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Pediatr. Rep., Volume 16, Issue 1 (March 2024) – 20 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Since the previous century, pediatric obesity (PO) has been a major health concern in the developed world. Recently, its prevalence has increased in low- and middle-income countries, as well as in many high-income countries. Thus, the provision of effective, tailored care for children with pediatric obesity and their families is vital. The social consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic are well known; moreover, it has been argued that it had a major impact on PO. Indeed, the pandemic accelerated the increase in PO over the past decade. During the COVID-19 pandemic, children, adolescents and young adults gained weight since the pediatric population experienced sedentary lifestyles and changes in eating habits. In this review, the authors highlight the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on PO. View this paper
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11 pages, 552 KiB  
Article
Two versus Three Infusion Regimens of N-Acetylcysteine for Acetaminophen Overdose
by Shadi Tamur, Bader Alyahya, Faisal Alsani, Ammar Abdulraheem Bahauddin, Maryam Aljaid, Sultan Al-Malki, Ahmad Alzahrani, Abdullah Khayat, Anwar Shams and Dominic S. Chalut
Pediatr. Rep. 2024, 16(1), 232-242; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/pediatric16010020 - 20 Mar 2024
Viewed by 982
Abstract
Background: Acetaminophen overdose is a common clinical condition, often leading to liver toxicity. Current treatments involve the three-infusion N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) regimen (FDA-labeled), which may be complex, time-consuming, and need to be changed. An alternative uses two infusions instead, which offers possible advantages regarding [...] Read more.
Background: Acetaminophen overdose is a common clinical condition, often leading to liver toxicity. Current treatments involve the three-infusion N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) regimen (FDA-labeled), which may be complex, time-consuming, and need to be changed. An alternative uses two infusions instead, which offers possible advantages regarding simplicity and administration errors. This study sought to compare the respective efficacies and safety outcomes when treating acute acetaminophen overdose among children and adolescents. Methods: At Montreal Children’s Hospital, a retrospective study was conducted comparing pre-2003 FDA-labelled three-infusion NAC therapy with a two-infusion regimen. Information was collected regarding patient demographics, NAC administration details, errors, rates of hepatotoxicity, and adverse reactions, and the statistical test Chi-square test was employed to obtain the results. Results: A total of 126 patients met the inclusion criteria. Of these patients, 65 received a two-infusion regimen, and 61 patients received the FDA-labeled regimen. The two-infusion group experienced significantly fewer administration errors (4 errors vs. 23 errors; p < 0.001), while the rates of hepatotoxicity between them were similar. There were no instances of liver transplantation or mortality due to either regimen. Adverse reactions occurred equally frequently between both regimens with no discernible difference—the meantime to administer NAC was 9 h for the two-infusion regimen and 8.5 h for FDA-labeled regimen groups, respectively. Three cases of hepatitis were successfully treated with timely NAC therapy, and no liver transplantation or mortality occurred. Adverse reactions, including anaphylactoid reactions, were observed in both groups but were resolved when temporarily stopped and restarted at a slower infusion rate. Conclusions: The two-infusion NAC regimen proved similar efficacy at protecting liver damage and improving patient outcomes compared to its FDA-labeled three-stage counterpart, with significantly fewer administration errors for this version of NAC treatment, suggesting potential advantages in terms of safety and simplicity. Future research should investigate larger cohorts and more variables to validate these results further and optimize the management of acetaminophen overdose cases; further investigation should focus on dosing strategies, personalized approaches, and long-term patient care in this context. Full article
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18 pages, 665 KiB  
Review
School Medical Service: Strategies to Promote Psycho-Physiological Well-Being
by Francesco Tafuri and Francesca Latino
Pediatr. Rep. 2024, 16(1), 214-231; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/pediatric16010019 - 19 Mar 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 604
Abstract
Schools represent the ideal setting for educating children about the acquisition of active lifestyles seen not only from a health point of view but also from psycho-pedagogical and social perspectives. Based on evidence from scientific literature, there is a need to include physical [...] Read more.
Schools represent the ideal setting for educating children about the acquisition of active lifestyles seen not only from a health point of view but also from psycho-pedagogical and social perspectives. Based on evidence from scientific literature, there is a need to include physical activity in school routines, especially in primary schools, where the habits learned by children stay with them in their later years and adulthood. With the support of the school medicine service, schools become a favorable context for planning health education sessions aimed at students, with particular reference to prevention. Within teaching, it is necessary to consider the motor area as a fundamental tool for acquiring correct lifestyles, facilitating cognitive development, inclusiveness, and psycho-emotional and socio-relational factors. Schools can play a fundamental role, becoming the key to promoting physical activity at different times of the day, such as during class hours (with active breaks), during breaks, before and after lessons, and by integrating movement into teaching. This review is the result of an in-depth overview of the available literature on the relationship of schools with health and health promotion from a preventive perspective, with awareness of how the issue is being approached and the need for further future reflections that will go hand in hand with the coming changes. Full article
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13 pages, 490 KiB  
Review
Pediatric Lemierre’s Syndrome: A Comprehensive Literature Review
by Salvatore Lavalle, Edoardo Masiello, Salvatore Cocuzza, Piero Pavone, Alessandra Di Nora, Christian Calvo-Henriquez, Jerome Rene Lechien, Miguel Mayo Yanez, Andrea Praticò, Manuela Ceccarelli, Giannicola Iannella, Annalisa Pace, Federica Maria Parisi, Giuseppe Magliulo and Antonino Maniaci
Pediatr. Rep. 2024, 16(1), 201-213; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/pediatric16010018 - 18 Mar 2024
Viewed by 991
Abstract
Background: Lemierre syndrome is a rare, potentially fatal complication of oropharyngeal infections characterized by septic thrombophlebitis of the internal jugular vein. It primarily affects healthy adolescents and young adults. Its incidence declined after the antibiotic era, but it may have resurged in recent [...] Read more.
Background: Lemierre syndrome is a rare, potentially fatal complication of oropharyngeal infections characterized by septic thrombophlebitis of the internal jugular vein. It primarily affects healthy adolescents and young adults. Its incidence declined after the antibiotic era, but it may have resurged in recent decades, likely due to judicious antibiotic use and increasing bacterial resistance. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are imperative to prevent significant morbidity and mortality. Methods: Lemierre syndrome has been called “the forgotten disease,” with a reported incidence of around 3.6 cases per million. The mean age at presentation is around 20 years old, though it can occur at any age. Lemierre Syndrome follows an oropharyngeal infection, most commonly pharyngitis, leading to septic thrombophlebitis of the internal jugular vein. F. necrophorum is the classic pathogen, though other organisms are being increasingly isolated. Metastatic infections, especially pulmonary, are common complications. Contrast-enhanced CT of the neck confirming internal jugular vein thrombosis is the gold standard for diagnosis. Long-course broad-spectrum IV antibiotics covering anaerobes are the mainstays of the disease’s treatment. Anticoagulation may also be considered. Mortality rates are high without treatment, but most patients recover fully with appropriate therapy. Conclusions: Lemierre syndrome should be suspected in patients with prolonged pharyngitis followed by unilateral neck swelling and fevers. Early diagnosis and prompt antibiotic therapy are key, given the potential for disastrous outcomes if untreated. An increased awareness of Lemierre syndrome facilitates its timely management. Full article
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11 pages, 1950 KiB  
Article
Suprapubic and Transurethral Bladder Access for Voiding Cystourethrography in Pediatric Male Patients
by Wiebke Schlötelburg, Clemens Benoit, Mandy Kasper, Bernhard Petritsch, Andreas Max Weng, Thorsten Alexander Bley and Simon Veldhoen
Pediatr. Rep. 2024, 16(1), 190-200; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/pediatric16010017 - 13 Mar 2024
Viewed by 817
Abstract
Purpose: To compare suprapubic access (SPA) and transurethral catheterization (TUC) in voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG). Methods: Retrospective single-center evaluation of 311 VCUG performed in male patients under 12 years of age. Two study groups were built based on the bladder access method. TUC was [...] Read more.
Purpose: To compare suprapubic access (SPA) and transurethral catheterization (TUC) in voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG). Methods: Retrospective single-center evaluation of 311 VCUG performed in male patients under 12 years of age. Two study groups were built based on the bladder access method. TUC was performed in 213 patients, whereas 98 received SPA. The groups were compared regarding the procedural switch rate, the complication rate, radiation parameters, the amount of contrast media applied and the examination quality. Complications were graded in minor (contrast leakage, premature termination of the examination) and major (fever, urinary tract infection, bladder perforation). Fluoroscopy time and radiation parameters were compared. Examination quality was assessed based on the satisfactory acquisition of fluoroscopic images using a four-point Likert scale. Results: In 9% of the SPA examinations a method switch to TUC was necessary. The minor complication rate was 1.9% for TUC and 35.7% for SPA (p < 0.001). The major complication rate was 0.9% for TUC and 2% for SPA (p > 0.05). Mean fluoroscopy time and radiation dose were significantly lower in TUC (TUC, 26 ± 19 s, 0.6 ± 1.2 µGy·m2; SPA, 38 ± 33 s, 1.7 ± 2.9 µGy·m2; p = 0.01/0.001). There was no significant difference regarding the amount of contrast media applied (TUC, 62 ± 40 mL; SPA, 66 ± 41 mL; p > 0.05) and the examination quality with full diagnostic quality achieved in 88% of TUC and 89% of SPA examinations (p > 0.05). Conclusions: As TUC provides significantly lower radiation exposure and less periprocedural complications, it should be the primary bladder access route for VCUG in pediatric male patients. Full article
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16 pages, 892 KiB  
Article
A Comparison of Parent Reports, the Mental Synthesis Evaluation Checklist (MSEC) and the Autism Treatment Evaluation Checklist (ATEC), with the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS)
by Rebecca Netson, Andriane Schmiedel Fucks, Andressa Schmiedel Sanches Santos, Lucas Ernesto Pavoski Poloni, Nilson Noboru Nacano, Elielton Fucks, Katarina Radi, William E. Strong, Alice Aparecida Carnaval, María Russo, Rohan Venkatesh and Andrey Vyshedskiy
Pediatr. Rep. 2024, 16(1), 174-189; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/pediatric16010016 - 11 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1737
Abstract
This study compares two parent reports, the Mental Synthesis Evaluation Checklist (MSEC) and the Autism Treatment Evaluation Checklist (ATEC), with the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS). The ATEC consists of four subscales, as follows: (1) expressive language, (2) sociability, (3) sensory awareness, and [...] Read more.
This study compares two parent reports, the Mental Synthesis Evaluation Checklist (MSEC) and the Autism Treatment Evaluation Checklist (ATEC), with the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS). The ATEC consists of four subscales, as follows: (1) expressive language, (2) sociability, (3) sensory awareness, and (4) health. The MSEC is complementary to the ATEC in measuring complex language comprehension. The parents of 143 autistic children, from 2 to 22 years of age (mean 6.7 ± 5.1 years), completed the MSEC and the ATEC questionnaires and a clinician assessed their CARS score. The CARS score correlated strongly with all parent reports, the complex language comprehension MSEC (r = 0.60, p < 0.0001), expressive language (r = 0.66, p < 0.0001), sociability (r = 0.58, p < 0.0001), sensory awareness (r = 0.71, p < 0.0001), and health (r = 0.53, p < 0.0001), as well as the total ATEC score (r = 0.75, p < 0.0001). The strongest correlation was between the CARS score and the composite of all five parent-reported scores (total ATEC + MSEC, r = 0.77, p < 0.0001). These results suggest a high fidelity of the MSEC and ATEC parent reports and especially of their composite score, total ATEC + MSEC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Pediatric Psychology)
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11 pages, 1571 KiB  
Article
Awareness of Child Abuse and Neglect: A Prospective Interventional Study among Schoolteachers from Andhra Pradesh
by Anuja Singaraju, Venkata Ratna Kumar Rudravaram, Sivakumar Nuvvula and Sreekanth Kumar Mallineni
Pediatr. Rep. 2024, 16(1), 163-173; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/pediatric16010015 - 27 Feb 2024
Viewed by 888
Abstract
Aim: To assess the awareness of schoolteachers from Andhra Pradesh towards child abuse and neglect (CAN) through pre- and post-educational intervention (audiovisual aid) questionnaires. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 300 schoolteachers using a 12-item questionnaire that was created using [...] Read more.
Aim: To assess the awareness of schoolteachers from Andhra Pradesh towards child abuse and neglect (CAN) through pre- and post-educational intervention (audiovisual aid) questionnaires. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 300 schoolteachers using a 12-item questionnaire that was created using the standard focus group discussion method. Baseline awareness of CAN was assessed using the questionnaire. Subsequently, all the schoolteachers were educated regarding the various types of CAN and the process of reporting CAN using an audiovisual aid. The same questionnaire was re-administered to all the teachers immediately after the intervention and after three months. The data were statistically analyzed using Fisher’s exact test to compare the frequency and distribution of responses among the study participants at various intervals. Results: A statistically significant difference (p value < 0.05) was observed in the awareness of the schoolteachers regarding CAN compared to the baseline and immediately after the intervention. However, there was no statistically significant difference (p value > 0.05) between immediately after the intervention and three months. Conclusion: There is a need to have awareness among schoolteachers concerning CAN. However, after education through audiovisual aids, teachers’ awareness of CAN has been improved. Full article
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12 pages, 1889 KiB  
Article
Clinical, Immunological and Inflammatory Characteristics among Mexican Children with Different Subtypes of Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis: Exploring the Correlation between Anti-Cyclic Citrullinated Peptide (anti-CCP) and Rheumatoid Factor (RF)
by Hayde Guadalupe Hernández-Huirache, Dagoberto Armenta-Medina and Edel Rafael Rodea-Montero
Pediatr. Rep. 2024, 16(1), 151-162; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/pediatric16010014 - 7 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1106
Abstract
Introduction: Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is the most common chronic rheumatic disease in childhood, affecting one to four of every 1000 children worldwide. It is characterized by joint inflammation lasting more than six weeks in children under 16 years. The aim of this [...] Read more.
Introduction: Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is the most common chronic rheumatic disease in childhood, affecting one to four of every 1000 children worldwide. It is characterized by joint inflammation lasting more than six weeks in children under 16 years. The aim of this study was to estimate the frequency of JIA subtypes in the Mexican patient population; compare clinical, immunological and inflammation markers by JIA subtype; and examine the correlation between these variables. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 50 patients with JIA (2–15 years). We estimated the frequency of each JIA subtype, assessed and compared the immunological characteristics (RF, ANA and anti-CCP) by JIA subtype at the time of diagnosis using Kruskal–Wallis or chi-square tests, and calculated Spearman correlation coefficients between the assessments. Results: Our analysis included 50 patients, 29 (58%) girls and 21 (42%) boys, aged at the time of diagnosis 10.56  ±  3.99 years. The frequencies of JIA subtypes were RF-seropositive polyarthritis (34%), RF-seronegative polyarthritis (28%), systemic arthritis (16%), oligoarthritis (14%) and arthritis-related enthesitis (8%). We found a significant association between sex and JIA subtype (p = 0.014). There was a significant difference in anti-CCP levels by JIA subtype (p < 0.001). We also detected positive correlations between RF and anti-CCP (r = 0.63, p < 0.001) and between age and anti-CCP (r = 0.29, p = 0.041). Conclusions: Our study suggests that the frequency of the polyarticular subtypes of JIA is higher in Mexican children compared to other populations. Our findings highlight the importance of considering the presence of anti-CCP and RF as important criteria when deciding on treatment for JIA patients as elevated levels of these antibodies may indicate early forms of adult rheumatoid arthritis. Full article
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16 pages, 931 KiB  
Review
The Ongoing Impact of COVID-19 on Pediatric Obesity
by Domenico Iacopetta, Alessia Catalano, Jessica Ceramella, Michele Pellegrino, Maria Marra, Elisabetta Scali, Maria Stefania Sinicropi and Stefano Aquaro
Pediatr. Rep. 2024, 16(1), 135-150; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/pediatric16010013 - 2 Feb 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1273
Abstract
In the developed world, pediatric obesity (PO) has been a major health concern since the last century, and this condition may lead to detrimental life-long physical and mental comorbidities. Currently, its prevalence has increased in low- and middle-income countries and in many high-income [...] Read more.
In the developed world, pediatric obesity (PO) has been a major health concern since the last century, and this condition may lead to detrimental life-long physical and mental comorbidities. Currently, its prevalence has increased in low- and middle-income countries and in many high-income countries. Thus, the provision of effective and tailored care for children and their families has become vital. The social consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic are known everywhere, and among these, it has been argued that the COVID-19 pandemic has had a major impact on PO. Overall, the growth of PO over the last decade has been enhanced by the pandemic. During the COVID-19 pandemic, children, adolescents and young adults gained weight as the pediatric population dealt with sedentary lifestyles and changes in food habits. In this review, we want to highlight the impact that the COVID-19 pandemic had on PO. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Pediatric Psychology)
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21 pages, 1044 KiB  
Review
The Concept of Child-Centred Care in Healthcare: A Scoping Review
by Bernie Carter, Sarah Young, Karen Ford and Steven Campbell
Pediatr. Rep. 2024, 16(1), 114-134; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/pediatric16010012 - 1 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1336
Abstract
Although child-centred care is increasingly referred to within the nursing literature, a clear definition of child-centred care and clarity around the concept is yet to be achieved. The objectives of this review were to examine the following: (1) What constitutes the concept of [...] Read more.
Although child-centred care is increasingly referred to within the nursing literature, a clear definition of child-centred care and clarity around the concept is yet to be achieved. The objectives of this review were to examine the following: (1) What constitutes the concept of child-centred care in healthcare? (2) How has the concept of child-centred care developed? (3) What is the applicability of child-centred care and what are its limitations? (4) How does the concept of child-centred care benefit and inform children’s healthcare? In total, 2984 papers were imported for screening, and, following the removal of duplicates and screening, 21 papers were included in the scoping review. The findings suggest that child-centred care is an emerging, ambiguous poorly defined concept; no clear consensus exists about what constitutes child-centred care. Although it seems antithetical to argue against child-centred care, little robust evidence was identified that demonstrates the impact and benefit of child-centred care. If child-centred care is to be a sustainable, convincing model to guide practice and compete with other models of care, it needs to establish robust evidence of its effectiveness, the impact on children and their families, as well as the wider impacts on the healthcare system. Full article
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4 pages, 528 KiB  
Editorial
Pediatric Autoimmune Hepatitis
by Silvia Nastasio, Marco Sciveres, Paola Francalanci and Giuseppe Maggiore
Pediatr. Rep. 2024, 16(1), 110-113; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/pediatric16010011 - 1 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1082
Abstract
Pediatric autoimmune hepatitis (PAIH) is a rare necro-inflammatory disease of the liver of unknown etiology thought to derive from the dysregulation of the immune response upon exposure to environmental triggers in genetically predisposed individuals [...] Full article
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10 pages, 1818 KiB  
Article
Is the Over-the-Head Technique an Alternative for Infant CPR Performed by a Single Rescuer? A Randomized Simulation Study with Lifeguards
by Silvia Aranda-García, Silvia San Román-Mata, Martín Otero-Agra, Antonio Rodríguez-Núñez, María Fernández-Méndez, Rubén Navarro-Patón and Roberto Barcala-Furelos
Pediatr. Rep. 2024, 16(1), 100-109; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/pediatric16010010 - 29 Jan 2024
Viewed by 767
Abstract
(1) Objective: The objective was to evaluate the quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR, chest compressions and ventilations) when performed by a lone first responder on an infant victim via the over-the-head technique (OTH) with bag-mask ventilation in comparison with the standard lateral technique [...] Read more.
(1) Objective: The objective was to evaluate the quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR, chest compressions and ventilations) when performed by a lone first responder on an infant victim via the over-the-head technique (OTH) with bag-mask ventilation in comparison with the standard lateral technique (LAT) position. (2) Methods: A randomized simulation crossover study in a baby manikin was conducted. A total of 28 first responders performed each of the techniques in two separate CPR tests (15:2 chest compressions:ventilations ratio), each lasting 5 min with a 15 min resting period. Quality CPR parameters were assessed using an app connected to the manikin. Those variables were related to chest compressions (CC: depth, rate, and correct CC point) and ventilation (number of effective ventilations). Additional variables included perceptions of the ease of execution of CPR. (3) Results: The median global CPR quality (integrated CC + V) was 82% with OTH and 79% with LAT (p = 0.94), whilst the CC quality was 88% with OTH and 80% with LAT (p = 0.67), and ventilation quality was 85% with OTH and 85% with LAT (p = 0.98). Correct chest release was significantly better with OTH (OTH: 92% vs. LAT: 62%, p < 0.001). There were no statistically significant differences in the remaining variables. Ease of execution perceptions favored the use of LAT over OTH. (4) Conclusions: Chest compressions and ventilations can be performed with similar quality in an infant manikin by lifeguards both with the standard recommended position (LAT) and the alternative OTH. This option could give some advantages in terms of optimal chest release between compressions. Our results should encourage the assessment of OTH in some selected cases and situations as when a lone rescuer is present and/or there are physical conditions that could impede the lateral rescue position. Full article
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12 pages, 1044 KiB  
Article
Motion and Form Perception in Childhood-Onset Schizophrenia
by Szabolcs Kéri and Oguz Kelemen
Pediatr. Rep. 2024, 16(1), 88-99; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/pediatric16010009 - 15 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1001
Abstract
(1) Background: Childhood-onset schizophrenia (COS) is a rare type of psychotic disorder characterized by delusions, hallucinations, grossly disorganized behavior, and poor psychosocial functioning. The etiology of COS is unknown, but neurodevelopmental factors are likely to play a critical role. A potential neurodevelopmental anomaly [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Childhood-onset schizophrenia (COS) is a rare type of psychotic disorder characterized by delusions, hallucinations, grossly disorganized behavior, and poor psychosocial functioning. The etiology of COS is unknown, but neurodevelopmental factors are likely to play a critical role. A potential neurodevelopmental anomaly marker is the dorsal visual system dysfunction, which is implicated in motion perception, spatial functions, and attention. (2) Methods: To elucidate the role of the dorsal visual system in COS, we investigated 21 patients with COS and 21 control participants matched for age, sex, education, IQ, and parental socioeconomic status. Participants completed a motion and form coherence task, during which one assesses an individual’s ability to detect the direction of motion within a field of moving elements or dots and to recognize a meaningful form or object from a set of fragmented or disconnected visual elements, respectively. (3) Results: The patients with COS were impaired in both visual tasks compared to the control participants, but the evidence for the deficit was more substantial for motion perception than for form perception (form: BF10 = 27.22; motion: BF10 = 6.97 × 106). (4) Conclusions: These results highlight the importance of dorsal visual stream vulnerability in COS, a potential marker of neurodevelopmental anomalies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Pediatric Psychology)
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11 pages, 614 KiB  
Article
Effects of Age and Playing Position on Field-Based Physical Fitness Measures in Adolescent Female Netball Players
by Daniel A. Hackett, Derek L. Tran, Kimberley L. Way and Ross H. Sanders
Pediatr. Rep. 2024, 16(1), 77-87; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/pediatric16010008 - 12 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1028
Abstract
This cross-sectional study investigated the impact of age and playing position, controlling for maturity, on physical fitness indicators in 303 adolescent female netball players aged 12.0 to 15.9 years. Assessments included estimated maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) via the 20 m shuttle [...] Read more.
This cross-sectional study investigated the impact of age and playing position, controlling for maturity, on physical fitness indicators in 303 adolescent female netball players aged 12.0 to 15.9 years. Assessments included estimated maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) via the 20 m shuttle run test, 10 m and 20 m sprints, change of direction speed (CODS) using the 505 test, and muscle power via the medicine ball chest throw (MBCT) and countermovement vertical jump (CMJ). Participants were grouped by age (12 to 15 years) and playing position (non-circle and circle players), with age at peak height velocity as a covariate for maturity. Results revealed that, at 15 years, CMJ height was greater than at 12 years and 13 years (p < 0.05, partial η2 = 0.048). MBCT distance increased across age groups (p < 0.01, partial η2 = 0.323). Age had no impact on sprints, VO2max, or CODS. Non-circle players outperformed circle players in the 10 m sprint (p = 0.042, partial η2 = 0.016) and 20 m sprints (p = 0.010, partial η2 = 0.025) and displayed higher VO2max (p < 0.001, partial η2 = 0.036). Circle players were taller (p = 0.046, partial η2 = 0.014) and heavier (p < 0.001, partial η2 = 0.040) than non-circle players. Playing positions showed no differences in CMJ and MBCT. In adolescent female netball players, only muscle power is influenced by age, while non-circle players exhibit superior aerobic fitness and speed compared to circle players. Coaches may be able to utilize the distinct age and playing position traits of adolescent netballers to inform player selection and design targeted training programs. Full article
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8 pages, 1456 KiB  
Case Report
Umbilical Vein Calcification Associated with Double-Lumen Catheter Malpositioning in an Extremely Low-Birth-Weight Infant
by Takuya Yamamoto and Shigeo Iijima
Pediatr. Rep. 2024, 16(1), 69-76; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/pediatric16010007 - 12 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1011
Abstract
Umbilical venous (UV) catheters (UVCs) are commonly used in severely ill neonates. Complications associated with UVC often result from an inappropriate UVC position. Calcification of the UV, a rare complication, was observed in an extremely low-birth-weight infant born at 23 weeks of gestation. [...] Read more.
Umbilical venous (UV) catheters (UVCs) are commonly used in severely ill neonates. Complications associated with UVC often result from an inappropriate UVC position. Calcification of the UV, a rare complication, was observed in an extremely low-birth-weight infant born at 23 weeks of gestation. After birth, the infant experienced respiratory and circulatory dysfunction, followed by disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). A UVC was inserted, and circulatory agonists and blood transfusions were administered, as well as a calcium gluconate infusion for hypocalcemia and hyperkalemia. Ten days after birth, calcification was detected in the UV, likely due to a tunica intima injury caused by UVC, a hypercoagulable state due to DIC, and a high-dose calcium gluconate infusion. Additionally, proximal port malpositioning of the double-lumen catheter might have contributed to calcification within the UV. To prevent such complications, real-time ultrasound confirmation with agitated saline contrast during UVC placement is recommended; in the absence of the facility or skills for ultrasonography, X-rays should be performed in the lateral and anteroposterior views. Furthermore, when using multi-lumen catheters, physicians should not only verify the tip position but also ensure proper placement of proximal ports and carefully select medications administered through the ports. Full article
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12 pages, 294 KiB  
Review
Bathing in Atopic Dermatitis in Pediatric Age: Why, How and When
by Margherita Pagliaro, Luca Pecoraro, Camilla Stefani, Sara Pieropan, Giorgio Piacentini and Angelo Pietrobelli
Pediatr. Rep. 2024, 16(1), 57-68; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/pediatric16010006 - 8 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1290
Abstract
Atopic dermatitis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease. The treatment plays an important role in influencing the patients’ quality of life. The basic management consists of appropriate skin cleansing, including bathing and eventually using bathing additives. Recommendations regarding frequency and duration of bathing, [...] Read more.
Atopic dermatitis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease. The treatment plays an important role in influencing the patients’ quality of life. The basic management consists of appropriate skin cleansing, including bathing and eventually using bathing additives. Recommendations regarding frequency and duration of bathing, water temperature and usefulness of bathing additives are widely different, often leading to confusion among patients. This review aims to give insights into the best bathing practices and the use of bathing additives in atopic dermatitis in children. Several bathing additives, including bleach baths, commercial baby cleansers, bath baby oils and bath salt, appear to be promising adjunctive therapies for atopic dermatitis due to their anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, anti-pruritus and skin barrier repair properties through different mechanisms of action. However, their efficacy and safety are not fully understood in some cases. The usefulness of other bath additives, such as acidic and more natural substances (green tea extracts, pine tar, sodium bicarbonate), is still under investigation. Further studies are needed to determine their optimal use to achieve clinical benefit safely. Full article
11 pages, 842 KiB  
Article
Acute Effects of Albuterol on Ventilatory Capacity in Children with Asthma
by Michael W. H. Wong, Lung-Chang Chien and Dharini M. Bhammar
Pediatr. Rep. 2024, 16(1), 46-56; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/pediatric16010005 - 5 Jan 2024
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Abstract
Background: Children with asthma may have a reduced ventilatory capacity, which could lead to symptoms and early termination of a cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET). The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of short-acting beta agonist (albuterol) administration on estimated ventilatory [...] Read more.
Background: Children with asthma may have a reduced ventilatory capacity, which could lead to symptoms and early termination of a cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET). The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of short-acting beta agonist (albuterol) administration on estimated ventilatory capacity in children with asthma. Methods: Fifteen children (eleven boys, 10.6 ± 0.9 years) completed spirometry at baseline, after 180 µg of albuterol, and after the CPET in this cross-sectional study. Ventilatory capacity was calculated from forced vital capacity (FVC) and isovolume forced expiratory time from 25 to 75% of FVC (isoFET25–75) as follows: FVC/2 × [60/(2 × isoFET25–75)]. Differences in outcome variables between baseline, after albuterol administration, and after the CPET were detected with repeated measures mixed models with Bonferroni post hoc corrections. Results: Estimated ventilatory capacity was higher after albuterol (68.7 ± 21.2 L/min) and after the CPET (75.8 ± 25.6 L/min) when compared with baseline (60.9 ± 22.0 L/min; P = 0.003). Because forced vital capacity did not change, the increased ventilatory capacity was primarily due to a decrease in isoFET25–75 (i.e., an increase in mid-flows or isoFEF25–75). Conclusion: Albuterol administration could be considered prior to CPET for children with asthma with relatively well-preserved FEV1 values to increase ventilatory capacity pre-exercise and potentially avoid symptom-limited early termination of testing. Full article
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11 pages, 272 KiB  
Article
Preterm Birth and Maternal Mood States: What Is the Impact on Bonding?
by Chiara Ionio, Giulia Ciuffo, Caterina Colombo, Olivia Melani, Maria Francesca Figlino, Marta Landoni, Francesca Castoldi, Francesco Cavigioli and Gianluca Lista
Pediatr. Rep. 2024, 16(1), 35-45; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/pediatric16010004 - 5 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1080
Abstract
Preterm birth is a significant global health issue affecting millions of infants each year, with potential implications for their developmental outcomes. This study investigated the impact of preterm birth on maternal mood states during the early postpartum period and its subsequent effects on [...] Read more.
Preterm birth is a significant global health issue affecting millions of infants each year, with potential implications for their developmental outcomes. This study investigated the impact of preterm birth on maternal mood states during the early postpartum period and its subsequent effects on mother–infant bonding. Mothers of 90 preterm infants were involved in the assessment of maternal mood states, examined with the Profile of Mood States (POMS) questionnaire and the evaluation of mother–infant bonding, carried out through the Postpartum Bonding Questionnaire (PBQ). Contrary to expectations, there was no significant correlation between preterm birth characteristics and maternal mood states. On the other hand, significant correlations emerged between specific maternal mood states and the quality of mother–child bonding. More specifically, regression analyses showed that feelings of tension, anger, and confusion experienced by the mother tend to negatively affect the quality of her bond with her child. These findings emphasize the crucial role of maternal mental well-being in shaping the mother–infant relationship in the early postpartum period. The study highlights the importance of identifying and addressing maternal mood disorders to promote positive mother–infant bonding and child development, further underlining the need for comprehensive support and interventions for mothers of preterm infants. Full article
9 pages, 830 KiB  
Case Report
Efficacy and Safety of Eculizumab in Enteroaggregative E. coli Associated Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome
by Ratna Acharya, William L. Clapp and Kiran Upadhyay
Pediatr. Rep. 2024, 16(1), 26-34; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/pediatric16010003 - 4 Jan 2024
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Abstract
Background. Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) may present atypically without the full triad of classical HUS. Eculizumab has been shown to be efficacious in complement-mediated atypical HUS and some cases of Shiga-toxin (ST) associated HUS. We report the utility of eculizumab in enteroaggregative E. [...] Read more.
Background. Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) may present atypically without the full triad of classical HUS. Eculizumab has been shown to be efficacious in complement-mediated atypical HUS and some cases of Shiga-toxin (ST) associated HUS. We report the utility of eculizumab in enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC) associated HUS. Case summary. A female toddler presented with hemolytic anemia, oliguric acute kidney injury (AKI) without thrombocytopenia, and peripheral schistocytes. The stool examination for ST was negative but positive for EAEC. She required several hemodialysis sessions and received one dosage of eculizumab with rapid reversal of AKI and hemolytic markers. A kidney biopsy revealed acute tubular injury and segmental glomerular basement membrane splitting. Genetic testing was negative for complement mutations or deficiencies. A follow-up six months later showed persistently normal renal function and hematological markers. Conclusion. The clinical and histological manifestations of non-ST-associated diarrheal HUS and the role of eculizumab in this condition warrant future larger studies. Full article
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5 pages, 192 KiB  
Editorial
Current Overview of CDKL-5 Deficiency Disorder Treatment
by Giovanni Battista Dell’Isola, Katherin Elizabeth Portwood, Kirsten Consing, Antonella Fattorusso, Arnaldo Bartocci, Pietro Ferrara, Giuseppe Di Cara, Alberto Verrotti and Mauro Lodolo
Pediatr. Rep. 2024, 16(1), 21-25; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/pediatric16010002 - 3 Jan 2024
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1168
Abstract
CDKL5 deficiency disorder (CDD) is a complex of clinical symptoms resulting from the presence of non-functional or absent CDKL5 protein, a serine–threonine kinase involved in neural maturation and synaptogenesis [...] Full article
20 pages, 3379 KiB  
Article
Comparative Clinical Study on Periodontal Health Status and Early Diagnosis of Periodontal Diseases Quantified through Clinical Periodontal Indices on a Group of Children and Adolescents with and without Cardiovascular Diseases
by Oana Chipirliu, Marian Viorel Crăciun and Madalina Nicoleta Matei
Pediatr. Rep. 2024, 16(1), 1-20; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/pediatric16010001 - 26 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 958
Abstract
It is well known that bacterial plaque is the main etiological factor that causes the appearance of periodontal diseases and carious disease. Periodontal diseases can affect children and adolescents and are manifested in the form of gingivitis, but also the early form of [...] Read more.
It is well known that bacterial plaque is the main etiological factor that causes the appearance of periodontal diseases and carious disease. Periodontal diseases can affect children and adolescents and are manifested in the form of gingivitis, but also the early form of chronic periodontitis as well as aggressive marginal periodontitis associated with local or general factors. Early periodontitis is frequently undiagnosed by clinicians due to a lack of knowledge of the specific symptoms. Certain systemic diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases, can create favorable conditions for the appearance and progression of severe manifestations of periodontal disease; also, recent research highlights that individuals with periodontal disease present an increased risk of developing cardiovascular diseases. Children with congenital or acquired cardiovascular diseases are at increased risk for complications resulting from the growth of microorganisms in the oral cavity, presenting a risk of infective endocarditis. The specific aim was to highlight the existing differences between the periodontal health of children with cardiovascular diseases and that of children without these diseases. The analyzed group included 124 patients, represented by children and adolescents, aged between 7 and 17 years, who were divided into four subgroups depending on the presence or absence of cardiovascular diseases and periodontal disease. A specialized clinical examination was performed for each patient, and periodontal clinical parameters were quantified (plaque index, gingival bleeding index, gingival index, community periodontal index of treatment needs) and associated with the diagnosis of general condition. Patients diagnosed with periodontal disease underwent specialized treatment and were called to a control visit 3 months after treatment. Statistical analysis showed significant differences between subgroups with much higher values of clinical parameters for patients with cardiovascular disease. Also, the response to the treatment was better in the case of patients in the control subgroup without cardiovascular diseases. The present study highlighted the interaction of three factors in the progression of periodontal diseases: subgingival microbiota, immune system response and environmental factors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mental Health and Psychiatric Disorders of Children and Adolescents)
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