoding glycosyltransferase acquired a frameshift mutation at the 180th nucleotide site, which also leads to a premature stop mutation at the 142nd amino acid. This mutation confers the inhibition of phage adsorption through the changes in lipopolysaccharide production and structure and bacterial surface morphology. Interestingly, glycosyltransferase-deficient C2R and an insertional mutant k2289 also showed reduced virulence, suggesting the trade-off costs of phage resistance. In summary, this study highlights the role of glycosyltransferase in interactions among pathogenic bacteria, phages and plant hosts, which provide insights into balanced coevolution from environmental perspectives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phage-Plant Interactions)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Next Issue
Back to TopTop