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Article

Enable Fair Proof-of-Work (PoW) Consensus for Blockchains in IoT by Miner Twins (MinT)

1
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Binghamton University, Binghamton, NY 13902, USA
2
The U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory, Rome, NY 13441, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Christoph Stach
Future Internet 2021, 13(11), 291; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fi13110291
Received: 30 October 2021 / Revised: 16 November 2021 / Accepted: 16 November 2021 / Published: 19 November 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Security and Privacy in Blockchains and the IoT)
Blockchain technology has been recognized as a promising solution to enhance the security and privacy of Internet of Things (IoT) and Edge Computing scenarios. Taking advantage of the Proof-of-Work (PoW) consensus protocol, which solves a computation intensive hashing puzzle, Blockchain ensures the security of the system by establishing a digital ledger. However, the computation intensive PoW favors members possessing more computing power. In the IoT paradigm, fairness in the highly heterogeneous network edge environments must consider devices with various constraints on computation power. Inspired by the advanced features of Digital Twins (DT), an emerging concept that mirrors the lifespan and operational characteristics of physical objects, we propose a novel Miner Twins (MinT) architecture to enable a fair PoW consensus mechanism for blockchains in IoT environments. MinT adopts an edge-fog-cloud hierarchy. All physical miners of the blockchain are deployed as microservices on distributed edge devices, while fog/cloud servers maintain digital twins that periodically update miners’ running status. By timely monitoring of a miner’s footprint that is mirrored by twins, a lightweight Singular Spectrum Analysis (SSA)-based detection achieves the identification of individual misbehaved miners that violate fair mining. Moreover, we also design a novel Proof-of-Behavior (PoB) consensus algorithm to detect dishonest miners that collude to control a fair mining network. A preliminary study is conducted on a proof-of-concept prototype implementation, and experimental evaluation shows the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed MinT scheme under a distributed byzantine network environment. View Full-Text
Keywords: digital twin; blockchain; Proof-of-Work; microservices; Singular Spectrum Analysis (SSA); byzantine fault tolerance digital twin; blockchain; Proof-of-Work; microservices; Singular Spectrum Analysis (SSA); byzantine fault tolerance
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MDPI and ACS Style

Qu, Q.; Xu, R.; Chen, Y.; Blasch, E.; Aved, A. Enable Fair Proof-of-Work (PoW) Consensus for Blockchains in IoT by Miner Twins (MinT). Future Internet 2021, 13, 291. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fi13110291

AMA Style

Qu Q, Xu R, Chen Y, Blasch E, Aved A. Enable Fair Proof-of-Work (PoW) Consensus for Blockchains in IoT by Miner Twins (MinT). Future Internet. 2021; 13(11):291. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fi13110291

Chicago/Turabian Style

Qu, Qian, Ronghua Xu, Yu Chen, Erik Blasch, and Alexander Aved. 2021. "Enable Fair Proof-of-Work (PoW) Consensus for Blockchains in IoT by Miner Twins (MinT)" Future Internet 13, no. 11: 291. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fi13110291

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