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Future Internet, Volume 13, Issue 1 (January 2021) – 21 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): In this study, machine learning and expert knowledge are employed to classify web pages according to the degree of content adjustment to the search engine optimization (SEO) recommendations. The experimental results show that machine learning can be used to predict the degree of adjustment of web pages to the SEO recommendations. The practical significance of the proposed approach is in providing the core for building software agents to automatically detect web pages, or parts of web pages, that need improvement to comply with the SEO guidelines and, therefore, potentially gain higher rankings by search engines. The results of this study enable the determination of optimal values of ranking factors that search engines use to rank web pages. View this paper.
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Open AccessArticle
What Makes a UI Simple? Difficulty and Complexity in Tasks Engaging Visual-Spatial Working Memory
Future Internet 2021, 13(1), 21; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fi13010021 - 19 Jan 2021
Viewed by 453
Abstract
Tasks that imply engagement of visual-spatial working memory (VSWM) are common in interaction with two-dimensional graphical user interfaces. In our paper, we consider two groups of factors as predictors of user performance in such tasks: (1) the metrics based on compression algorithms (RLE [...] Read more.
Tasks that imply engagement of visual-spatial working memory (VSWM) are common in interaction with two-dimensional graphical user interfaces. In our paper, we consider two groups of factors as predictors of user performance in such tasks: (1) the metrics based on compression algorithms (RLE and Deflate) plus the Hick’s law, which are known to be characteristic of visual complexity, and (2) metrics based on Gestalt groping principle of proximity, operationalized as von Neumann and Moore range 1 neighborhoods from the cellular automata theory. We involved 88 subjects who performed about 5000 VSWM-engaging tasks and 78 participants who assessed the complexity of the tasks’ configurations. We found that the Gestalt-based predictors had a notable advantage over the visual complexity-based ones, as the memorized chunks best corresponded to von Neumann neighborhood groping. The latter was further used in the formulation of index of difficulty and throughput for VSWM-engaging tasks, which we proposed by analogy with the infamous Fitts’ law. In our experimental study, throughput amounted to 3.75 bit/s, and we believe that it can be utilized for comparing and assessing UI designs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue VR, AR, and 3-D User Interfaces for Measurement and Control)
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Open AccessArticle
The Perceived Impact of Social Networking Sites and Apps on the Social Capital of Saudi Postgraduate Students: A Case Study
Future Internet 2021, 13(1), 20; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fi13010020 - 16 Jan 2021
Viewed by 512
Abstract
With the increased use of Social Networking Sites and Apps (SNSAs) in Saudi Arabia, it is important to consider the impact of this on the social lives of tertiary students, who are heavy users of such technology. A mixed methods study exploring the [...] Read more.
With the increased use of Social Networking Sites and Apps (SNSAs) in Saudi Arabia, it is important to consider the impact of this on the social lives of tertiary students, who are heavy users of such technology. A mixed methods study exploring the effect of SNSAs use on the social capital of Saudi postgraduate students was conducted using a multidimensional construct of social capital, which included the components of life satisfaction, social trust, civic participation, and political engagement. Data were collected through surveys and interviews involving 313 male and 293 female postgraduate students from Umm Al-Qura University (UQU) in Makkah. Findings show that male and female participants perceived SNSAs use impacting all components of social capital at a moderate and mainly positive level. Correlational analysis demonstrated medium to large positive correlations among components of social capital. Gender differences were not evident in the life satisfaction and social trust components; however, females reported more involvement with SNSAs for the purposes of political engagement while males reported more use for civic participation, which is an interesting finding, in light of the norms and traditional culture of Saudi society. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Techno-Social Smart Systems)
Open AccessArticle
A Classifier to Detect Informational vs. Non-Informational Heart Attack Tweets
Future Internet 2021, 13(1), 19; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fi13010019 - 16 Jan 2021
Viewed by 450
Abstract
Social media sites are considered one of the most important sources of data in many fields, such as health, education, and politics. While surveys provide explicit answers to specific questions, posts in social media have the same answers implicitly occurring in the text. [...] Read more.
Social media sites are considered one of the most important sources of data in many fields, such as health, education, and politics. While surveys provide explicit answers to specific questions, posts in social media have the same answers implicitly occurring in the text. This research aims to develop a method for extracting implicit answers from large tweet collections, and to demonstrate this method for an important concern: the problem of heart attacks. The approach is to collect tweets containing “heart attack” and then select from those the ones with useful information. Informational tweets are those which express real heart attack issues, e.g., “Yesterday morning, my grandfather had a heart attack while he was walking around the garden.” On the other hand, there are non-informational tweets such as “Dropped my iPhone for the first time and almost had a heart attack.” The starting point was to manually classify around 7000 tweets as either informational (11%) or non-informational (89%), thus yielding a labeled dataset to use in devising a machine learning classifier that can be applied to our large collection of over 20 million tweets. Tweets were cleaned and converted to a vector representation, suitable to be fed into different machine-learning algorithms: Deep neural networks, support vector machine (SVM), J48 decision tree and naïve Bayes. Our experimentation aimed to find the best algorithm to use to build a high-quality classifier. This involved splitting the labeled dataset, with 2/3 used to train the classifier and 1/3 used for evaluation besides cross-validation methods. The deep neural network (DNN) classifier obtained the highest accuracy (95.2%). In addition, it obtained the highest F1-scores with (73.6%) and (97.4%) for informational and non-informational classes, respectively. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Effects of the Content Elements of Online Banner Ads on Visual Attention: Evidence from An-Eye-Tracking Study
Future Internet 2021, 13(1), 18; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fi13010018 - 15 Jan 2021
Viewed by 487
Abstract
The aim of this paper is to examine the influence of the content elements of online banner ads on customers’ visual attention, and to evaluate the impacts of gender, discount rate and brand familiarity on this issue. An eye-tracking study with 34 participants [...] Read more.
The aim of this paper is to examine the influence of the content elements of online banner ads on customers’ visual attention, and to evaluate the impacts of gender, discount rate and brand familiarity on this issue. An eye-tracking study with 34 participants (18 male and 16 female) was conducted, in which the participants were presented with eight types of online banner ads comprising three content elements—namely brand, discount rate and image—while their eye movements were recorded. The results showed that the image was the most attractive area among the three main content elements. Furthermore, the middle areas of the banners were noticed first, and areas located on the left side were mostly noticed earlier than those on the right side. The results also indicated that the discount areas of banners with higher discount rates were more attractive and eye-catching compared to those of banners with lower discount rates. In addition to these, the participants who were familiar with the brand mostly concentrated on the discount area, while those who were unfamiliar with the brand mostly paid attention to the image area. The findings from this study will assist marketers in creating more effective and efficient online banner ads that appeal to customers, ultimately fostering positive attitudes towards the advertisement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human-Computer Interaction Theory and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
E-Mail Network Patterns and Body Language Predict Risk-Taking Attitude
Future Internet 2021, 13(1), 17; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fi13010017 - 14 Jan 2021
Viewed by 509
Abstract
As the Enron scandal and Bernie Madoff’s pyramid scheme have shown, individuals’ attitude towards ethical risks can have a huge impact on society at large. In this paper, we compare risk-taking attitudes assessed with the Domain-Specific Risk-Taking (DOSPERT) survey with individual e-mail networking [...] Read more.
As the Enron scandal and Bernie Madoff’s pyramid scheme have shown, individuals’ attitude towards ethical risks can have a huge impact on society at large. In this paper, we compare risk-taking attitudes assessed with the Domain-Specific Risk-Taking (DOSPERT) survey with individual e-mail networking patterns and body language measured with smartwatches. We find that e-mail communication signals such as network structure and dynamics, and content features as well as real-world behavioral signals measured through a smartwatch such as heart rate, acceleration, and mood state demonstrate a strong correlation with the individuals’ risk-preference in the different domains of the DOSPERT survey. For instance, we found that people with higher degree centrality in the e-mail network show higher likelihood to take social risks, while using language expressing a “you live only once” attitude indicates lower willingness to take risks in some domains. Our results show that analyzing the human interaction in organizational networks provides valuable information for decision makers and managers to support an increase in ethical behavior of the organization’s members. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Information Processing and Management for Large and Complex Networks)
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Open AccessArticle
Path Segmentation-Based Hybrid Caching in Information-Centric Networks
Future Internet 2021, 13(1), 16; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fi13010016 - 12 Jan 2021
Viewed by 470
Abstract
Information-centric networks (ICNs) have received wide interest from researchers, and in-network caching is an important characteristic of ICN. The management and placement of contents are essential due to cache nodes’ limited cache space and the huge Internet traffic. This paper focuses on coordinating [...] Read more.
Information-centric networks (ICNs) have received wide interest from researchers, and in-network caching is an important characteristic of ICN. The management and placement of contents are essential due to cache nodes’ limited cache space and the huge Internet traffic. This paper focuses on coordinating two cache metrics, namely user access latency and network resource utilization, and proposes a hybrid caching scheme called the path segmentation-based hybrid caching scheme (PSBC). We temporarily divide each data transmit path into a user-edge area and non-edge area. The user-edge area adopts a heuristic caching scheme to reduce user access latency. In contrast, the non-edge area implements caching network content migration and optimization to improve network resource utilization. The simulation results show that the proposed method positively affects both the cache hit ratio and access latency. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Cyberbullying Analysis in Intercultural Educational Environments Using Binary Logistic Regressions
Future Internet 2021, 13(1), 15; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fi13010015 - 09 Jan 2021
Viewed by 810
Abstract
The goal of this study is to analyze how religion, ethnic group, and race influence the likelihood of becoming either a cybervictim or cyberbully in intercultural educational environments. In the research, 755 students in secondary education were analyzed in the south of Spain [...] Read more.
The goal of this study is to analyze how religion, ethnic group, and race influence the likelihood of becoming either a cybervictim or cyberbully in intercultural educational environments. In the research, 755 students in secondary education were analyzed in the south of Spain through the Cyberbullying Scale for students with Cultural and Religious Diversity (CSCRD). The analyses were carried out using the Statistical Package SPSS and the STATA software. The results obtained from the Kruskal–Wallis H test showed significant differences according to these aspects, for both the cybervictim and cyberbully parameters. The results stemming from binary logistic regressions confirmed such differences and regarded those students who belong to the Muslim religion, the gypsy ethnic group and the Asian race as being more likely to become cybervictims. Furthermore, these analyses showed that Gypsy and Asian students were also more likely to be cyberbullies than other groups. The main conclusions state that minority groups are more likely to suffer cyberbullying in intercultural educational environments, and that students from these groups are also more likely to become cyberbullies. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Drug Repurposing for Parkinson’s Disease by Integrating Knowledge Graph Completion Model and Knowledge Fusion of Medical Literature
Future Internet 2021, 13(1), 14; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fi13010014 - 08 Jan 2021
Viewed by 508
Abstract
The prevalence of Parkinson’s disease increases a tremendous medical and economic burden to society. Therefore, the effective drugs are urgently required. However, the traditional development of effective drugs is costly and risky. Drug repurposing, which identifies new applications for existing drugs, is a [...] Read more.
The prevalence of Parkinson’s disease increases a tremendous medical and economic burden to society. Therefore, the effective drugs are urgently required. However, the traditional development of effective drugs is costly and risky. Drug repurposing, which identifies new applications for existing drugs, is a feasible strategy for discovering new drugs for Parkinson’s disease. Drug repurposing is based on sufficient medical knowledge. The local medical knowledge base with manually labeled data contains a large number of accurate, but not novel, medical knowledge, while the medical literature containing the latest knowledge is difficult to utilize, because of unstructured data. This paper proposes a framework, named Drug Repurposing for Parkinson’s disease by integrating Knowledge Graph Completion method and Knowledge Fusion of medical literature data (DRKF) in order to make full use of a local medical knowledge base containing accurate knowledge and medical literature with novel knowledge. DRKF first extracts the relations that are related to Parkinson’s disease from medical literature and builds a medical literature knowledge graph. After that, the literature knowledge graph is fused with a local medical knowledge base that integrates several specific medical knowledge sources in order to construct a fused medical knowledge graph. Subsequently, knowledge graph completion methods are leveraged to predict the drug candidates for Parkinson’s disease by using the fused knowledge graph. Finally, we employ classic machine learning methods to repurpose the drug for Parkinson’s disease and compare the results with the method only using the literature-based knowledge graph in order to confirm the effectiveness of knowledge fusion. The experiment results demonstrate that our framework can achieve competitive performance, which confirms the effectiveness of our proposed DRKF for drug repurposing against Parkinson’s disease. It could be a supplement to traditional drug discovery methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Curative Power of Medical Data 2020)
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Open AccessArticle
Knowledge-Graph-Based Drug Repositioning against COVID-19 by Graph Convolutional Network with Attention Mechanism
Future Internet 2021, 13(1), 13; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fi13010013 - 07 Jan 2021
Viewed by 622
Abstract
The current global crisis caused by COVID-19 almost halted normal life in most parts of the world. Due to the long development cycle for new drugs, drug repositioning becomes an effective method of screening drugs for COVID-19. To find suitable drugs for COVID-19, [...] Read more.
The current global crisis caused by COVID-19 almost halted normal life in most parts of the world. Due to the long development cycle for new drugs, drug repositioning becomes an effective method of screening drugs for COVID-19. To find suitable drugs for COVID-19, we add COVID-19-related information into our medical knowledge graph and utilize a knowledge-graph-based drug repositioning method to screen potential therapeutic drugs for COVID-19. Specific steps are as follows. Firstly, the information about COVID-19 is collected from the latest published literature, and gene targets of COVID-19 are added to the knowledge graph. Then, the information of COVID-19 of the knowledge graph is extracted and a drug–disease interaction prediction model based on Graph Convolutional Network with Attention (Att-GCN) is established. Att-GCN is used to extract features from the knowledge graph and the prediction matrix reconstructed through matrix operation. We evaluate the model by predicting drugs for both ordinary diseases and COVID-19. The model can achieve area under curve (AUC) of 0.954 and area under the precise recall area curve (AUPR) of 0.851 for ordinary diseases. On the drug repositioning experiment for COVID-19, five drugs predicted by the models have proved effective in clinical treatment. The experimental results confirm that the model can predict drug–disease interaction effectively for both normal diseases and COVID-19. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Curative Power of Medical Data 2020)
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Open AccessArticle
Design and Implementation of Virtual Security Function Based on Multiple Enclaves
Future Internet 2021, 13(1), 12; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fi13010012 - 06 Jan 2021
Viewed by 498
Abstract
Network function virtualization (NFV) provides flexible and scalable network function for the emerging platform, such as the cloud computing, edge computing, and IoT platforms, while it faces more security challenges, such as tampering with network policies and leaking sensitive processing states, due to [...] Read more.
Network function virtualization (NFV) provides flexible and scalable network function for the emerging platform, such as the cloud computing, edge computing, and IoT platforms, while it faces more security challenges, such as tampering with network policies and leaking sensitive processing states, due to running in a shared open environment and lacking the protection of proprietary hardware. Currently, Intel® Software Guard Extensions (SGX) provides a promising way to build a secure and trusted VNF (virtual network function) by isolating VNF or sensitive data into an enclave. However, directly placing multiple VNFs in a single enclave will lose the scalability advantage of NFV. This paper combines SGX and click technology to design the virtual security function architecture based on multiple enclaves. In our design, the sensitive modules of a VNF are put into different enclaves and communicate by local attestation. The system can freely combine these modules according to user requirements, and increase the scalability of the system while protecting its running state security. In addition, we design a new hot-swapping scheme to enable the system to dynamically modify the configuration function at runtime, so that the original VNFs do not need to stop when the function of VNFs is modified. We implement an IDS (intrusion detection system) based on our architecture to verify the feasibility of our system and evaluate its performance. The results show that the overhead introduced by the system architecture is within an acceptable range. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers for Future Internet—Internet of Things Section)
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of Digital Piracy by Youths
Future Internet 2021, 13(1), 11; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fi13010011 - 04 Jan 2021
Viewed by 834
Abstract
This paper sets out to explain how adolescents interpret piracy. Digital piracy is one of the most important risk behaviours mediated by new media to be found among adolescents. It is global, and changes dynamically due to the continued development of the information [...] Read more.
This paper sets out to explain how adolescents interpret piracy. Digital piracy is one of the most important risk behaviours mediated by new media to be found among adolescents. It is global, and changes dynamically due to the continued development of the information society. To explore the phenomena related to piracy among adolescent Internet users we need to apply qualitative research methods. The sample contained 1320 Polish respondents. The research used the technique of qualitative research. Data was collected using a form containing an open question. Adolescents will answer in the form how they interpret digital piracy. The categories characterize how piracy is perceived, and includes downloading various files—whether video or music files or even software (also games)—from unauthorized sources (P2P—Peer-to-peer ‘warez’ servers—websites which serve as repositories of illegal files). The qualitative data analysis allowed the identification of the following constructs in the perception of digital piracy by adolescents: ethical (giving value to the phenomenon), economical (showing profits and losses), legal (connected with punitive consequences and criminal liability), praxeological (facilitating daily life), technical (referring to the hardware necessary), social (the scale of the phenomenon and interpersonal relations), and personal benefits. The results fit into the discussion on the standard and hidden factors connected with piracy. The presented seven categories of the perception of piracy help us better understand the phenomenon of the infringement of intellectual property law and will help to develop appropriate preventive measures. Qualitative research makes it possible to understand the phenomenon of piracy from a deeper perspective, which can be translated into the design of effective educational measures. Preventive guidance on minimising risky behaviour is part of the development of one of the key competences, namely digital knowledge and skills. The research allowed us to enrich the theoretical knowledge on risky behaviours in cyberspace among adolescents (theoretical aim), to understand how to interpret risky behaviours in cyberspace (understanding of micro-worlds—cognitive aim), and to gather new knowledge that will be useful for prevention (practical aim). Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Privacy Policy Analysis of Banks and Mobile Money Services in the Middle East
Future Internet 2021, 13(1), 10; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fi13010010 - 03 Jan 2021
Viewed by 717
Abstract
Privacy compliance of the Middle East’s financial sector has been relatively unexplored. This paper evaluates the privacy compliance and readability of privacy statements for top banks and mobile money services in the Middle East. Our analysis shows that, overall, Middle Eastern banks have [...] Read more.
Privacy compliance of the Middle East’s financial sector has been relatively unexplored. This paper evaluates the privacy compliance and readability of privacy statements for top banks and mobile money services in the Middle East. Our analysis shows that, overall, Middle Eastern banks have better privacy policy availability and language distribution, and are more privacy compliant compared to mobile money services. However, both the banks and mobile money services need to improve (1) compliance with the principles of children/adolescent’s data protection, accountability and enforcement, and data minimization/retention, and (2) privacy statement texts to be comprehensible for a reader with ~8 years of education or less. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cybersecurity)
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Open AccessArticle
Using Machine Learning for Web Page Classification in Search Engine Optimization
Future Internet 2021, 13(1), 9; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fi13010009 - 02 Jan 2021
Viewed by 957
Abstract
This paper presents a novel approach of using machine learning algorithms based on experts’ knowledge to classify web pages into three predefined classes according to the degree of content adjustment to the search engine optimization (SEO) recommendations. In this study, classifiers were built [...] Read more.
This paper presents a novel approach of using machine learning algorithms based on experts’ knowledge to classify web pages into three predefined classes according to the degree of content adjustment to the search engine optimization (SEO) recommendations. In this study, classifiers were built and trained to classify an unknown sample (web page) into one of the three predefined classes and to identify important factors that affect the degree of page adjustment. The data in the training set are manually labeled by domain experts. The experimental results show that machine learning can be used for predicting the degree of adjustment of web pages to the SEO recommendations—classifier accuracy ranges from 54.59% to 69.67%, which is higher than the baseline accuracy of classification of samples in the majority class (48.83%). Practical significance of the proposed approach is in providing the core for building software agents and expert systems to automatically detect web pages, or parts of web pages, that need improvement to comply with the SEO guidelines and, therefore, potentially gain higher rankings by search engines. Also, the results of this study contribute to the field of detecting optimal values of ranking factors that search engines use to rank web pages. Experiments in this paper suggest that important factors to be taken into consideration when preparing a web page are page title, meta description, H1 tag (heading), and body text—which is aligned with the findings of previous research. Another result of this research is a new data set of manually labeled web pages that can be used in further research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Digital Marketing and App-based Marketing)
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of Deep Convolutional Generative Adversarial Networks for Data Augmentation of Chest X-ray Images
Future Internet 2021, 13(1), 8; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fi13010008 - 31 Dec 2020
Viewed by 1062
Abstract
Medical image datasets are usually imbalanced due to the high costs of obtaining the data and time-consuming annotations. Training a deep neural network model on such datasets to accurately classify the medical condition does not yield the desired results as they often over-fit [...] Read more.
Medical image datasets are usually imbalanced due to the high costs of obtaining the data and time-consuming annotations. Training a deep neural network model on such datasets to accurately classify the medical condition does not yield the desired results as they often over-fit the majority class samples’ data. Data augmentation is often performed on the training data to address the issue by position augmentation techniques such as scaling, cropping, flipping, padding, rotation, translation, affine transformation, and color augmentation techniques such as brightness, contrast, saturation, and hue to increase the dataset sizes. Radiologists generally use chest X-rays for the diagnosis of pneumonia. Due to patient privacy concerns, access to such data is often protected. In this study, we performed data augmentation on the Chest X-ray dataset to generate artificial chest X-ray images of the under-represented class through generative modeling techniques such as the Deep Convolutional Generative Adversarial Network (DCGAN). With just 1341 chest X-ray images labeled as Normal, artificial samples were created by retaining similar characteristics to the original data with this technique. Evaluating the model resulted in a Fréchet Distance of Inception (FID) score of 1.289. We further show the superior performance of a CNN classifier trained on the DCGAN augmented dataset. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Computer Vision, Deep Learning and Machine Learning with Applications)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Commonly Used External TAM Variables in e-Learning, Agriculture and Virtual Reality Applications
Future Internet 2021, 13(1), 7; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fi13010007 - 31 Dec 2020
Viewed by 800
Abstract
In recent years information and communication technologies (ICT) have played a significant role in all aspects of modern society and have impacted socioeconomic development in sectors such as education, administration, business, medical care and agriculture. The benefits of such technologies in agriculture can [...] Read more.
In recent years information and communication technologies (ICT) have played a significant role in all aspects of modern society and have impacted socioeconomic development in sectors such as education, administration, business, medical care and agriculture. The benefits of such technologies in agriculture can be appreciated only if farmers use them. In order to predict and evaluate the adoption of these new technological tools, the technology acceptance model (TAM) can be a valid aid. This paper identifies the most commonly used external variables in e-learning, agriculture and virtual reality applications for further validation in an e-learning tool designed for EU farmers and agricultural entrepreneurs. Starting from a literature review of the technology acceptance model, the analysis based on Quality Function Deployment (QFD) shows that computer self-efficacy, individual innovativeness, computer anxiety, perceived enjoyment, social norm, content and system quality, experience and facilitating conditions are the most common determinants addressing technology acceptance. Furthermore, findings evidenced that the external variables have a different impact on the two main beliefs of the TAM Model, Perceived Usefulness (PU) and Perceived Ease of Use (PEOU). This study is expected to bring theoretical support for academics when determining the variables to be included in TAM extensions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue VR, AR, and 3-D User Interfaces for Measurement and Control)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
An Unsupervised Behavioral Modeling and Alerting System Based on Passive Sensing for Elderly Care
Future Internet 2021, 13(1), 6; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fi13010006 - 30 Dec 2020
Viewed by 1052
Abstract
Artificial Intelligence in combination with the Internet of Medical Things enables remote healthcare services through networks of environmental and/or personal sensors. We present a remote healthcare service system which collects real-life data through an environmental sensor package, including binary motion, contact, pressure, and [...] Read more.
Artificial Intelligence in combination with the Internet of Medical Things enables remote healthcare services through networks of environmental and/or personal sensors. We present a remote healthcare service system which collects real-life data through an environmental sensor package, including binary motion, contact, pressure, and proximity sensors, installed at households of elderly people. Its aim is to keep the caregivers informed of subjects’ health-status progressive trajectory, and alert them of health-related anomalies to enable objective on-demand healthcare service delivery at scale. The system was deployed in 19 households inhabited by an elderly person with post-stroke condition in the Emilia–Romagna region in Italy, with maximal and median observation durations of 98 and 55 weeks. Among these households, 17 were multi-occupancy residences, while the other 2 housed elderly patients living alone. Subjects’ daily behavioral diaries were extracted and registered from raw sensor signals, using rule-based data pre-processing and unsupervised algorithms. Personal behavioral habits were identified and compared to typical patterns reported in behavioral science, as a quality-of-life indicator. We consider the activity patterns extracted across all users as a dictionary, and represent each patient’s behavior as a ‘Bag of Words’, based on which patients can be categorized into sub-groups for precision cohort treatment. Longitudinal trends of the behavioral progressive trajectory and sudden abnormalities of a patient were detected and reported to care providers. Due to the sparse sensor setting and the multi-occupancy living condition, the sleep profile was used as the main indicator in our system. Experimental results demonstrate the ability to report on subjects’ daily activity pattern in terms of sleep, outing, visiting, and health-status trajectories, as well as predicting/detecting 75% hospitalization sessions up to 11 days in advance. 65% of the alerts were confirmed to be semantically meaningful by the users. Furthermore, reduced social interaction (outing and visiting), and lower sleep quality could be observed during the COVID-19 lockdown period across the cohort. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Future Internet of Medical Things)
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Open AccessArticle
Architecture for Enabling Edge Inference via Model Transfer from Cloud Domain in a Kubernetes Environment
Future Internet 2021, 13(1), 5; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fi13010005 - 29 Dec 2020
Viewed by 576
Abstract
The current approaches for energy consumption optimisation in buildings are mainly reactive or focus on scheduling of daily/weekly operation modes in heating. Machine Learning (ML)-based advanced control methods have been demonstrated to improve energy efficiency when compared to these traditional methods. However, placing [...] Read more.
The current approaches for energy consumption optimisation in buildings are mainly reactive or focus on scheduling of daily/weekly operation modes in heating. Machine Learning (ML)-based advanced control methods have been demonstrated to improve energy efficiency when compared to these traditional methods. However, placing of ML-based models close to the buildings is not straightforward. Firstly, edge-devices typically have lower capabilities in terms of processing power, memory, and storage, which may limit execution of ML-based inference at the edge. Secondly, associated building information should be kept private. Thirdly, network access may be limited for serving a large number of edge devices. The contribution of this paper is an architecture, which enables training of ML-based models for energy consumption prediction in private cloud domain, and transfer of the models to edge nodes for prediction in Kubernetes environment. Additionally, predictors at the edge nodes can be automatically updated without interrupting operation. Performance results with sensor-based devices (Raspberry Pi 4 and Jetson Nano) indicated that a satisfactory prediction latency (~7–9 s) can be achieved within the research context. However, model switching led to an increase in prediction latency (~9–13 s). Partial evaluation of a Reference Architecture for edge computing systems, which was used as a starting point for architecture design, may be considered as an additional contribution of the paper. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Network Virtualization and Edge/Fog Computing)
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Open AccessArticle
SIoT: A New Strategy to Improve the Network Lifetime with an Efficient Search Process
Future Internet 2021, 13(1), 4; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fi13010004 - 29 Dec 2020
Viewed by 757
Abstract
The Social Internet of Things (SIoT) means that every node can use a set of nodes that are considered as friends to search for a specific service. However, this is a slow process because each node is required to manage a high number [...] Read more.
The Social Internet of Things (SIoT) means that every node can use a set of nodes that are considered as friends to search for a specific service. However, this is a slow process because each node is required to manage a high number of friends. Thus, the SIoT issue consists of how to select the right friends that improve the network navigability. The enhancement of the network navigability boosts the search for a service to be rapid but not guaranteed. Furthermore, sending requests from the shortest paths involves the rapid search, but the network lifetime can be reduced due to the number of requests that can be transmitted and processed by the nodes that have low power energy. This paper proposes a new approach that improves the network navigability, speeds up the search process, and increases the network lifetime. This approach aims at creating groups dynamically by nodes where each group has a master node, second, using a consensus algorithm between master nodes to agree with a specific capability, finally adopting a friendship selection method to create a social network. Thus, the friends will be sorted periodically for the objective of creating simultaneously a balance between the energy consumption and the rapid search process. Simulation results on the Brightkite location-based online social network dataset demonstrate that our proposal outperforms baseline methods in terms of some parameters of network navigability, path length to reach the providers, and network lifetime. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Internet of Things)
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Open AccessArticle
Authorship Identification of a Russian-Language Text Using Support Vector Machine and Deep Neural Networks
Future Internet 2021, 13(1), 3; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fi13010003 - 25 Dec 2020
Viewed by 586
Abstract
The article explores approaches to determining the author of a natural language text and the advantages and disadvantages of these approaches. The importance of the considered problem is due to the active digitalization of society and reassignment of most parts of the life [...] Read more.
The article explores approaches to determining the author of a natural language text and the advantages and disadvantages of these approaches. The importance of the considered problem is due to the active digitalization of society and reassignment of most parts of the life activities online. Text authorship methods are particularly useful for information security and forensics. For example, such methods can be used to identify authors of suicide notes, and other texts are subjected to forensic examinations. Another area of application is plagiarism detection. Plagiarism detection is a relevant issue both for the field of intellectual property protection in the digital space and for the educational process. The article describes identifying the author of the Russian-language text using support vector machine (SVM) and deep neural network architectures (long short-term memory (LSTM), convolutional neural networks (CNN) with attention, Transformer). The results show that all the considered algorithms are suitable for solving the authorship identification problem, but SVM shows the best accuracy. The average accuracy of SVM reaches 96%. This is due to thoroughly chosen parameters and feature space, which includes statistical and semantic features (including those extracted as a result of an aspect analysis). Deep neural networks are inferior to SVM in accuracy and reach only 93%. The study also includes an evaluation of the impact of attacks on the method on models’ accuracy. Experiments show that the SVM-based methods are unstable to deliberate text anonymization. In comparison, the loss in accuracy of deep neural networks does not exceed 20%. Transformer architecture is the most effective for anonymized texts and allows 81% accuracy to be achieved. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Data Science and Knowledge Discovery)
Open AccessReview
Tourist Recommender Systems Based on Emotion Recognition—A Scientometric Review
Future Internet 2021, 13(1), 2; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fi13010002 - 24 Dec 2020
Viewed by 800
Abstract
Recommendation systems have overcome the overload of irrelevant information by considering users’ preferences and emotional states in the fields of tourism, health, e-commerce, and entertainment. This article reviews the principal recommendation approach documents found in scientific databases (Elsevier’s Scopus and Clarivate Web of [...] Read more.
Recommendation systems have overcome the overload of irrelevant information by considering users’ preferences and emotional states in the fields of tourism, health, e-commerce, and entertainment. This article reviews the principal recommendation approach documents found in scientific databases (Elsevier’s Scopus and Clarivate Web of Science) through a scientometric analysis in ScientoPy. Research publications related to the recommenders of emotion-based tourism cover the last two decades. The review highlights the collection, processing, and feature extraction of data from sensors and wearables to detect emotions. The study proposes the thematic categories of recommendation systems, emotion recognition, wearable technology, and machine learning. This paper also presents the evolution, trend analysis, theoretical background, and algorithmic approaches used to implement recommenders. Finally, the discussion section provides guidelines for designing emotion-sensitive tourist recommenders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances of Machine Learning Techniques on Smartphones)
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Open AccessArticle
A Data Augmentation Approach to Distracted Driving Detection
Future Internet 2021, 13(1), 1; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fi13010001 - 22 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 610
Abstract
Distracted driving behavior has become a leading cause of vehicle crashes. This paper proposes a data augmentation method for distracted driving detection based on the driving operation area. First, the class activation mapping method is used to show the key feature areas of [...] Read more.
Distracted driving behavior has become a leading cause of vehicle crashes. This paper proposes a data augmentation method for distracted driving detection based on the driving operation area. First, the class activation mapping method is used to show the key feature areas of driving behavior analysis, and then the driving operation areas are detected by the faster R-CNN detection model for data augmentation. Finally, the convolutional neural network classification mode is implemented and evaluated to detect the original dataset and the driving operation area dataset. The classification result achieves a 96.97% accuracy using the distracted driving dataset. The results show the necessity of driving operation area extraction in the preprocessing stage, which can effectively remove the redundant information in the images to get a higher classification accuracy rate. The method of this research can be used to detect drivers in actual application scenarios to identify dangerous driving behaviors, which helps to give early warning of unsafe driving behaviors and avoid accidents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Data Science and Knowledge Discovery)
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