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Gastroenterol. Insights, Volume 12, Issue 2 (June 2021) – 14 articles

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Case Report
Peritoneal Tuberculosis Mimicking Ovarian Cancer: Gynecologic Ultrasound Evaluation with Histopathological Confirmation
Gastroenterol. Insights 2021, 12(2), 278-282; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/gastroent12020024 - 12 Jun 2021
Viewed by 654
Abstract
Peritoneal tuberculosis (TBP) is a very rare condition, accounting for about 1–2% of all tuberculosis cases. The diagnosis of TBP can be easily mistaken for advanced ovarian cancer (AOC) or peritoneal carcinoma because of overlapping laboratory and clinical findings. We reported the ultrasound [...] Read more.
Peritoneal tuberculosis (TBP) is a very rare condition, accounting for about 1–2% of all tuberculosis cases. The diagnosis of TBP can be easily mistaken for advanced ovarian cancer (AOC) or peritoneal carcinoma because of overlapping laboratory and clinical findings. We reported the ultrasound characteristics of a case of TBP in a 67-year-old woman who presented to our institute with a 1-month history of intermittent lower abdominal pain, fever, and asthenia. Overall, 20 biopsy-retrieved specimen histopathological features were suggestive of peritoneal tuberculosis. Gynecologic ultrasound revealed increased adnexa with multiple nodular formations spread across the surface, suggestive of caseous nodules. Although this is a rare occurrence, clinicians should consider TBP as a differential diagnosis of ovarian or peritoneal cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Gastrointestinal Cancer)
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Article
Prediction of Esophageal Varices Based on Serum-Ascites Albumin Gradient in Cirrhotic Patients
Gastroenterol. Insights 2021, 12(2), 270-277; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/gastroent12020023 - 02 Jun 2021
Viewed by 873
Abstract
Background: Ascites and esophageal varices (EV) are the most common complications of portal hypertension, with an incidence of approximately 50%. Since effective preventive modalities have been established for variceal hemorrhage, early detection of EV is critical for primary prevention of bleeding. Serum-ascites albumin [...] Read more.
Background: Ascites and esophageal varices (EV) are the most common complications of portal hypertension, with an incidence of approximately 50%. Since effective preventive modalities have been established for variceal hemorrhage, early detection of EV is critical for primary prevention of bleeding. Serum-ascites albumin gradient (SAAG) can be considered an indirect parameter for the detection of EV and is useful in regions where there is a shortage of human and material resources to perform upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (UGE). The aim was to evaluate the role of serum-ascites albumin gradient (SAAG) in the prediction of esophageal varices (EV) in cirrhotic patients with ascites. Methods: All cirrhotic patients with ascites, identified by ultrasonography, who underwent measurement of SAAG, were included in this study. All patients underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (UGE) for assessment of the presence and size of EV. Results: The study included 80 cirrhotic patients with ascites. The main causes of cirrhosis were alcohol intake (37.5%), hepatitis B virus (25.0%), and hepatitis C virus (15.0%). Patients with SAAG values > 1.75 g/dL demonstrated EV with a sensitivity and specificity of 78.4% and 83.3%, respectively. SAAG values > 1.8 g/dL were associated with the risk of large EV with AUC of 0.856, sensitivity of 88.24%, and specificity of 50.79%. The correlation coefficient (r) between SAAG and EV was 0.429, which was statistically significant (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Cirrhotic patients with SAAG values ≥ 1.8 have a higher risk of large EV. In particular, those with values > 1.9 who have higher possibility of bleeding must undergo upper GI endoscopy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Liver)
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Review
Nutritional Status and the Critically Ill Patient: Gut Microbiota and Immuno-Nutrition in I.C.U. at the Time of SARS-COV 2 Pandemic
Gastroenterol. Insights 2021, 12(2), 259-269; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/gastroent12020022 - 18 May 2021
Viewed by 695
Abstract
Background: Gut microbiota is a complex ecosystem of bacteria, viruses, archaea, protozoa and yeasts in our intestine. It has several functions, including maintaining human body equilibrium. Microbial “dysbiosis” can be responsible for outbreak of local and systemic infections, especially in critically ill patients. [...] Read more.
Background: Gut microbiota is a complex ecosystem of bacteria, viruses, archaea, protozoa and yeasts in our intestine. It has several functions, including maintaining human body equilibrium. Microbial “dysbiosis” can be responsible for outbreak of local and systemic infections, especially in critically ill patients. Methods: to build a narrative review, we performed a Pubmed, Medline and EMBASE search for English language papers, reviews, meta-analyses, case series and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) by keywords and their associations: critically ill patient; nutrition; gut microbiota; probiotics; gut virome; SARS-COV 2. Results: Over the antibiotic-based “selective decontamination”, potentially responsible for drug-resistant microorganisms development, there is growing interest of scientists and the pharmaceutical industry for pre-, probiotics and their associations as safe and reliable remedies restoring gut microbial “eubiosis”. Very first encouraging evidences link different gut microbiota profiles with SARS-COV 2 disease stage and gravity. Thus, there is frame for a probiotic therapeutic approach of COVID-19. Conclusions: gut microbiota remodulation seems to be a promising and safe therapeutic approach to prevent local and systemic multi-resistant bug infections in the intensive care unit (ICU) patients. This approach deserves more and more attention at the time of SARS-COV 2 pandemic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Gastrointestinal Diseases)
Review
Endoscopic Evaluation and Therapeutic Considerations of Small Bowel Crohn’s Disease
Gastroenterol. Insights 2021, 12(2), 238-258; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/gastroent12020021 - 12 May 2021
Viewed by 722
Abstract
Small bowel evaluation is warranted in all newly diagnosed cases of Crohn’s disease (CD) as small bowel is involved in two-thirds of CD patients at diagnosis and the involvement can be discontinuous. Endoscopic evaluation of the small bowel in suspected or established CD [...] Read more.
Small bowel evaluation is warranted in all newly diagnosed cases of Crohn’s disease (CD) as small bowel is involved in two-thirds of CD patients at diagnosis and the involvement can be discontinuous. Endoscopic evaluation of the small bowel in suspected or established CD can be done by video capsule endoscopy (VCE), device assisted enteroscopy (DAE) (which includes single and double balloon enteroscopy, novel motorized spiral enteroscopy (NMSE) and balloon guided endoscopy (BGE)) and intra-operative enteroscopy (IOE). In suspected CD with a negative ileo-colonoscopy, VCE is the preferred initial diagnostic modality in the absence of obstructive symptoms or known stenosis. VCE should be preceded by cross-sectional imaging or patency capsule testing if obstruction is suspected given with high retention risk. In established cases, small bowel cross-sectional imaging (magnetic resonance or computed tomography enterography) is preferred over VCE as it can assess transmural and extra-luminal involvement. VCE is indicated subsequently if necessary to assess disease extent, unexplained symptoms (e.g., anemia, malnutrition) or mucosal healing. Pan-enteric capsule endoscopy (PCE) and the use of artificial intelligence are the recent developments with VCE. DAE with small bowel biopsy can provide definitive evidence of CD including the extent and severity. A final diagnosis of CD is based on the constellation of clinical, radiologic, histologic and endoscopic features. Newer technologies like NMSE and BGE can help with deeper and faster small bowel evaluation. DAE has also allowed endoscopic treatment of small bowel strictures, small bowel bleeding and retrieval of retained capsule or foreign bodies. Endoscopic balloon dilation (EBD), endoscopic electro-incision, strictureplasty and stenting have shown promising results in CD related small bowel strictures. In conclusion, endoscopic evaluation of the small bowel is rapidly evolving field that has a major role in diagnosis and management of small bowel CD and can alter treatment outcomes in properly selected patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Gastrointestinal Disease)
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Review
Patient-Reported Outcomes in Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Measurement of Effect in Research and Clinical Care
Gastroenterol. Insights 2021, 12(2), 225-237; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/gastroent12020020 - 12 May 2021
Viewed by 643
Abstract
The measurement of outcomes is key in evaluating healthcare or research interventions in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In patient-centred care, patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) are central to this evaluation. In this review, we provide an overview of validated, adult disease-specific PROMs developed for [...] Read more.
The measurement of outcomes is key in evaluating healthcare or research interventions in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In patient-centred care, patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) are central to this evaluation. In this review, we provide an overview of validated, adult disease-specific PROMs developed for use in IBD. Our aim is to assist clinicians and researchers in selection of PROMs to measure outcomes in their patient cohort. The Consensus-based Standards for the Selection of Health Measurement Instruments database of systematic reviews was the primary resource used to identify PROMs used in IBD. Search terms were ‘Crohn’s disease’, ‘ulcerative colitis’, and ‘IBD’. Seven systematic reviews were identified from this search. In addition, the publication by the IBD Core Outcome Set Working Group was used to identify further PROMs. Three systematic reviews were excluded as they did not meet the inclusion criteria. From the five included systematic reviews, we identified 21 PROMs and their shortened versions. In conclusion, it does not appear that any one PROM is entirely suitable for both research and clinical practice. Overall, the IBDQ-32 is most widely used in research but has the limitation of cost, whereas the IBD-Control has been recommended in the clinical core outcome set. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Gastrointestinal Disease)
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Article
Mayo Endoscopic Score and Ulcerative Colitis Endoscopic Index Are Equally Effective for Endoscopic Activity Evaluation in Ulcerative Colitis Patients in a Real Life Setting
Gastroenterol. Insights 2021, 12(2), 217-224; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/gastroent12020019 - 06 May 2021
Viewed by 556
Abstract
The role of endoscopic evaluation in ulcerative colitis (UC) is well recognized, but a universally accepted gold standard for endoscopic activity evaluation is still lacking, and many scores have been proposed to this purpose. Among these, the Mayo Endoscopic Score (MES) and the [...] Read more.
The role of endoscopic evaluation in ulcerative colitis (UC) is well recognized, but a universally accepted gold standard for endoscopic activity evaluation is still lacking, and many scores have been proposed to this purpose. Among these, the Mayo Endoscopic Score (MES) and the Ulcerative Colitis Endoscopic Index (UCEIS) are currently the most used in trials and clinical practice. The aim of the study is to evaluate feasibility and performance of MES and UCEIS among expert endoscopists with no specific expertise in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), in a single hospital center. Two minutes video recordings, from colonoscopy of 12 UC patients, were observed and scored, according to MES and UCEIS, by seven hospital gastroenterologists with experience in digestive endoscopy and no particular expertise in IBD. Knowledge and utilization of the two scores were investigated. Inter-observer agreement and agreement with an IBD-expert gastroenterologist of the same center (central reader), and correlation between the two scores, was calculated. Among the endoscopists, MES was much more known and currently used than UCEIS. Both the scores displayed a similar good performance. Agreement with central reader was moderate for MES and UCEIS, and interobserver agreement was good, for both MES and UCEIS. Correlation between the two scores was very good both for central reader and for the hospital endoscopists. This single center study confirmed potential feasibility and usefulness of MES and UCEIS for assessment of endoscopic activity in UC patients in a real-life setting. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Gastrointestinal Disease)
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Review
Effects of Polyphenols in Tea (Camellia sinensis sp.) on the Modulation of Gut Microbiota in Human Trials and Animal Studies
Gastroenterol. Insights 2021, 12(2), 202-216; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/gastroent12020018 - 06 May 2021
Viewed by 698
Abstract
A diet high in polyphenols is associated with a diversified gut microbiome. Tea is the second most consumed beverage in the world, after water. The health benefits of tea might be attributed to the presence of polyphenol compounds such as flavonoids (e.g., catechins [...] Read more.
A diet high in polyphenols is associated with a diversified gut microbiome. Tea is the second most consumed beverage in the world, after water. The health benefits of tea might be attributed to the presence of polyphenol compounds such as flavonoids (e.g., catechins and epicatechins), theaflavins, and tannins. Although many studies have been conducted on tea, little is known of its effects on the trillions of gut microbiota. Hence, this review aimed to systematically study the effect of tea polyphenols on the stimulation or suppression of gut microbiota in humans and animals. It was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) protocol. Articles were retrieved from PubMed and Scopus databases, and data were extracted from 6 human trials and 15 animal studies. Overall, large variations were observed in terms of microbiota composition between humans and animals. A more consistent pattern of diversified microbiota was observed in animal studies. Tea alleviated the gut microbiota imbalance caused by high-fat diet-induced obesity, diabetes, and ultraviolet-induced damage. The overall changes in microbiota composition measured by beta diversity analysis showed that tea had shifted the microbiota from the pattern seen in animals that received tea-free intervention. In humans, a prebiotic-like effect was observed toward the gut microbiota, but these results appeared in lower-quality studies. The beta diversity in human microbiota remains intact despite tea intervention; supplementation with different teas affects different types of bacterial taxa in the gut. These studies suggest that tea polyphenols may have a prebiotic effect in disease-induced animals and in a limited number of human interventions. Further intervention is needed to identify the mechanisms of action underlying the effects of tea on gut microbiota. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Gastrointestinal Diseases)
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Case Report
Massive Gastrointestinal Bleeding Due to Jejunal Diverticula in a Community Hospital: A Case Report and Review of Diagnostic and Therapeutic Options
Gastroenterol. Insights 2021, 12(2), 196-201; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/gastroent12020017 - 21 Apr 2021
Viewed by 687
Abstract
Small bowel diverticula are rare and often asymptomatic. Severe lower gastrointestinal bleeding from jejunal diverticula is rarely reported and, therefore, should be considered a differential diagnosis in all cases of lower gastrointestinal bleeding with nonconclusive gastroscopy and colonoscopy. In this case report, we [...] Read more.
Small bowel diverticula are rare and often asymptomatic. Severe lower gastrointestinal bleeding from jejunal diverticula is rarely reported and, therefore, should be considered a differential diagnosis in all cases of lower gastrointestinal bleeding with nonconclusive gastroscopy and colonoscopy. In this case report, we discuss a case of a 75-year-old male with massive lower gastrointestinal bleeding from jejunal diverticula. Initial gastroscopy did not reveal the source of bleeding. Repeat upper endoscopy with a pediatric colonoscope identified jejunal diverticula as the likely source of bleeding. Angiography identified the site of extravasation, and successful angioembolization was done by interventional radiology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Gastrointestinal Disease)
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Review
Telehealth as an Important Player in the Management of Hepatitis C Virus
Gastroenterol. Insights 2021, 12(2), 183-195; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/gastroent12020016 - 03 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 882
Abstract
Background: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a global public health issue that can cause both acute and chronic liver diseases. There is a high risk of HCV burden, but limited access and cost remain a challenge for proper diagnosis and treatment. Leveraging [...] Read more.
Background: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a global public health issue that can cause both acute and chronic liver diseases. There is a high risk of HCV burden, but limited access and cost remain a challenge for proper diagnosis and treatment. Leveraging eHealth technology may indicate a viable solution for the management of HCV patients. Objective: To review the literature regarding the role of eHealth, including telemedicine, in the management of HCV. Methods: Databases including PubMed, Google Scholar, Medline, Web of Science, and Science Direct were searched from 1 January 2008 to 30 June 2020 to identify different types of eHealth interventions used for the management of adult HCV patients. Our search also determined the role of telehealth for HCV patients in the current pandemic. Results: Four main categories emerged from this scoping review that includes improving treatment rates via utilizing telehealth services, satisfaction with the telehealth services, disease management, health promotion, and similarity between telehealth and traditional modalities. Conclusion: Current evidence suggests that telemedicine is a cost-effective and unique platform to improve patients’ access to quality services that curb the increasing burden of this silent killer in developing countries. This modality can certainly be utilized in the current crisis to manage care for HCV patients efficiently. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Liver)
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Review
The Healthy Gluten-Free Diet: Practical Tips to Prevent Metabolic Disorders and Nutritional Deficiencies in Celiac Patients
Gastroenterol. Insights 2021, 12(2), 166-182; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/gastroent12020015 - 01 Apr 2021
Viewed by 935
Abstract
The gluten-free diet (GFD) is the cornerstone treatment for coeliac disease (CD). However, a healthy GFD is more complex than the only exclusion of gluten-containing foods. Most celiac patients do not receive nutritional advice and tend to consume industrial gluten-free products (GFPs), which [...] Read more.
The gluten-free diet (GFD) is the cornerstone treatment for coeliac disease (CD). However, a healthy GFD is more complex than the only exclusion of gluten-containing foods. Most celiac patients do not receive nutritional advice and tend to consume industrial gluten-free products (GFPs), which often lack fiber, vitamins, and other micronutrients while being rich in saturated fats and refined sugars. This review focuses on the main potential metabolic disorders and nutritional deficiencies in CD patients at diagnosis and dissects the main nutritional and metabolic issues due to a non-balanced GFD. Nutritional tips to achieve an adequate dietary approach in CD are provided. We also compared the main nutritional components of naturally gluten-free cereals (including pseudocereals) to give an exhaustive overview of the possible healthy alternatives to processed GFPs. Clinicians and dietitians should be systematically involved in the diagnosis of CD to monitor the appropriateness of GFD and the patient’s nutritional status over time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Gastrointestinal Diseases)
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Opinion
Expert Opinion on the Management of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) in the Middle East with a Focus on the Use of Silymarin
Gastroenterol. Insights 2021, 12(2), 155-165; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/gastroent12020014 - 01 Apr 2021
Viewed by 801
Abstract
Non-alcoholic fatty disease (NAFLD) is amongst the leading causes of chronic liver disease worldwide. The prevalence of NAFLD in the Middle East is 32%, similar to that observed worldwide. The clinicians in this region face several challenges in diagnosing and treating patients with [...] Read more.
Non-alcoholic fatty disease (NAFLD) is amongst the leading causes of chronic liver disease worldwide. The prevalence of NAFLD in the Middle East is 32%, similar to that observed worldwide. The clinicians in this region face several challenges in diagnosing and treating patients with NAFLD. Additionally, there are no national or regional guidelines to address the concerns faced with current treatment options. Silymarin, derived from milk thistle, provides a rational and clinically proven approach to hepatoprotection. This article focuses on addressing regional diagnostic challenges and provides clear guidance and potential solutions for the use of Silymarin in the treatment of NAFLD in the Middle East. Both clinical and preclinical studies have highlighted the efficiency of Silymarin in managing NAFLD by reducing liver disease progression and improving patient symptoms and quality of life, alongside being safe and well tolerated. An expert panel of professionals from the Middle East convened to establish a set of regional-specific diagnostics. A consensus was established to aid general physicians to address the diagnostic challenges in the region. In conclusion, Silymarin can be considered beneficial in treating NAFLD and should be initiated as early as possible and continued as long as necessary. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fatty Liver Syndrome)
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Article
Interest in Immunosuppression Withdrawal among Liver Transplant and Autoimmune Hepatitis Patients
Gastroenterol. Insights 2021, 12(2), 147-154; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/gastroent12020013 - 01 Apr 2021
Viewed by 777
Abstract
Immunosuppression withdrawal (ISW) is considered in liver transplant recipients (LTRs) and autoimmune hepatitis patients (AIHPs). Immunosuppressive therapy (IST) can be burdensome both financially and due to its side effect profile, making ISW an important intervention to consider. Data on patient interest in ISW [...] Read more.
Immunosuppression withdrawal (ISW) is considered in liver transplant recipients (LTRs) and autoimmune hepatitis patients (AIHPs). Immunosuppressive therapy (IST) can be burdensome both financially and due to its side effect profile, making ISW an important intervention to consider. Data on patient interest in ISW would be helpful to providers in ISW decision-making. We conducted independent single-center surveys of LTR and AIHP attitudes on IST and withdrawal interest. Of 325 LTRs screened, 120 completed the survey (50% female, mean age 58 ± 14 years, mean time since transplant 8 ± 10.5 years and 79.5% Caucasian). Of 100 AIHPs screened, 45 completed the survey (77.8% female, mean age 54 ± 2 and 82.2% Caucasian). A higher percentage of AIHPs expressed concern with their IST and were interested in ISW compared with LTRs. However, over a third of LTRs were interested in ISW, particularly those with knowledge of this potential intervention. LTRs who discussed ISW with a physician were more likely to desire withdrawal (p = 0.02; OR = 2.781 (95% CI = 1.125, 6.872)). As patient interest in ISW is of growing interest, investigators should continue to assess patient-reported desires and outcomes and pursue strategies to achieve immunological tolerance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Liver)
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Review
The Potential Application of Allium Extracts in the Treatment of Gastrointestinal Cancers
Gastroenterol. Insights 2021, 12(2), 136-146; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/gastroent12020012 - 27 Mar 2021
Viewed by 738
Abstract
Herbal medicine is currently widely practiced, since natural resources are reported to alleviate side effects during oncological treatment while modifying cancer cell responses at the same time. Allium vegetables and their constituents have recently been extensively investigated due to the numerous possible beneficial [...] Read more.
Herbal medicine is currently widely practiced, since natural resources are reported to alleviate side effects during oncological treatment while modifying cancer cell responses at the same time. Allium vegetables and their constituents have recently been extensively investigated due to the numerous possible beneficial properties, establishing them as an additional treatment modality in different cancers. According to the epidemiological evidence, as well as many in vivo and in vitro studies, the abovementioned substances seem to be effective in the prevention and inhibition of the progression of carcinogenesis. Due to high concentrations of organosulfur compounds, which exhibit anticarcinogenic, antimicrobial, as well as anti-inflammatory properties, Allium constituents are believed to constitute a promising prevention and supportive therapy for oncological patients. Besides, it was demonstrated that a combination of Allium extracts with chemotherapy provided satisfactory clinical outcomes while at the same time being cost-effective. The aim of this review was to present and discuss currently investigated Allium extracts and their effects on several gastrointestinal cancers including gastric, colon, liver, esophageal, and pancreatic cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Alimentary Tract)
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Review
40 Years of Helicobacter pylori: A Revolution in Biomedical Thought
Gastroenterol. Insights 2021, 12(2), 111-135; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/gastroent12020011 - 24 Mar 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 887
Abstract
Background: Various microorganisms such as bacteria, virus, and fungi can infect humans and cause not just a simple infection but septic conditions, organ dysfunction, and precancerous conditions or cancer involving various organ systems. After the discovery of the microscope, it was easier to [...] Read more.
Background: Various microorganisms such as bacteria, virus, and fungi can infect humans and cause not just a simple infection but septic conditions, organ dysfunction, and precancerous conditions or cancer involving various organ systems. After the discovery of the microscope, it was easier to discover and study such microorganisms, as in the case of Helicobacter pylori, a pathogen that was seen in the distant era of the nineteenth century but without being recognized as such. It took 100 years to later discover the pathogenesis and the cancer that this bacterium can cause. Since it was discovered, until today, there has been a continuous search for the understanding of its pathogenetic mechanisms, and the therapeutic approach is continuously updated. Methods: We investigated how diagnosis and therapy were dealt with in the past and how researchers sought to understand, exactly, the pathogenetic biomolecular mechanisms of H. pylori, from the genesis of the infection to the current knowledge, with an analysis of carcinogenic mechanisms in the stomach. We have examined the scientific evolution of the knowledge of the disease over these 40 years in the gastroenterological and pharmacological fields. This was possible through a search in the databases of Medline, the WHO website, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) website, PubMed, and Web of Science to analyze the earlier and the latest data regarding H. pylori. Results: With the scientific discoveries over time, thanks to an increasing number of progressions in scientific research in the analysis of the gastric mucosa, the role of Helicobacter pylori in peptic ulcer, carcinogenesis, and in some forms of gastric lymphoma was revealed. Furthermore, over the years, the biomolecular mechanism involvement in some diseases has also been noted (such as cardiovascular ones), which could affect patients positive for H. pylori. Conclusions: Thanks to scientific and technological advances, the role of the bacterium H. pylori in carcinogenesis has been discovered and demonstrated, and new prospective research is currently attempting to investigate the role of other factors in the stomach and other organs. Cancer from H. pylori infection had a high incidence rate compared to various types of cancer, but in recent years, it is improving thanks to the techniques developed in the detection of the bacterium and the evolution of therapies. Thus, although it has become an increasingly treatable disease, there is still continuous ongoing research in the field of treatment for resistance and pharma compliance. Furthermore, in this field, probiotic therapy is considered a valid adjuvant. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Gastrointestinal Cancer)
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