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Gastroenterol. Insights, Volume 12, Issue 1 (March 2021) – 10 articles

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Review
Imaging in the Assessment of Musculoskeletal Manifestations Associated with Inflammatory Bowel Disease
Gastroenterol. Insights 2021, 12(1), 100-110; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/gastroent12010010 - 21 Mar 2021
Viewed by 483
Abstract
Extraintestinal manifestations are the cause of morbidity and affect the quality of life of patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). Musculoskeletal manifestations, in particular, spondyloarthritis and osteoporosis, are the most frequent extraintestinal manifestation of IBDs. The diagnosis and management of the musculoskeletal manifestation [...] Read more.
Extraintestinal manifestations are the cause of morbidity and affect the quality of life of patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). Musculoskeletal manifestations, in particular, spondyloarthritis and osteoporosis, are the most frequent extraintestinal manifestation of IBDs. The diagnosis and management of the musculoskeletal manifestation of IBDs relies on imaging. Conventional radiography, magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography, and ultrasound can help to detect pathological signs of spondyloarthritis, both peripheral and with axial involvement. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry is the gold standard for identifying the presence of osteoporosis, whereas conventional radiology and computed tomography can reveal occult vertebral fractures. The aim of this narrative review is to describe the imaging of musculoskeletal manifestations of IBDs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Gastrointestinal Disease)
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Article
Ventilatory Effect of Midazolam in Propofol Deep Sedation for Hepatic Tumor Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Radiofrequency Ablation Procedure
Gastroenterol. Insights 2021, 12(1), 89-99; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/gastroent12010009 - 03 Mar 2021
Viewed by 601
Abstract
Objective: The aim of the study was to compare the ventilatory effect between propofol deep sedation technique with and without midazolam in hepatic tumor patients undergoing radiofrequency ablation procedure. Methods: Three hundred and seventy-four patients who underwent radiofrequency ablation procedure in a single [...] Read more.
Objective: The aim of the study was to compare the ventilatory effect between propofol deep sedation technique with and without midazolam in hepatic tumor patients undergoing radiofrequency ablation procedure. Methods: Three hundred and seventy-four patients who underwent radiofrequency ablation procedure in a single year were randomly assigned to the deep sedation without midazolam group (A, n = 187) and deep sedation with midazolam group (B, n = 187). Patients in group A received normal saline, and those in group B received 0.02 mg/kg of midazolam intravenously in equivalent volume. All patients were oxygenated with 100% O2 via nasal cannula and sedated with intravenous fentanyl and the titration of intravenous propofol. Ventilatory parameters, including oxygen saturation, end tidal carbon dioxide, and respiratory rate every five minutes, during and after the procedure, as well as the duration of sleep and sedation score in the recovery room, were recorded. Results: There were no significant differences in the patients’ characteristics, duration of procedure, total dose of propofol, ventilatory parameters including oxygen saturation, end tidal carbon dioxide, and respiratory rate, as well as sedation score at 20, 25, 30, 35, and 40 min after the procedure, between the two groups. However, mean sedation score at 5, 10, and 15 min after the procedure, in group B, was significantly lower than in group A. In addition, the duration of sleep after the procedure, in group B, was significantly greater than in group A. No serious ventilatory adverse effects were observed either group. Conclusion: Propofol deep sedation with and without midazolam for hepatic tumor patients who underwent radiofrequency ablation procedure was safe and effective. A low dose of midazolam in propofol deep-sedation technique did not create serious ventilatory effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Liver)
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Review
Cirrhotic Cardiomyopathy
Gastroenterol. Insights 2021, 12(1), 76-88; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/gastroent12010008 - 25 Feb 2021
Viewed by 540
Abstract
Cirrhotic cardiomyopathy (CCM), cardiac dysfunction in end-stage liver disease in the absence of prior heart disease, is an important clinical entity that contributes significantly to morbidity and mortality. The original definition for CCM, established in 2005 at the World Congress of Gastroenterology (WCG), [...] Read more.
Cirrhotic cardiomyopathy (CCM), cardiac dysfunction in end-stage liver disease in the absence of prior heart disease, is an important clinical entity that contributes significantly to morbidity and mortality. The original definition for CCM, established in 2005 at the World Congress of Gastroenterology (WCG), was based upon known echocardiographic parameters to identify subclinical cardiac dysfunction in the absence of overt structural abnormalities. Subsequent advances in cardiovascular imaging and in particular myocardial deformation imaging have rendered the WCG criteria outdated. A number of investigations have explored other factors relevant to CCM, including serum markers, electrocardiography, and magnetic resonance imaging. CCM characteristics include a hyperdynamic circulatory state, impaired contractility, altered diastolic relaxation, and electrophysiological abnormalities, particularly QT interval prolongation. It is now known that cardiac dysfunction worsens with the progression of cirrhosis. Treatment for CCM has traditionally been limited to supportive efforts, but new pharmacological studies appear promising. Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in CCM can be improved by targeted heart rate reduction. Ivabradine combined with carvedilol improves left ventricular diastolic dysfunction through targeted heart rate reduction, and this regimen can improve survival in patients with cirrhosis. Orthotopic liver transplantation also appears to improve CCM. Here, we canvass diagnostic challenges associated with CCM, introduce cardiac physiology principles and the application of echocardiographic techniques, and discuss the evidence behind therapeutic interventions in CCM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Liver)
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Case Report
Decompensated Cirrhosis as Presentation of LKM1/LC1 Positive Type 2 Autoimmune Hepatitis in Adulthood. A Rare Clinical Entity of Difficult Management
Gastroenterol. Insights 2021, 12(1), 67-75; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/gastroent12010007 - 20 Feb 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 635
Abstract
Background: Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a chronic and aggressive liver disease that rapidly evolves into cirrhosis and end-stage liver disease if not timely diagnosed and treated with immunosuppressive therapy. AIH is classified into type 1 and type 2 according to the autoantibody pattern, [...] Read more.
Background: Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a chronic and aggressive liver disease that rapidly evolves into cirrhosis and end-stage liver disease if not timely diagnosed and treated with immunosuppressive therapy. AIH is classified into type 1 and type 2 according to the autoantibody pattern, with smooth muscle antibodies and/or antinuclear antibodies as serological markers of AIH-1, while antiliver cytosol antibody type 1 and/or antiliver/kidney microsomal antibody type 1 characterize type 2 AIH, which mainly affects children, including infants, and adolescents. Case Summary: We describe a case of type 2 AIH, clinically onset in a 34-year-old woman with decompensated cirrhosis. Only a thorough analysis of the autoantibody profile allowed for a diagnosis of an AIH-2 evolved into cirrhosis. The patient received a moderate corticosteroid therapy without achieving optimal disease control. We discuss the controversial decision of whether or not to treat the patient with immunosuppressive therapy, which should be balanced with the potential risk of infectious and other complications. A review of the literature on the management of patients with autoimmune cirrhosis is also presented. Conclusions: AIH-2 can be clinically onset in adult patients with cirrhosis and its complications, without being preceded by major clinical signs. Due to the difficult management of cirrhosis with immunosuppressive treatments, a patient-tailored strategy with a case-by-case approach is needed to prevent major complications such as infections, potentially precluding liver transplantation the only curative therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Liver)
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Review
Role of Probiotics and Their Metabolites in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBDs)
Gastroenterol. Insights 2021, 12(1), 56-66; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/gastroent12010006 - 04 Feb 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 846
Abstract
Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) is a term used to describe a group of complex disorders of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. IBDs include two main forms: Crohn’s Disease (CD) and Ulcerative Colitis (UC), which share similar clinical symptoms but differ in the anatomical distribution [...] Read more.
Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) is a term used to describe a group of complex disorders of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. IBDs include two main forms: Crohn’s Disease (CD) and Ulcerative Colitis (UC), which share similar clinical symptoms but differ in the anatomical distribution of the inflammatory lesions. The etiology of IBDs is undetermined. Several hypotheses suggest that Crohn’s Disease and Ulcerative Colitis result from an abnormal immune response against endogenous flora and luminal antigens in genetically susceptible individuals. While there is no cure for IBDs, most common treatments (medication and surgery) aim to reduce inflammation and help patients to achieve remission. There is growing evidence and focus on the prophylactic and therapeutic potential of probiotics in IBDs. Probiotics are live microorganisms that regulate the mucosal immune system, the gut microbiota and the production of active metabolites such as Short-Chain Fatty Acids (SCFAs). This review will focus on the role of intestinal dysbiosis in the immunopathogenesis of IBDs and understanding the health-promoting effects of probiotics and their metabolites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Gastrointestinal Diseases)
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Review
Partners in Infectious Disease: When Microbes Facilitate Enteric Viral Infections
Gastroenterol. Insights 2021, 12(1), 41-55; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/gastroent12010005 - 01 Feb 2021
Viewed by 578
Abstract
The lumen of the gastrointestinal tract harbors a diverse community of microbes, fungi, archaea, and viruses. In addition to occupying the same enteric niche, recent evidence suggests that microbes and viruses can act synergistically and, in some cases, promote disease. In this review, [...] Read more.
The lumen of the gastrointestinal tract harbors a diverse community of microbes, fungi, archaea, and viruses. In addition to occupying the same enteric niche, recent evidence suggests that microbes and viruses can act synergistically and, in some cases, promote disease. In this review, we focus on the disease-promoting interactions of the gut microbiota and rotavirus, norovirus, poliovirus, reovirus, and astrovirus. Microbes and microbial compounds can directly interact with viruses, promote viral fitness, alter the glycan structure of viral adhesion sites, and influence the immune system, among other mechanisms. These interactions can directly and indirectly affect viral infection. By focusing on microbe–virus interplay, we hope to identify potential strategies for targeting offending microbes and minimizing viral infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Gastrointestinal Disease)
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Review
Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli—A Summary of the Literature
Gastroenterol. Insights 2021, 12(1), 28-40; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/gastroent12010004 - 27 Jan 2021
Viewed by 856
Abstract
Diarrheal disease is still a major public health concern, as it is still considered an important cause of death in children under five years of age. A few decades ago, the detection of enteropathogenic E. coli was made by detecting the O, H, [...] Read more.
Diarrheal disease is still a major public health concern, as it is still considered an important cause of death in children under five years of age. A few decades ago, the detection of enteropathogenic E. coli was made by detecting the O, H, and K antigens, mostly by agglutination. The recent protocols recommend the molecular methods for diagnosing EPEC, as they can distinguish between typical and atypical EPEC by identifying the presence/absence of specific virulence factors. EPEC are defined as diarrheagenic strains of E. coli that can produce attaching and effacing lesions on the intestinal epithelium while being incapable of producing Shiga toxins and heat-labile or heat-stable enterotoxins. The ability of these strains to produce attaching and effacing lesions enable them to cause localized lesions by attaching tightly to the surface of the intestinal epithelial cells, disrupting the surfaces of the cells, thus leading to the effacement of the microvilli. EPEC are classified on typical and atypical isolates, based on the presence or absence of E. coli adherence factor plasmids. All the EPEC strains are eae positive; typical EPEC strains are eae+, bfpA+, while atypical strains are eae+, bfpA−. No vaccines are currently available to prevent EPEC infections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Gastrointestinal Disease)
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Article
The Diagnostic Value of CD11b Expression on Peripheral Blood Neutrophils for Detection of Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis
Gastroenterol. Insights 2021, 12(1), 17-27; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/gastroent12010003 - 20 Jan 2021
Viewed by 480
Abstract
Background: Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is associated with the highest mortality among end-stage cirrhotic liver disease patients. Neutrophil CD11b expression increases on the neutrophil surface within 5 min of exposure to bacteria. Paracentesis remains the only accepted method for accurate evaluation of patients, [...] Read more.
Background: Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is associated with the highest mortality among end-stage cirrhotic liver disease patients. Neutrophil CD11b expression increases on the neutrophil surface within 5 min of exposure to bacteria. Paracentesis remains the only accepted method for accurate evaluation of patients, with many drawbacks; hence, a diagnostic noninvasive marker with a very high sensitivity and high diagnostic accuracy is very necessary. Aim of the study: to evaluate the neutrophil CD11b as a non-invasive biomarker for the diagnosis of SBP, comparing its sensitivity and specificity to other traditional methods. Patients and Methods: 200 patients who had liver cirrhosis with ascites were recruited to the Hepatology department inpatient wards of the National Liver Institute, Menoufia University. They were divided into Group I: 100 patients with SBP and Group II: 100 patients with non SBP ascites. All studied patients were subjected to full clinical examination, abdominal ultrasound, paracentesis, and laboratory investigations including ascetic fluid (AF) examinations. The CD11b expression and its mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) were assessed on peripheral blood neutrophils by flowcytometry. Results: There was a significant increase in the MFI of CD11b in the SBP group compared to the non SBP group. At cut off >20 for MFI of CD11b with a sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 100% can discriminate between SBP and non SBP cases followed by ascetic fluid TLC examination at a cut off 0.26 (×103) with a sensitivity of 92%, and specificity of 96%, then, AF neutrophil count at cut off 0.25 (×103) with a sensitivity of 80%, specificity of 100%, and AF culture examination with a sensitivity of 56% and specificity of 100%. Conclusion: The measurement of CD11b MFI on peripheral blood neutrophils is a useful non-invasive marker with high sensitivity and specificity to predict SBP compared with other methods. Further large-scale studies are needed to study the value of CD11b MFI level in the SBP follow-up therapy. Full article
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Case Report
Malignant Transformation of Heterotopic Pancreatic Tissue in a Patient with BRCA2 Mutation
Gastroenterol. Insights 2021, 12(1), 10-16; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/gastroent12010002 - 19 Jan 2021
Viewed by 521
Abstract
Background: Malignant transformation of heterotopic pancreatic tissue is a rare entity with only several case reports published in the scientific literature. Adjuvant chemotherapy following oncological resection for lesions with nodal metastasis has not been well described and there are no guidelines available to [...] Read more.
Background: Malignant transformation of heterotopic pancreatic tissue is a rare entity with only several case reports published in the scientific literature. Adjuvant chemotherapy following oncological resection for lesions with nodal metastasis has not been well described and there are no guidelines available to guide the management of these patients. Case Presentation: We present a case of gastric heterotopic pancreatic carcinoma with nodal metastasis in a young patient with breast cancer gene (BRCA) 2 mutation. He had undergone a laparoscopic wedge resection for a gastric lesion initially thought to be a gastrointestinal stroma tumor. Given the involvement of the wedge resection margins, the patient underwent a distal gastrectomy with oncological lymph nodal clearance. One out of the 33 harvested lymph nodes harboured micrometastasis while the main gastrectomy specimen did not have any residual malignancy. Following the histological diagnosis, he received an adjuvant chemotherapy regime akin to that prescribed for locally advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma with good response. This is, to our knowledge, also the first such case report in a patient with BRCA2 mutation. Conclusions: Pre-operative diagnostic confirmation is challenging and endoscopic procedures pose significant false negatives. Reports of nodal metastasis following oncological resection are limited and there are no guidelines regarding adjuvant therapies. We would recommend a chemotherapy regimen similar to that for primary locally advanced pancreatic carcinoma in patients found to have nodal metastasis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Pancreas)
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Case Report
Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound LI-RADS LR-5 in Hepatic Tuberculosis: Case Report and Literature Review of Imaging Features
Gastroenterol. Insights 2021, 12(1), 1-9; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/gastroent12010001 - 17 Jan 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 706
Abstract
Background: The liver is involved in disseminated tuberculosis in more than 80% of cases while primary liver involvement is rare, representing <1% of all cases. Hepatic tuberculosis (TB) can be treated by conventional anti-TB therapy; however, diagnosing this disease remains a challenge. The [...] Read more.
Background: The liver is involved in disseminated tuberculosis in more than 80% of cases while primary liver involvement is rare, representing <1% of all cases. Hepatic tuberculosis (TB) can be treated by conventional anti-TB therapy; however, diagnosing this disease remains a challenge. The diagnosis might be particularly difficult in patients with a single liver lesion that could be misdiagnosed as a tumor or other focal liver lesions. Although computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings have been described, there is a paucity of literature on contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) features of hepatic TB. Case Summary: herein, we describe a case of a patient with tuberculous lymphadenopathy and chronic Hepatitis C Virus (HCV)-related liver disease who developed a single macronodular hepatic TB lesion. Due to the finding of a hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) highly suggestive CEUS pattern, specifically a LR5 category according to the Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System (LI-RADS), and a good response to antitubercular therapy, a non-invasive diagnosis of HCC was made, and the patient underwent liver resection. We also review the published literature on imaging features of hepatic TB and discuss the diagnostic challenge represented by hepatic TB when occurs as a single focal liver lesion. Conclusions: this report shows for the first time that the CEUS pattern of hepatic TB might be misinterpreted as HCC and specific imaging features are lacking. Personal history and epidemiological data are mandatory in interpreting CEUS findings of a focal liver lesion even when the imaging pattern is highly suggestive of HCC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Liver)
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