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Review

Nutritional Status and the Critically Ill Patient: Gut Microbiota and Immuno-Nutrition in I.C.U. at the Time of SARS-COV 2 Pandemic

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Clinical Nutrition Unit and Internal Medicine Unit, “Madonna del Soccorso” General Hospital, 63074 San Benedetto del Tronto, Italy
2
Translational Research in GastroIntestinal Disorders (T.A.R.G.I.D.), Gasthuisberg University Hospital, 3000 Leuven, Belgium
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I.C.U. Unit, “Santa Maria” Hospital, Viale Tristano di Joannuccio, 05100 Terni, Italy
4
Department of Health Sciences, University Magna Graecia, Campus “Salvatore Venuta”, 88100 Catanzaro, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Julio Plaza-Díaz and Emanuele Rinninella
Gastroenterol. Insights 2021, 12(2), 259-269; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/gastroent12020022
Received: 1 April 2021 / Revised: 11 May 2021 / Accepted: 15 May 2021 / Published: 18 May 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Gastrointestinal Diseases)
Background: Gut microbiota is a complex ecosystem of bacteria, viruses, archaea, protozoa and yeasts in our intestine. It has several functions, including maintaining human body equilibrium. Microbial “dysbiosis” can be responsible for outbreak of local and systemic infections, especially in critically ill patients. Methods: to build a narrative review, we performed a Pubmed, Medline and EMBASE search for English language papers, reviews, meta-analyses, case series and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) by keywords and their associations: critically ill patient; nutrition; gut microbiota; probiotics; gut virome; SARS-COV 2. Results: Over the antibiotic-based “selective decontamination”, potentially responsible for drug-resistant microorganisms development, there is growing interest of scientists and the pharmaceutical industry for pre-, probiotics and their associations as safe and reliable remedies restoring gut microbial “eubiosis”. Very first encouraging evidences link different gut microbiota profiles with SARS-COV 2 disease stage and gravity. Thus, there is frame for a probiotic therapeutic approach of COVID-19. Conclusions: gut microbiota remodulation seems to be a promising and safe therapeutic approach to prevent local and systemic multi-resistant bug infections in the intensive care unit (ICU) patients. This approach deserves more and more attention at the time of SARS-COV 2 pandemic. View Full-Text
Keywords: critically ill patient; nutrition; gut microbiota; probiotics; gut virome; SARS-COV 2 critically ill patient; nutrition; gut microbiota; probiotics; gut virome; SARS-COV 2
MDPI and ACS Style

Scarpellini, E.; Scarcella, L.; Romanelli, G.; Basilico, M.; Lattanzi, E.; Rasetti, C.; Abenavoli, L.; Santori, P. Nutritional Status and the Critically Ill Patient: Gut Microbiota and Immuno-Nutrition in I.C.U. at the Time of SARS-COV 2 Pandemic. Gastroenterol. Insights 2021, 12, 259-269. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/gastroent12020022

AMA Style

Scarpellini E, Scarcella L, Romanelli G, Basilico M, Lattanzi E, Rasetti C, Abenavoli L, Santori P. Nutritional Status and the Critically Ill Patient: Gut Microbiota and Immuno-Nutrition in I.C.U. at the Time of SARS-COV 2 Pandemic. Gastroenterology Insights. 2021; 12(2):259-269. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/gastroent12020022

Chicago/Turabian Style

Scarpellini, Emidio, Laura Scarcella, Giorgio Romanelli, Martina Basilico, Emiliano Lattanzi, Carlo Rasetti, Ludovico Abenavoli, and Pierangelo Santori. 2021. "Nutritional Status and the Critically Ill Patient: Gut Microbiota and Immuno-Nutrition in I.C.U. at the Time of SARS-COV 2 Pandemic" Gastroenterology Insights 12, no. 2: 259-269. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/gastroent12020022

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