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Volume 12, August

Neurol. Int., Volume 13, Issue 1 (March 2021) – 12 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Dementia is a serious cognitive impairment that causes decline in a person's memory, vocabulary, problem-solving, and thinking ability. It affects an individual’s mood and behavior, which can impair their quality of life and well-being. People with dementia often experience social and communication difficulties, which have a negative effect on their lives and those around them. Music is one of the safe and cost-effective non-pharmacological approaches for dementia treatment. This paper investigates the biological/physiological, behavioral and psychological, cognitive, and emotional benefits of music. View this paper
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Case Report
Medically Refractory Neuroborreliosis Case Presented with Coexistance Involvements of Cranial 7 and 8 Nerves
Neurol. Int. 2021, 13(1), 125-129; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/neurolint13010012 - 18 Mar 2021
Viewed by 733
Abstract
In the US, Lyme disease (LD) has become the most common vector-borne disease. Less than 10% of patients develop cranial nerve palsy or meningitis. There are few reports on cases of Lyme disease with more than one cranial neuropathy. Herein, we will discuss [...] Read more.
In the US, Lyme disease (LD) has become the most common vector-borne disease. Less than 10% of patients develop cranial nerve palsy or meningitis. There are few reports on cases of Lyme disease with more than one cranial neuropathy. Herein, we will discuss a case of persistent neurological deficits as a result of chronic Lyme disease resistant to standard therapy. Our case is unique due to involvements of cranial seven and eight nerves at the same time. Our case illustrates an extreme example of treatment resistance. However, early diagnosis and prompt establishment of adequate antibiotic treatment are still important to prevent progression to further stages of disease. Full article
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Case Report
Cortical Vein Thrombosis after Infliximab Treatment for Crohn’s Disease
Neurol. Int. 2021, 13(1), 120-124; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/neurolint13010011 - 11 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 603
Abstract
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) including ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease puts patients at high risk of thromboembolism accidents. These patients may take infliximab for active and fistulating Crohn’s disease, which can also increase the risk of thrombosis. Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary [...] Read more.
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) including ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease puts patients at high risk of thromboembolism accidents. These patients may take infliximab for active and fistulating Crohn’s disease, which can also increase the risk of thrombosis. Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) are more common among these patients, but cerebrovascular, mesenteric, portal and retinal veins can also be affected. In this paper, we report a case of isolated right Labbe vein thrombosis after infliximab therapy for Crohn’s disease. To the best of our knowledge, our patient is the first case report of isolated cortical vein thrombosis following administration of rituximab for Crohn’s disease. Full article
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Review
Acute and Post-Acute Neurological Complications of COVID-19
Neurol. Int. 2021, 13(1), 102-119; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/neurolint13010010 - 09 Mar 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2279
Abstract
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an emerging global health emergency caused by the novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The global outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 infection has been declared a global pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO). The clinical presentation [...] Read more.
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an emerging global health emergency caused by the novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The global outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 infection has been declared a global pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO). The clinical presentation of SARS-CoV-2 infection depends on the severity of the disease and may range from an asymptomatic infection to a severe and lethal illness. Fever, cough, and shortness of breath are among the most common symptoms associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Accumulating evidence indicates that COVID-19 patients commonly develop neurological symptoms, such as headache, altered mental status, anosmia, and myalgia. In this comprehensive literature review, we have summarized the most common neurological complications and reported neurological case studies associated with COVID-19, and neurological side effects associated with COVID-19 treatments. Additionally, the post-acute COVID-19 syndrome and long-term neurological complications were discussed. We also explained the proposed mechanisms that are involved in the pathogenesis of these neurological complications. Full article
Article
Resting-State Functional Connectivity between Putamen and Salience Network and Childhood Body Mass Index
Neurol. Int. 2021, 13(1), 85-101; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/neurolint13010009 - 04 Mar 2021
Viewed by 640
Abstract
Introduction: Although the putamen has a significant role in reward-seeking and motivated behaviors, including eating and food-seeking, minorities’ diminished returns (MDRs) suggest that individual-level risk and protective factors have weaker effects for Non-Hispanic Black than Non-Hispanic White individuals. However, limited research is available [...] Read more.
Introduction: Although the putamen has a significant role in reward-seeking and motivated behaviors, including eating and food-seeking, minorities’ diminished returns (MDRs) suggest that individual-level risk and protective factors have weaker effects for Non-Hispanic Black than Non-Hispanic White individuals. However, limited research is available on the relevance of MDRs in terms of the role of putamen functional connectivity on body mass index (BMI). Purpose: Building on the MDRs framework and conceptualizing race and socioeconomic status (SES) indicators as social constructs, we explored racial and SES differences in the associations between putamen functional connectivity to the salience network and children’s BMI. Methods: For this cross-sectional study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data of 6473 9–10-year-old Non-Hispanic Black and Non-Hispanic White children from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study. The primary independent variable was putamen functional connectivity to the salience network, measured by fMRI. The primary outcome was the children’s BMI. Age, sex, neighborhood income, and family structure were the covariates. Race, family structure, parental education, and household income were potential moderators. For data analysis, we used mixed-effect models in the overall sample and by race. Results: Higher right putamen functional connectivity to the salience network was associated with higher BMI in Non-Hispanic White children. The same association was missing for Non-Hispanic Black children. While there was no overall association in the pooled sample, a significant interaction was found, suggesting that the association between right putamen functional connectivity to the salience network and children’s BMI was modified by race. Compared to Non-Hispanic White children, Non-Hispanic Black children showed a weaker association between right putamen functional connectivity to the salience network and BMI. While parental education and household income did not moderate our association of interest, marital status altered the associations between putamen functional connectivity to the salience network and children’s BMI. These patterns were observed for right but not left putamen. Other/Mixed Race children also showed a pattern similar to Non-Hispanic Black children. Conclusions: The association between right putamen functional connectivity to the salience network and children’s BMI may depend on race and marital status but not parental education and household income. While right putamen functional connectivity to the salience network is associated with Non-Hispanic White children’s BMI, Non-Hispanic Black children’ BMI remains high regardless of their putamen functional connectivity to the salience network. This finding is in line with MDRs, which attributes diminished effects of individual-risk and protective factors for Non-Hispanic Black children to racism, stratification, and segregation. Full article
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Case Report
Follow-Up of a Case of Dopamine-Mediated Yawning-Fatigue-Syndrome Responsive to Opioids, Successful Desensitization via Graded Activity Treatment
Neurol. Int. 2021, 13(1), 79-84; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/neurolint13010008 - 25 Feb 2021
Viewed by 507
Abstract
A 60-year-old man suffering from recurrent attacks of yawning-fatigue-syndrome, triggered by mild exercise of his right leg since a temporary lumbar disc herniation 9 years ago, was initially treated with the oral µ-opioid-receptor agonist tilidine before each bout of exercise (see Dibaj et [...] Read more.
A 60-year-old man suffering from recurrent attacks of yawning-fatigue-syndrome, triggered by mild exercise of his right leg since a temporary lumbar disc herniation 9 years ago, was initially treated with the oral µ-opioid-receptor agonist tilidine before each bout of exercise (see Dibaj et al. 2019 JAMA Neurology 2019;77:254). During the first few months, this treatment continuously prolonged the time without exercise-triggered yawning and fatigue. In the next few months of treatment, exercise was increased in a graded manner to alleviate the yawning-fatigue-syndrome. The number of repetitions of the physical exercises was gradually increased without taking the opioid beforehand. After several months, almost the same effort level without medication could be achieved by graded activity as before under the influence of opioid medication. Graded physical activity can thus disrupt complex pathophysiological mechanisms leading to yawning and fatigue. Full article
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Review
VALTOCO® (Diazepam Nasal Spray) for the Acute Treatment of Intermittent Stereotypic Episodes of Frequent Seizure Activity
Neurol. Int. 2021, 13(1), 64-78; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/neurolint13010007 - 18 Feb 2021
Viewed by 975
Abstract
Valtoco® is a new FDA-approved nasal spray version of diazepam indicated for the treatment of acute, intermittent, and stereotypic episodes of frequent seizure activity in epilepsy patients six years of age and older. Although IV and rectal diazepam are already used to [...] Read more.
Valtoco® is a new FDA-approved nasal spray version of diazepam indicated for the treatment of acute, intermittent, and stereotypic episodes of frequent seizure activity in epilepsy patients six years of age and older. Although IV and rectal diazepam are already used to treat seizure clusters, Valtoco® has less variability in plasma concentration compared to rectal diazepam. Furthermore, the intranasal administration of Valtoco® is more convenient and less invasive than rectal or IV diazepam, making it ideal for self-administration outside of a hospital setting. Multiple clinical trials have taken place comparing Valtoco® to the oral, rectal, and IV forms of diazepam. Aside from mild nasal irritation and lacrimation, Valtoco® was found to have no increased safety risk in comparison to traditional forms of diazepam. This review of Valtoco® will include a history of diazepam prescribing and withdrawal treatment, Valtoco® drug information, its mechanism of action, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, and a comprehensive review of clinical studies. Full article
Communication
Public Interest in Neurological Diseases on Wikipedia during Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Pandemic
Neurol. Int. 2021, 13(1), 59-63; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/neurolint13010006 - 10 Feb 2021
Viewed by 1277
Abstract
Infodemiology is a research discipline that investigates parameters of information distribution in order to support public health and public policy. Wikipedia, a free online encyclopedia, is commonly used as a source of information for infodemiological studies. Using Pageviews analysis, we descriptively assessed the [...] Read more.
Infodemiology is a research discipline that investigates parameters of information distribution in order to support public health and public policy. Wikipedia, a free online encyclopedia, is commonly used as a source of information for infodemiological studies. Using Pageviews analysis, we descriptively assessed the total monthly number of views of the Wikipedia articles in English describing main neurological diseases in the period from January 2018 to July 2020. Our results show a general trend of a decrease in interest in neurological disease-related pages throughout years and especially during the burst of interest towards coronavirus. The monitoring of infodemiological indicators shall be prioritized to reshape global campaigns and tailored advocacy programs. Full article
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Article
Impact of Post-Stroke Recanalization on General and Upper Limb Functioning: A Prospective, Observational Study
Neurol. Int. 2021, 13(1), 46-58; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/neurolint13010005 - 04 Feb 2021
Viewed by 634
Abstract
The objective of this study is to assess the impact of recanalization (spontaneous and therapeutic) on upper limb functioning and general patient functioning after stroke. This is a prospective, observational study of patients hospitalized due to acute ischemic stroke in the territory of [...] Read more.
The objective of this study is to assess the impact of recanalization (spontaneous and therapeutic) on upper limb functioning and general patient functioning after stroke. This is a prospective, observational study of patients hospitalized due to acute ischemic stroke in the territory of the middle cerebral artery (n = 98). Patients completed a comprehensive rehabilitation program and were followed-up for 24 weeks. The impact of recanalization on patient functioning was evaluated using the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) and Stroke Upper Limb Capacity Scale (SULCS). General and upper limb functioning improved markedly in the first three weeks after stroke. Age, gender, and National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score at admission were associated with general and upper limb functioning at 12 weeks. Successful recanalization was associated with better functioning. Among patients who underwent therapeutic recanalization, NIHSS scores ≥16.5 indicate lower general functioning at 12 weeks (sensibility = 72.4%; specificity = 78.6%) and NIHSS scores ≥13.5 indicate no hand functioning at 12 weeks (sensibility = 83.8%; specificity = 76.5%). Recanalization, either spontaneous or therapeutic, has a positive impact on patient functioning after acute ischemic stroke. Functional recovery occurs mostly within the first 12 weeks after stroke, with greater functional gains among patients with successful recanalization. Higher NIHSS scores at admission are associated with worse functional recovery. Full article
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Review
Ubrogepant to Treat Acute Migraine in Adults
Neurol. Int. 2021, 13(1), 32-45; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/neurolint13010004 - 28 Jan 2021
Viewed by 1142
Abstract
Migraine is a neurobiological headache disorder that affects around 16% of adults in the United States. Medical treatment of mild to moderate migraines include non-prescription non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, acetaminophen, or aspirin and caffeine-containing combination analgesics. Additionally, moderate to severe migraines and those that [...] Read more.
Migraine is a neurobiological headache disorder that affects around 16% of adults in the United States. Medical treatment of mild to moderate migraines include non-prescription non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, acetaminophen, or aspirin and caffeine-containing combination analgesics. Additionally, moderate to severe migraines and those that are mild to moderate that have not responded to analgesics can be treated with triptans, which are drugs specific for migraine treatment. Non-pharmacological treatments include cognitive behavioral therapy and relaxation training. Medications for the prevention of migraines have also been developed since they are more affective in offsetting the symptoms. Ubrogepant’s high specificity and selectivity for calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) sets it apart from certain other drugs, which previously limited the treatment of migraines with or without aura due to their decreased selectivity. The most frequently reported side effects are oropharyngeal pain, nasopharyngitis, and headache. Most studies found that participants receiving Ubrogepant were free from pain within 2 h when compared to placebo. Patients taking Ubrogepant should avoid taking it when pregnant or with end stage renal disease. In summary, Ubrogepant has good tolerability and an overall favorable safety profile. It appears to hold promise for the acute treatment of migraines with or without aura in adults. Full article
Communication
Telemedicine during the Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Pandemic: A Multiple Sclerosis (MS) Outpatients Service Perspective
Neurol. Int. 2021, 13(1), 25-31; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/neurolint13010003 - 18 Jan 2021
Viewed by 933
Abstract
Background: During the COVID-19 pandemic, the need for a broader implementation of telemedicine for many diseases has become apparent. Televisits are one type of telemedicine in which clinical visits are conducted remotely using an audio-visual connection with the patient at home. The use [...] Read more.
Background: During the COVID-19 pandemic, the need for a broader implementation of telemedicine for many diseases has become apparent. Televisits are one type of telemedicine in which clinical visits are conducted remotely using an audio-visual connection with the patient at home. The use of televisits is more established in Stroke care but was also recently formally evaluated for Multiple Sclerosis (MS). This retrospective case series describes patient characteristics and reasons for televisits in persons with MS during the COVID-19 pandemic outbreak in Italy, which was declared in February 2020. Methods: Recruitment occurred in a general hospital based MS clinic during Italy’s lockdown months period (9 March–18 May). Each subject completed at least one televisit. The baseline data included were demographics and MS history; reasons for the remote house calls were analyzed focusing on COVID-19 related needs. Results: Forty-six participants completed at least one study visit. The patients enrolled were more often females suffering from Relapsing Remitting Multiple Sclerosis (RRMS). Half of the patients had an intermediate level of education and lived within a 60 min drive from the clinic. These patients predominately had a short disease duration and were mostly involved in oral treatment. The main reasons for the call were drug use and counseling on social distancing. In 5 cases, COVID-19 infection was reported. Conclusions: Televisits during the COVID-19 outbreak demonstrated their utility as a care delivery method for MS. Hence, it is vital to facilitate the implementation of this technology in common practice to both face infectious threats and increase accessibility of the health care system. Full article
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Communication
Presenting Symptoms and Disease Severity in Multiple Sclerosis Patients
Neurol. Int. 2021, 13(1), 18-24; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/neurolint13010002 - 08 Jan 2021
Viewed by 777
Abstract
Introduction: The study aims to determine an association between presenting symptoms in multiple sclerosis and measures of disease severity, including the expanded disability status score (EDSS) and MRI based lesion volumes. Methods: Data was collected as part of a larger 3 year MS [...] Read more.
Introduction: The study aims to determine an association between presenting symptoms in multiple sclerosis and measures of disease severity, including the expanded disability status score (EDSS) and MRI based lesion volumes. Methods: Data was collected as part of a larger 3 year MS study, from 2014 to 2017, to compare Vitamin A levels and MS progression. All data was collected from a single clinical site. Demographic data as well as date of diagnosis and use of disease modifying therapies. Patients not able to obtain MRIs or lab tests and histories of vitamin abnormalities were excluded from the study. 29 patients met inclusion criteria. We chose presenting symptoms of vision, balance, sensory function, and motor function as these represented the most common manifestations of the disease and mirror the domains of the EDSS, which is the most commonly used scale for MS disease severity. We also included neuroimaging based lesion volume as another objective measure for comparison. Results: Although duration of disease was different between comparator groups, no significant difference was found between them when EDSS and lesion volumes were compared. There was a difference in lesion volumes when comparing those patients that had presenting symptoms of visual changes or balance symptoms with those presenting with sensory changes. Conclusions: This study supports the notion that presenting symptoms are not associated with EDSS independent disease duration. It also verifies that severity of disease is not associated with lesion volumes. However, sensory symptoms as a presenting symptom was associated with less lesion volumes in our study. Full article
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Review
Impacts of Music Intervention on Dementia: A Review Using Meta-Narrative Method and Agenda for Future Research
Neurol. Int. 2021, 13(1), 1-17; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/neurolint13010001 - 01 Jan 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1541
Abstract
Background: Dementia, a significant cognitive impairment, is characterized by a decline in memory. It affects an individual’s mood and behavior, which can impair their quality of life and well-being. Studies show that the demand for applying music as a new therapy method for [...] Read more.
Background: Dementia, a significant cognitive impairment, is characterized by a decline in memory. It affects an individual’s mood and behavior, which can impair their quality of life and well-being. Studies show that the demand for applying music as a new therapy method for dementia has increased during the last decades. Objective: To review the studies conducted on the impacts of music on different symptoms of dementia and provide readers with a more detailed picture of the efficacy of music, and recognize gaps in the literature. Methods: Electronic searches were conducted in the Cochrane Library (1938), Embase (773), Medline and PubMed (700), PsycINFO (89), and Scopus (218) databases. The search was comprised of all the literature from 2010 to 2020. For the search, key terms including “Dementia” AND “music” OR “music intervention” OR “music therapy” and index terms “clinical trial” OR “randomized controlled trials” were used. Finally, after screening 891 citations, 30 studies were included. Results: In general, it was observed that in most cases, music could be used as one of the safe and cost-effective non-pharmacological approaches for dementia treatment. However, in some studies, no impact or short-term effect of music on some symptoms of dementia such as wandering, agitation, and cognition was detected. Conclusion: Observing no effect or even negative impact of music on people living with dementia could be due to a random selection of music, fewer individuals, and the lack of a standard protocol. High heterogeneity in outcomes did not allow for clear conclusions on the benefits of music in dementia. This demands a comprehensive non-pharmacological music treatment approach to be designed for each stage of dementia to be employed alongside pharmacological treatments. This study proposes 13 gaps in the research on the health impact of music on dementia that could be studied by future researchers. Full article
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