Background: In cases with solid tumors, preoperative radiological investigations provide valuable information on the anatomy of the tumor and the adjoining structures, thus helping in operative planning. However, due to a two-dimensional view in these investigations, a detailed spatial relationship is difficult to
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Background: In cases with solid tumors, preoperative radiological investigations provide valuable information on the anatomy of the tumor and the adjoining structures, thus helping in operative planning. However, due to a two-dimensional view in these investigations, a detailed spatial relationship is difficult to decipher. In contrast, three-dimensional (3D) printing technology provides a precise topographic view to perform safe surgical resections of these tumors. This systematic review aimed to summarize and analyze current evidence on the utility of 3D printing in pediatric extra-cranial solid tumors. Methods: The present study was registered on PROSPERO—international prospective register of systematic reviews (registration number: CRD42020206022). PubMed, Embase, SCOPUS, and Google Scholar databases were explored with appropriate search criteria to select the relevant studies. Data were extracted to study the bibliographic information of each article, the number of patients in each study, age of the patient(s), type of tumor, organ of involvement, application of 3D printing (surgical planning, training, and/or parental education). The details of 3D printing, such as type of imaging used, software details, printing technique, printing material, and cost were also synthesized. Results: Eight studies were finally included in the systematic review. Three-dimensional printing technology was used in thirty children with Wilms tumor (n = 13), neuroblastoma (n = 7), hepatic tumors (n = 8), retroperitoneal tumor (n = 1), and synovial sarcoma (n = 1). Among the included studies, the technology was utilized for preoperative surgical planning (five studies), improved understanding of the surgical anatomy of solid organs (two studies), and improving the parental understanding of the tumor and its management (one study). Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging were either performed alone or in combination for radiological evaluation in these children. Different types of printers and printing materials were used in the included studies. The cost of the 3D printed models and time involved (range 10 h to 4–5 days) were reported by two studies each. Conclusions: 3D printed models can be of great assistance to pediatric surgeons in understanding the spatial relationships of tumors with the adjacent anatomic structures. They also facilitate the understanding of families, improving doctor–patient communication.