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Foremost Concepts in Mechanisms of De Novo Post-Liver Transplantation Malignancy

1
Department of Gastroenterology, University Hospital Lozenetz, 1 Kozyak str., 1407 Sofia, Bulgaria
2
Department of Clinical Immunology, Medical Faculty, University Hospital Lozenetz, Sofia University, St. Kliment Ohridski, 1407 Sofia, Bulgaria
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Jean-Francois H. Geschwind
Gastroenterol. Insights 2021, 12(3), 283-292; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/gastroent12030025
Received: 9 May 2021 / Revised: 7 June 2021 / Accepted: 21 June 2021 / Published: 23 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Liver)
In liver transplant patients, solid tumors and post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD) have emerged as significant long-term mortality causes. Additionally, it is assumed that de novo malignancy (DNM) after liver transplantation (LT) is the second-leading cause of death after cardiovascular complications. Well-established risk factors for PTLD and solid tumors are calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs), tacrolimus (TAC), and cyclosporine, the cornerstones of all immunosuppressive (IS) therapies used after LT. The loss of immunocompetence facilitated by the host immune system due to prolonged IS therapy leads to cancer development, including in LT patients. Hindering DNA repair mechanisms, promoting tumor cell invasiveness, and hampering apoptosis are critical events in tumorigenesis and tumor growth in LT patients resulting from IS administration. This paper aims to overview the refined mechanisms of IS-induced tumorigenesis after LT and the loss of immunocompetence facilitated by the host immune system due to prolonged IS therapy. In addition, we also discuss in detail the mechanisms of action in different types of IS regimen used after LT, and their putative effect on DNM. View Full-Text
Keywords: liver transplantation; de novo malignancy; immunosuppressive therapy; calcineurin inhibitors; tacrolimus; cyclosporine; carcinogenesis; immune tolerance liver transplantation; de novo malignancy; immunosuppressive therapy; calcineurin inhibitors; tacrolimus; cyclosporine; carcinogenesis; immune tolerance
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MDPI and ACS Style

Peruhova, M.; Peshevska-Sekulovska, M.; Panayotova, G.; Velikova, T. Foremost Concepts in Mechanisms of De Novo Post-Liver Transplantation Malignancy. Gastroenterol. Insights 2021, 12, 283-292. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/gastroent12030025

AMA Style

Peruhova M, Peshevska-Sekulovska M, Panayotova G, Velikova T. Foremost Concepts in Mechanisms of De Novo Post-Liver Transplantation Malignancy. Gastroenterology Insights. 2021; 12(3):283-292. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/gastroent12030025

Chicago/Turabian Style

Peruhova, Milena, Monika Peshevska-Sekulovska, Gabriela Panayotova, and Tsvetelina Velikova. 2021. "Foremost Concepts in Mechanisms of De Novo Post-Liver Transplantation Malignancy" Gastroenterology Insights 12, no. 3: 283-292. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/gastroent12030025

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