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Volume 12, February

Infect. Dis. Rep., Volume 12, Issue 3 (December 2020) – 16 articles

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Open AccessArticle
Microbiological Testing of Gastric Aspirate Improves the Diagnosis of Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Unconscious Adults with TB Meningitis
Infect. Dis. Rep. 2020, 12(3), 134-140; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/idr12030025 - 20 Dec 2020
Viewed by 312
Abstract
Conventional sputum collection for TB diagnosis is difficult in TB meningitis patients since most of them are admitted with decreased consciousness. It is assumed that unconscious patients swallow their sputum; therefore, gastric aspiration can replace sputum collection in unconscious patients. A prospective study [...] Read more.
Conventional sputum collection for TB diagnosis is difficult in TB meningitis patients since most of them are admitted with decreased consciousness. It is assumed that unconscious patients swallow their sputum; therefore, gastric aspiration can replace sputum collection in unconscious patients. A prospective study was conducted to see whether examining gastric aspirate could increase the diagnosis certainty of pulmonary TB in such subjects. The inclusion criteria were age 18–60 years, decreased level of consciousness, and use of a nasogastric tube. Subjects who had taken antituberculosis drugs for more than 3 days were excluded. Gastric lavage was performed in the morning after an overnight fast. Specimens were examined for direct smear, culture, and rapid molecular testing. Demographic, clinical, chest X-ray, and laboratory data were also recorded. During the study period, 31 subjects were available. The positivity rates for microbiological tests were 19.3%, 41.9%, and 48.4% for smear, culture, and rapid molecular testing, respectively. All positive smears were confirmed by either culture or rapid molecular testing. Gastric lavage can be considered a tool for improving extraneural TB diagnosis in unconscious patients. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial
Introducing Infectious Disease Reports: Past, Present and Future
Infect. Dis. Rep. 2020, 12(3), 132-133; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/idr12030024 - 11 Dec 2020
Viewed by 431
Abstract
The first two decades of the New Millenium have faced several and threatening problems in healthcare [...] Full article
Open AccessArticle
Transition of Serum Cytokine Concentration in Rickettsia japonica Infection
Infect. Dis. Rep. 2020, 12(3), 127-131; https://doi.org/10.3390/idr12030023 - 11 Dec 2020
Viewed by 370
Abstract
(1) Background. Rickettsia japonica (R. japonica) infection induces severe inflammation, and the disappearance of eosinophil in the acute stage is one of the phenomena. (2) Materials and Methods. In the current study, we measured the serum concentrations of Th1, Th2, and [...] Read more.
(1) Background. Rickettsia japonica (R. japonica) infection induces severe inflammation, and the disappearance of eosinophil in the acute stage is one of the phenomena. (2) Materials and Methods. In the current study, we measured the serum concentrations of Th1, Th2, and Th17 cytokines in the acute and recovery stages. (3) Results. In the acute phase, IL-6 and IFN-γ levels were elevated and we speculated that they played a role as a defense mechanism against R. japonica. The high concentration of IFN-γ suppressed the differentiation of eosinophil and induced apoptosis of eosinophil, leading to the disappearance of eosinophil. On day 7, IL-6 and IFN-γ concentrations were decreased, and Th2 cytokines such as IL-5 and IL-9 were slightly increased. On day 14, eosinophil count recovered to the normal level. The transition of serum cytokine concentration in R. japonica infection was presented. (4) Conclusions. IL-6 and IFN-γ seem to be critical cytokines as defense mechanism against R. japonica in the acute phase, and this may deeply connect to the decrease of eosinophil. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Spontaneous Pathologic Splenic Rupture in a Patient with Plasmodium falciparum Infection, First Case Reported in Israel
Infect. Dis. Rep. 2020, 12(3), 121-126; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/idr12030022 - 08 Dec 2020
Viewed by 350
Abstract
Travelers exposed to malaria may develop severe disease and complications. A less well-known complication is spontaneous pathologic splenic rupture, which is still under-reported and has never been reported in Israel. In this paper, we report a 23 years old healthy young man presenting [...] Read more.
Travelers exposed to malaria may develop severe disease and complications. A less well-known complication is spontaneous pathologic splenic rupture, which is still under-reported and has never been reported in Israel. In this paper, we report a 23 years old healthy young man presenting in the emergency department, two weeks after coming back from Sierra Leone, with intermittent fever, mild tachycardia and mild left upper quadrant abdominal pain. The patient was diagnosed with Plasmodium falciparum infection and developed rapidly after hospital admission spleen rupture. He was managed conservatively at first but ultimately underwent splenectomy after being hemodynamically unstable. In the recovery period, the patient developed acute respiratory distress syndrome and was reintubated. A high level of suspicion is recommended in every malaria patient presenting with left upper quadrant abdominal pain, even if minimal. Ultrasonography availability in the internal medicine department may be a critical diagnostic tool, especially in non-endemic areas. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication
First Insights into Clinical and Resistance Features of Infections by Klebsiella pneumoniae among Oncological Patients from a Referral Center in Amazon Region, Brazil
Infect. Dis. Rep. 2020, 12(3), 110-120; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/idr12030021 - 03 Dec 2020
Viewed by 409
Abstract
Klebsiella pneumoniae appears as one of the most prevalent pathogens among cancer patients. The present study investigates the clinical, epidemiological and microbiological aspects related to infections caused by K. pneumoniae in cancer patients treated at an oncology referral center in the state of [...] Read more.
Klebsiella pneumoniae appears as one of the most prevalent pathogens among cancer patients. The present study investigates the clinical, epidemiological and microbiological aspects related to infections caused by K. pneumoniae in cancer patients treated at an oncology referral center in the state of Pará, Amazon region, Brazil. Between July 2017 to July 2019, an epidemiological, observational, cross-sectional study, with a descriptive and analytical approach was conducted, including patients with confirmed diagnosis of cancer who acquired infection by K. pneumoniae 72 h after hospital admission. K. pneumoniae isolates included in the study were obtained from different clinical materials (blood, urine, catheter tip and bladder catheter, orotracheal secretions, oncological and surgical wounds). Antimicrobial susceptibility testing and molecular detection of the carbapenemase-encoding genes were performed. A high prevalence of MDR K. pneumoniae isolates was observed, including two colistin-resistant isolates and seven isolates harboring blaKPC-1 gene. To conclude, our findings provide the firsts insights into the epidemiology and infection by K. pneumoniae in the state of Pará, Brazil, and may be useful on treatment guidance and establishment of strategies to control the spread of resistance strains of K. pneumoniae in the region. Full article
Open AccessReview
Infective Endocarditis Caused by Pseudomonas stutzeri: A Case Report and Literature Review
Infect. Dis. Rep. 2020, 12(3), 105-109; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/idr12030020 - 02 Dec 2020
Viewed by 429
Abstract
Pseudomonas bacteria are widespread pathogens that account for considerable infections with significant morbidity and mortality, especially in hospitalized patients. The Pseudomonas genus contains a large number of species; however, the majority of infections are caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, infections by other Pseudomonas [...] Read more.
Pseudomonas bacteria are widespread pathogens that account for considerable infections with significant morbidity and mortality, especially in hospitalized patients. The Pseudomonas genus contains a large number of species; however, the majority of infections are caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, infections by other Pseudomonas species are less reported. Pseudomonas stutzeri is a ubiquitous Gram-negative bacterium that has been reported as a causative agent of some infections, particularly in immunocompromised patients but has rarely been reported as a cause of infective endocarditis. Here, we report a case of a 55-year-old female with no significant medical history who presented with exertional dyspnea, productive cough, and fever. She was diagnosed as a case of acute anterior ST myocardial infarction, underwent double valve replacement surgery, and was found to have infective endocarditis caused by Pseudomonas stutzeri. Full article
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Open AccessCase Report
BCG Vaccination Status, Age, and Gender as Risk Factors for Leprosy in Endemic Areas in the Brazilian Amazon
Infect. Dis. Rep. 2020, 12(3), 97-104; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/idr12030019 - 27 Nov 2020
Viewed by 419
Abstract
In 2018, 208,619 new cases of leprosy were reported to the World Health Organization (WHO). Of these, 30,957 occurred in the Americas region and 28,660 (92.6% of the total in the Americas) were reported in Brazil. This study aimed to show the reality [...] Read more.
In 2018, 208,619 new cases of leprosy were reported to the World Health Organization (WHO). Of these, 30,957 occurred in the Americas region and 28,660 (92.6% of the total in the Americas) were reported in Brazil. This study aimed to show the reality of the profile of a population in an endemic leprosy area in northern Brazil in relation to age, gender, and bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG) vaccination status through the collection of data in the field with the evaluation of the study individuals, who were recruited by spontaneous demand. A total of 405 individuals participated in the study, with 100 multibacillary, 57 paucibacillary, and 248 healthy contacts. A relationship was observed between the occurrence of the disease, as well as the multibacillary form with the largest age group. The male gender was associated with leprosy per se, with the multibacillary form and was the largest representative of the group that was not vaccinated once. BCG vaccination was effective both in protecting against leprosy per se and in the multibacillary form. These results are limited by sample size, may not be conclusive, and will need further confirmation in a larger cohort. Full article
Open AccessCase Report
Atypical Streptococcal Meningitis with Fatal Cerebrovascular Complications: A Case Report
Infect. Dis. Rep. 2020, 12(3), 87-96; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/idr12030018 - 21 Nov 2020
Viewed by 405
Abstract
Bacterial meningitis is an infectious pathology that remains a public health challenge. The most frequent etiological agent is Streptococcus pneumoniae, which is also associated with higher rates of mortality and sequels. However, less is known about the clinical presentation of atypical non- [...] Read more.
Bacterial meningitis is an infectious pathology that remains a public health challenge. The most frequent etiological agent is Streptococcus pneumoniae, which is also associated with higher rates of mortality and sequels. However, less is known about the clinical presentation of atypical non-pneumoniae streptococcal meningitis. Here, we studied a 23-year-old man with no medical background who presented with projectile vomiting, states of consciousness alteration, unilateral cranial nerve palsy, and meningeal signs. Neuroimaging showed tonsillar herniation, regions of empyema, right transverse and sigmoid sinuses thrombosis, and multiple arterial subcortical infarcts. Cerebrospinal fluid suggested bacterial infection; blood and abscess cultures were positive for Streptococcus constellatus. The patient received antibiotics with no clinical improvement. He deteriorated over the following days, the abolishment of brainstem reflexes was observed, and brain death was declared. Streptococcal meningitis produced by atypical species is a potential cause of lethal cerebrovascular complications, even in immunocompetent patients. Full article
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Open AccessCase Report
Fatal Outcome in a Hepatitis E Virus/Human Immunodeficiency Virus Co-Infected Malnourished Child in the Central African Republic
Infect. Dis. Rep. 2020, 12(3), 82-86; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/idr12030017 - 12 Nov 2020
Viewed by 393
Abstract
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is responsible for major endemic outbreaks in developing countries. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and HEV are widespread in the Central African Republic. We report the first documented case of an HEV infection in a 36-month-old child already suffering [...] Read more.
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is responsible for major endemic outbreaks in developing countries. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and HEV are widespread in the Central African Republic. We report the first documented case of an HEV infection in a 36-month-old child already suffering from HIV and severe acute malnutrition (SAM). The HIV patient was hospitalized for SAM with persistent diarrhea and prolonged fever. The presence of IgG anti-HEV antibodies was noted. Sequencing of the amplified HEV RNA revealed the presence of genotype 3c. The alanine aminotransferase level was slightly above average. The patient died despite being treated by antiretroviral therapy accompanied by probabilistic antibiotic therapy and nutritional rehabilitation. HEV/HIV co-infection in a malnourished patient can accelerate a fatal outcome. In the presence of biological abnormalities in a severe acutely malnourished HIV-infected patient, HEV RNA detection should be added to the standard medical assessment in sub-Saharan African countries. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Trends of Late Presentation to Care in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C during a 10-Year Period in Croatia
Infect. Dis. Rep. 2020, 12(3), 74-81; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/idr12030016 - 11 Nov 2020
Viewed by 404
Abstract
Late presentation to care is the major obstacle to receiving treatment for chronic hepatitis C (CHC). Our aim was to analyze the prevalence and trends of late presenters (LP) at first consultations in Croatia during a 10-year period. This retrospective cross-sectional study included [...] Read more.
Late presentation to care is the major obstacle to receiving treatment for chronic hepatitis C (CHC). Our aim was to analyze the prevalence and trends of late presenters (LP) at first consultations in Croatia during a 10-year period. This retrospective cross-sectional study included all adult CHC patients (n = 854) entering specialist medical care at the University Hospital for Infectious Diseases Zagreb between 2009 and 2018. LP was defined as liver stiffness measurement ≥ 9.5 kPa or biopsy METAVIR F ≥ 3. During the study period, mean patients’ age increased from 37 to 52 years while HCV genotype distribution changed leading to the replacement of genotype 1b with 1a (g1b 32% to 21%; g1a 19% to 38%). A total of 320 (37.4%) were LP; they were older (47.5, IQR 40.5–57.6), and more commonly infected with g1b (34.1%) and g3 (42.5%). The prevalence of LP significantly increased from 31.9% in 2009 to 46.5% in 2018. Late presentation for care of CHC is increasing in Croatia suggesting a gap of diagnosing strategies in patients over 50 years. Full article
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Open AccessCase Report
Enterococcus casseliflavus Bacteraemia in a Patient with Chronic Renal Disease
Infect. Dis. Rep. 2020, 12(3), 70-73; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/idr12030015 - 04 Nov 2020
Viewed by 414
Abstract
Enterococcus casseliflavus is a rare pathogen that usually causes urinary tract and abdominal infections. Its main characteristics are positive motility, yellow colonies and constitutive low-level resistance to vancomycin. We present a case of E. casseliflavus bacteraemia due to thrombophlebitis at the site of [...] Read more.
Enterococcus casseliflavus is a rare pathogen that usually causes urinary tract and abdominal infections. Its main characteristics are positive motility, yellow colonies and constitutive low-level resistance to vancomycin. We present a case of E. casseliflavus bacteraemia due to thrombophlebitis at the site of the central venous catheter used for hemodialysis in a renal patient. The biochemical identification of the microorganism was further corroborated by molecular detection of the vanC gene. The patient received antibiotic therapy initially with daptomycin and gentamicin, and then with ampicillin and ceftriaxone. The outcome was cure, and he was released from the hospital after seven weeks afebrile with negative blood cultures. Full article
Open AccessCase Report
Panton-Valentine Leukocidin-Producing Staphylococcus aureus Infection: A Case Series
Infect. Dis. Rep. 2020, 12(3), 61-69; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/idr12030014 - 03 Nov 2020
Viewed by 450
Abstract
Panton-Valentine leukocidin-producing Staphylococcus aureus (PVL-SA) is associated with relapsing multifocal skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI), necrotizing pneumonia (NP) and severe musculoskeletal infections. Epidemiology is underknown and underdiagnosis is likely. Recent travel abroad, case clustering and relapsing disease are often reported. We reviewed [...] Read more.
Panton-Valentine leukocidin-producing Staphylococcus aureus (PVL-SA) is associated with relapsing multifocal skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI), necrotizing pneumonia (NP) and severe musculoskeletal infections. Epidemiology is underknown and underdiagnosis is likely. Recent travel abroad, case clustering and relapsing disease are often reported. We reviewed all cases of PVL-SA infection diagnosed at our center, and found 21 cases over a 43-month period. Most patients were adult males, had relevant travel history, reported recurrent disease and presented with SSTI. Etiologic diagnosis took up to five years; meanwhile, 42% of patients had antibiotic treatments. Draining procedures were required in 43% of patients and intensive care support in 19%. All patients recovered. Methicillin-resistance prevalence was 24%. Only 2/13 decolonized patients had posterior relapsing SSTI, both with likely infected contacts. PVL-SA infection’s severity and impact are clear, even in small case series as ours. Physician awareness and active PVL-gene search are crucial for an adequate management. Full article
Open AccessCase Report
Case Series of Dengue Fever in Peripartum Period: Maternal and Foetal Outcome
Infect. Dis. Rep. 2020, 12(3), 51-60; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/idr12030013 - 02 Nov 2020
Viewed by 441
Abstract
Introduction: Dengue fever is a major public health problem in tropical and subtropical areas. There are not many studies concerning the complications of dengue fever in pregnancy. We present four serial cases of dengue fever in pregnancy. Case illustration: Three of [...] Read more.
Introduction: Dengue fever is a major public health problem in tropical and subtropical areas. There are not many studies concerning the complications of dengue fever in pregnancy. We present four serial cases of dengue fever in pregnancy. Case illustration: Three of four cases were delivered by caesarean section; two of them died during post-caesarean care. All cases had the lowest platelet level below 50,000/µL and were given platelet transfusion during and after delivery; they also showed abnormal liver function tests. For foetal outcome, none tested positive for dengue. Discussion: Complication of dengue infection depends on a combination of host and viral virulence. Regardless of prophylactic platelet transfusion, some studies revealed clinical bleeding in patients with dengue infection due to an intricate effect on the haemostatic system. The adverse foetal outcome may contribute because of placental circulation caused by endothelial damage with increased vascular permeability leading to plasma leakage. There is no national guideline for dengue fever in pregnancy. Conclusions: The management of dengue fever in pregnancy at the tertiary hospital is still suboptimal. Dengue fever around peripartum presents a higher risk of morbidity and mortality for the mother and therefore needs a multidiscipline team approach. Full article
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Open AccessCase Report
Aortic Prosthesis-Associated MDR Pseudomonas Infections as a Diagnostic and Therapeutic Challenge
Infect. Dis. Rep. 2020, 12(3), 46-50; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/idr12030012 - 02 Nov 2020
Viewed by 395
Abstract
Endovascular prostheses are used to treat life-threatening conditions such as ruptured aortic aneurysms. Prosthetic infection cause significant morbidity and mortality, posing important diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. It is particularly difficult to diagnose and, in the era of multidrug resistance (MDR), these type of [...] Read more.
Endovascular prostheses are used to treat life-threatening conditions such as ruptured aortic aneurysms. Prosthetic infection cause significant morbidity and mortality, posing important diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. It is particularly difficult to diagnose and, in the era of multidrug resistance (MDR), these type of infections may become even more difficult to treat. Herein, we reported a case of a secondary prosthetic endovascular infection following repeated bacteremia episodes from a urinary source. This case illustrates an MDR Pseudomonas aeruginosa aortic infection that was difficult to diagnose with no oral antibiotic treatment options. Full article
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Open AccessCase Report
Melioidosis of the Head and Neck: A Case Series from Eastern India
Infect. Dis. Rep. 2020, 12(3), 36-45; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/idr12030011 - 29 Oct 2020
Viewed by 354
Abstract
Melioidosis is an emerging entity in India. Though it is a potentially fatal disease, prognosis is excellent with early detection and appropriate management, especially of localized infections like abscesses of the head and neck area. We report nine cases of focal abscesses in [...] Read more.
Melioidosis is an emerging entity in India. Though it is a potentially fatal disease, prognosis is excellent with early detection and appropriate management, especially of localized infections like abscesses of the head and neck area. We report nine cases of focal abscesses in the head and neck region due to Burkholderia pseudomallei, the causative agent of melioidosis, presenting to our hospital within a span of two-and-half years. Since melioidotic abscesses in the cervicofacial and head and neck region are likely to be confused with cold abscesses caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a tuberculosis-endemic country like India, increased vigilance is necessary because of the widely divergent treatment modalities of the two disease entities. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial
Publisher’s Note: Continued Publication of Infectious Disease Reports by MDPI
Infect. Dis. Rep. 2020, 12(3), 35; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/idr12030010 - 16 Oct 2020
Viewed by 522
Abstract
Infectious Disease Reports was launched in 2009 and it has been published over the past eleven years by PAGEPress Publications [...] Full article
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