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Nurs. Rep., Volume 11, Issue 2 (June 2021) – 27 articles

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Article
Learning Experience of Chinese Nursing Students during Clinical Practicum: A Descriptive Qualitative Study
Nurs. Rep. 2021, 11(2), 495-505; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nursrep11020046 - 21 Jun 2021
Viewed by 512
Abstract
The change in clinical environment can have a significant impact on nursing students’ clinical learning and as a consequence, to their competency. Students’ learning experiences could provide important insights for improving the existing approach towards clinical education. This descriptive qualitative study aimed to [...] Read more.
The change in clinical environment can have a significant impact on nursing students’ clinical learning and as a consequence, to their competency. Students’ learning experiences could provide important insights for improving the existing approach towards clinical education. This descriptive qualitative study aimed to explore nursing students’ clinical learning experience. Focus group interviews were conducted with 20 final year nursing students studying a bachelor nursing programme at a self-financing tertiary institution in Hong Kong. Thematic analysis was conducted. 16 female and four male students were recruited. Six themes were identified: Anxiety towards clinical practicum, expectations of roles and responsibilities in practicum, ward environment, adequacy of support, learning attitude, and practicum arrangement. The findings suggest that nursing students are more discontented with their clinical training than before. Nursing faculty must look for possible ways to improve the clinical learning environment. Full article
Article
A Dynamic Analysis of the Demand for Health Care in Post-Apartheid South Africa
Nurs. Rep. 2021, 11(2), 484-494; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nursrep11020045 - 17 Jun 2021
Viewed by 554
Abstract
The study aimed to investigate the drivers of demand for healthcare in South Africa 26 years after democracy. The pattern healthcare demand by households in South Africa is that most households use public healthcare services particularly public clinics compared to private and traditional [...] Read more.
The study aimed to investigate the drivers of demand for healthcare in South Africa 26 years after democracy. The pattern healthcare demand by households in South Africa is that most households use public healthcare services particularly public clinics compared to private and traditional healthcare facilities. Using conditional probability models, the logit model to be more specific, the results revealed that households head who is unemployed, households who do not have a business, households who were not receiving pension money, had a greater probability of demand for public healthcare institutions. On the other hand, being male, being White, Indian and Coloured, being a property owner and being not a grant beneficiary, reduces the probability of demand for public healthcare facilities in South Africa. As a result, the study recommends more investment in public healthcare but more in public clinics in South Africa due to the high percentage of households using these services. Also, the government must consider investing more in the maintenance and improvement of the welfare of nurses in the country considering the huge role they play in the delivery of healthcare to the citizens. Full article
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Brief Report
Brief Report: Hispanic Patients’ Trajectory of Cancer Symptom Burden, Depression, Anxiety, and Quality of Life
Nurs. Rep. 2021, 11(2), 475-483; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nursrep11020044 - 09 Jun 2021
Viewed by 731
Abstract
Background: Anxiety and depression symptoms are known to increase cancer symptom burden, yet little is known about the longitudinal integrations of these among Hispanic/Latinx patients. The goal of this study was to explore the trajectory and longitudinal interactions among anxiety and depression, cancer [...] Read more.
Background: Anxiety and depression symptoms are known to increase cancer symptom burden, yet little is known about the longitudinal integrations of these among Hispanic/Latinx patients. The goal of this study was to explore the trajectory and longitudinal interactions among anxiety and depression, cancer symptom burden, and health-related quality of life in Hispanic/Latinx cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. Methods: Baseline behavioral assessments were performed before starting chemotherapy. Follow-up behavioral assessments were performed at 3, 6, and 9 months after starting chemotherapy. Descriptive statistics, chi-square tests, Fisher’s exact tests, and Mann–Whitney tests explored associations among outcome variables. Adjusted multilevel mixed-effects linear regression models were also used to evaluate the association between HADS scores, follow-up visits, FACT—G scale, MDASI scale, and sociodemographic variables. Results: Increased cancer symptom burden was significantly related to changes in anxiety symptoms’ scores (adjusted β^ = 0.11 [95% CI: 0.02, 0.19]. Increased quality of life was significantly associated with decreased depression and anxiety symptoms (adjusted β^ = −0.33; 95% CI: −0.47, −0.18, and 0.38 adjusted β^= −0.38; 95% CI: −0.55, −0.20, respectively). Conclusions: Findings highlight the need to conduct periodic mental health screenings among cancer patients initiating cancer treatment. Full article
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Review
Social Image of Nursing. An Integrative Review about a Yet Unknown Profession
Nurs. Rep. 2021, 11(2), 460-474; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nursrep11020043 - 07 Jun 2021
Viewed by 906
Abstract
Background: Nursing is a discipline on which stereotypes have persisted throughout its history, considering itself a feminine profession and subordinated to the medical figure, without its own field of competence. All this leads to an image of the Nursing Profession that moves away [...] Read more.
Background: Nursing is a discipline on which stereotypes have persisted throughout its history, considering itself a feminine profession and subordinated to the medical figure, without its own field of competence. All this leads to an image of the Nursing Profession that moves away from reality, constituting a real, relevant and high-impact problem that prevents professional expansion, and that has a direct impact on social trust, the allocation of resources and quality of care, as well as wages and professional satisfaction. The aim of this review was to identify and publicize the published material on the social image of Nursing, providing updated information about the different approaches to the subject. Methods: An integrative review of the literature has been made from primary sources of information published from 2010 to 2020. For this, the databases CINAHL, Scopus, SciELO, Dialnet and Cuiden have been consulted. Results: In total, 17 articles have been included in the review, with qualitative, quantitative, and even bibliographic reviews performed in countries such as Spain, Egypt, Argentina, Iran, Venezuela, Turkey, United Kingdom, and Australia. The results of those papers mostly showed that society has misinformation about the functions performed by nursing professionals, which is based on myths and stereotypes. Conclusions: Nursing is a profoundly unknown and invisible profession, as society continues without recognizing its competence, autonomy and independence. Full article
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Review
Stressors and Coping Strategies among Nursing Students during the COVID-19 Pandemic: Scoping Review
Nurs. Rep. 2021, 11(2), 444-459; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nursrep11020042 - 03 Jun 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1525
Abstract
COVID-19 has impacted every aspect of life around the world. Nursing education has moved classes online. Undoubtedly, the period has been stressful for nursing students. The scoping review aimed to explore the relevant evidence related to stressors and coping strategies among nursing students [...] Read more.
COVID-19 has impacted every aspect of life around the world. Nursing education has moved classes online. Undoubtedly, the period has been stressful for nursing students. The scoping review aimed to explore the relevant evidence related to stressors and coping strategies among nursing students during the COVID-19 pandemic. The scoping review methodology was used to map the relevant evidence and synthesize the findings by framing the research question using PICOT, determining the keywords, eligibility criteria, searching the CINAHL, MEDLINE, and PubMed databases for the relevant studies. The review further involved study selection based on the PRISMA flow diagram, charting the data, collecting, and summarizing the findings. The critical analysis of findings from the 13 journal articles showed that the COVID-19 period has been stressful for nursing students with classes moving online. The nursing students feared the COVID-19 virus along with experiencing anxiety and stressful situations due to distance learning, clinical training, assignments, and educational workloads. Nursing students applied coping strategies of seeking information and consultation, staying optimistic, and transference. The pandemic affected the psychological health of learners as they adjusted to the new learning structure. Future studies should deliberate on mental issues and solutions facing nursing students during the COVID-19 pandemic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nursing and COVID-19)
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Review
Fall Risk Assessment Scales: A Systematic Literature Review
Nurs. Rep. 2021, 11(2), 430-443; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nursrep11020041 - 02 Jun 2021
Viewed by 1130
Abstract
Background: Falls are recognized globally as a major public health problem. Although the elderly are the most affected population, it should be noted that the pediatric population is also very susceptible to the risk of falling. The fall risk approach is the assessment [...] Read more.
Background: Falls are recognized globally as a major public health problem. Although the elderly are the most affected population, it should be noted that the pediatric population is also very susceptible to the risk of falling. The fall risk approach is the assessment tool. There are different types of tools used in both clinical and territorial settings. Material and methods: In the month of January 2021, a literature search was undertaken of MEDLINE, CINHAL and The Cochrane Database, adopting as limits: last 10 years, abstract available, and English and Italian language. The search terms used were “Accidental Falls” AND “Risk Assessment” and “Fall Risk Assessment Tool” or “Fall Risk Assessment Tools”. Results: From the 115 selected articles, 38 different fall risk assessment tools were identified, divided into two groups: the first with the main tools present in the literature, and the second represented by tools of some specific areas, of lesser use and with less supporting literature. Most of these articles are prospective cohort or cross-sectional studies. All articles focus on presenting, creating or validating fall risk assessment tools. Conclusion: Due to the multidimensional nature of falling risk, there is no “ideal” tool that can be used in any context or that performs a perfect risk assessment. For this reason, a simultaneous application of multiple tools is recommended, and a direct and in-depth analysis by the healthcare professional is essential. Full article
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Article
Does Symptom Recognition Improve Self-Care in Patients with Heart Failure? A Pilot Study Randomised Controlled Trial
Nurs. Rep. 2021, 11(2), 418-429; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nursrep11020040 - 01 Jun 2021
Viewed by 793
Abstract
Patients with heart failure have difficulty in self-care management, as daily monitoring and recognition of symptoms do not readily trigger an action to avoid hospital admissions. The purpose of this study was to understand the impact of a nurse-led complex intervention on symptom [...] Read more.
Patients with heart failure have difficulty in self-care management, as daily monitoring and recognition of symptoms do not readily trigger an action to avoid hospital admissions. The purpose of this study was to understand the impact of a nurse-led complex intervention on symptom recognition and fluid restriction. A latent growth model was designed to estimate the longitudinal effect of a nursing-led complex intervention on self-care management and quality-of-life changes in patients with heart failure and assessed by a pilot study performed on sixty-three patients (33 control, 30 intervention). Patients in the control group had a higher risk of hospitalisation (IRR 11.36; p < 0.001) and emergency admission (IRR 4.24; p < 0.001) at three-months follow-up. Analysis of the time scores demonstrated that the intervention group had a clear improvement in self-care behaviours (βSlope. Assignment_group = −0.881; p < 0.001) and in the quality of life (βSlope. Assignment_group = 1.739; p < 0.001). This study supports that a nurse-led programme on symptom recognition and fluid restriction can positively impact self-care behaviours and quality of life in patients with heart failure. This randomised controlled trial was retrospectively registered (NCT04892004). Full article
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Article
The Health Behaviours of Students from Selected Countries—A Comparative Study
Nurs. Rep. 2021, 11(2), 404-417; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nursrep11020039 - 31 May 2021
Viewed by 786
Abstract
Health behaviour defined as any behaviour that may affect an individual’s physical and mental health or any behaviour that an individual believes may affect their physical health. It is strongly related to their culture and plays a major role in shaping all health [...] Read more.
Health behaviour defined as any behaviour that may affect an individual’s physical and mental health or any behaviour that an individual believes may affect their physical health. It is strongly related to their culture and plays a major role in shaping all health and illness-related behaviour. The purpose of the study was to compare and evaluate the lifestyles of students from multiple countries. The proposed work will determine the deficits in health behaviors undertaken by students. The survey was carried out from December 2016 to March 2017 comprising 532 students from Poland, Hungary, Turkey, and Greece. The sample was selected using the snowball method: a link to the online questionnaire was sent to students from the given countries via the Internet. For some participants, who did not have access to the online questionnaire, printed copies were used instead. As a method was used a diagnostic survey and the survey technique. The opinions of students were measured using the 5-level Likert scale with a neutral option. Students undertook health-promoting activities, but also list behaviours that did not contribute to strengthening their health. Students were shown to have the greatest problems with physical health behaviours and health prevention. There were noticeable differences in the lifestyle of students from different countries. Full article
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Review
Challenges Facing the Nursing Profession in Saudi Arabia: An Integrative Review
Nurs. Rep. 2021, 11(2), 395-403; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nursrep11020038 - 31 May 2021
Viewed by 834
Abstract
There is a paucity of recent literature identifying the issues facing the nursing profession in Saudi Arabia. The aim of this integrative review is to highlight the ongoing challenges facing the nursing profession in Saudi Arabia despite attempts to make a difference and [...] Read more.
There is a paucity of recent literature identifying the issues facing the nursing profession in Saudi Arabia. The aim of this integrative review is to highlight the ongoing challenges facing the nursing profession in Saudi Arabia despite attempts to make a difference and suggests recommendations for the future. Literature published from 2000 to 2020, inclusive, relevant for nursing challenges in Saudi Arabia was accessed and reviewed from multiple sources. In Saudi Arabia, inadequate numbers of Saudi nurses have prompted an increase in recruitment of expatriate nurses. This has created its own issues including, retention, lack of competency in English and Arabic, as well as Arabic cultural aspects, insufficient experience, and a high workload. The result is job dissatisfaction and increased attrition as these nurses prefer to move to more developed countries. For national nurses, the issues are the need to recruit more and retain these nurses. There are a range of cultural factors that contribute to these issues with national nurses. There is a need to improve the image of nursing to recruit more Saudi nurses as well as addressing issues in education and work environment. For expatriate nurses there is a need for a better recruitment processes, a thorough program of education to improve knowledge and skills to equip them to work and stay in Saudi. There is also a need for organizational changes to be made to increase the job satisfaction and retention of nurses generally. Healthcare in Saudi Arabia also needs leaders to efficiently manage the various issues associated with the nursing workforce challenges. Full article
Article
Novice Nurses’ Experiences Caring for Acutely Ill Patients during a Pandemic
Nurs. Rep. 2021, 11(2), 382-394; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nursrep11020037 - 27 May 2021
Viewed by 1519
Abstract
The Coronavirus pandemic erupted in 2020 and new graduate registered nurses (RNs) found themselves caring for those with devastating illness as they were transitioning into nursing practice. The purpose of this study was to describe the experience of novice nurses working in acute [...] Read more.
The Coronavirus pandemic erupted in 2020 and new graduate registered nurses (RNs) found themselves caring for those with devastating illness as they were transitioning into nursing practice. The purpose of this study was to describe the experience of novice nurses working in acute care settings during a pandemic. This qualitative phenomenological study of novice nurses working in facilities providing acute care for COVID-19 patients was conducted in Phoenix, Arizona, USA. Purposive sampling identified 13 participants for interviews. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis. Eight themes emerged: Dealing with death, Which personal protective equipment (PPE) will keep us safe?, Caring for high acuity patients with limited training, Difficulties working short-staffed, Everything is not okay, Support from the healthcare team, Nursing school preparation for a pandemic, I would still choose nursing. Novice nurses felt challenged by the experience and were at times overwhelmed and struggling to cope. Support from peers and coping skills learned during nursing school helped them continue to work during a critical time. Data from this study suggest that some participants may have been experiencing symptoms of anxiety, depression, or post-traumatic stress disorder, and findings provide foundational insights for nursing education and psychological interventions to support the nursing workforce. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nursing and COVID-19)
Review
Management of Hypnotics in Patients with Insomnia and Heart Failure during Hospitalization: A Systematic Review
Nurs. Rep. 2021, 11(2), 373-381; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nursrep11020036 - 21 May 2021
Viewed by 495
Abstract
Background: Heart failure is a chronic, progressive syndrome of signs and symptoms, which has been associated to a range of comorbidities including insomnia. Acute decompensation of heart failure frequently leads to hospital admission. During hospital admission, long-term pharmacological treatments such as hypnotics can [...] Read more.
Background: Heart failure is a chronic, progressive syndrome of signs and symptoms, which has been associated to a range of comorbidities including insomnia. Acute decompensation of heart failure frequently leads to hospital admission. During hospital admission, long-term pharmacological treatments such as hypnotics can be modified or stopped. Aim: To synthesize the scientific evidence available about the effect of withdrawing hypnotic drugs during hospital admission in patients with decompensated heart failure and insomnia. Method: A systematic review of the literature following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines was carried out in the following scientific databases: PubMed, Scopus, Dialnet and Cochrane. Inclusion criteria: studies including a population of adults with heart failure and sleep disorders in treatment with hypnotics and admitted to hospital, studies written in English or Spanish and published until June 2020. Exclusion criteria: studies involving children, patients admitted to intensive care and patients diagnosed with sleep apnea. Results: We identified a total of 265 documents; only nine papers met the selection criteria. The most frequently used drugs for the treatment of insomnia in patients with heart failure were benzodiazepines and benzodiazepine agonists; their secondary effects can alter perceived quality of life and increase the risk of adverse effects. Withdrawal of these drugs during hospital admission could increase the risk of delirium. Future research in this area should evaluate the management of hypnotics during hospital admission in patients with decompensated heart failure. In addition, safe and efficient non-pharmacological alternatives for the treatment of insomnia in this population should be tested and implemented. Full article
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Article
Self-Regulation for and of Learning: Student Insights for Online Success in a Bachelor of Nursing Program in Regional Australia
Nurs. Rep. 2021, 11(2), 364-372; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nursrep11020035 - 20 May 2021
Viewed by 603
Abstract
The blended online digital (BOLD) approach to teaching is popular within many universities. Despite this popularity, our understanding of the experiences of students making the transition to online learning is limited, specifically an examination of those elements associated with success. The aim of [...] Read more.
The blended online digital (BOLD) approach to teaching is popular within many universities. Despite this popularity, our understanding of the experiences of students making the transition to online learning is limited, specifically an examination of those elements associated with success. The aim of this study is to explore the experiences of students transitioning from a traditional mode of delivery to a more online approach in an inaugural BOLD Bachelor of Nursing program at a regional multi-campus institution in Victoria, Australia. Fifteen students across two regional campuses participated in one of four focus groups. This qualitative exploration of students’ experience contributes to contemporary insights into how we might begin to develop programs of study that help students develop self-regulation. A modified method of thematic analysis of phenomenological data was employed to analyse the focus group interview data to identify themes that represent the meaning of the transition experience for students. This qualitative exploration of students’ experience contributes to contemporary insights into how we might begin to develop programs of study that help students develop self-regulation. Full article
Article
Nurses’ Knowledge and Anxiety Levels toward COVID-19 in Saudi Arabia
Nurs. Rep. 2021, 11(2), 356-363; https://doi.org/10.3390/nursrep11020034 - 10 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 660
Abstract
Background: In the battle against the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, medical care staff, especially nurses, are at a higher risk of encountering psychological health issues and distress, such as stress, tension, burdensome indications, and, most importantly, fear. They are also at higher [...] Read more.
Background: In the battle against the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, medical care staff, especially nurses, are at a higher risk of encountering psychological health issues and distress, such as stress, tension, burdensome indications, and, most importantly, fear. They are also at higher risk of becoming infected and transmitting this virus. In Saudi Arabia, it was noticed that the healthcare workforce suffered from anxiety, and that this more evident in women than men. Objective: This study aimed to assess the knowledge of nurses regarding COVID-19 and the level of anxiety toward the COVID-19 outbreak in the current pandemic situation. Design: A cross-sectional design was used and a validated self-administered online questionnaire with a set of questions related to COVID-19 was distributed to 87 participating nurses. Results: The results showed that more than half of the nurses (71.90%) had an adequate and good knowledge about the causes, transmission, symptoms, treatment, and death rate of COVID-19. The main sources of information for the nurses were social media (51.7%) and the World Health Organization and the Ministry of Health (36.8%). Conclusions: The results allowed the conclusion that, though the nurses had satisfactory knowledge about COVID-19, more than 50% of them experienced mental health issues such as anxiety. To address this, along with providing more knowledge about COVID-19, nurses should be supported in managing their anxiety. Full article
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Review
Family Functioning Assessment Instruments in Adults with a Non-Psychiatric Chronic Disease: A Systematic Review
Nurs. Rep. 2021, 11(2), 341-355; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nursrep11020033 - 08 May 2021
Viewed by 471
Abstract
There is little information on the evaluation of family functioning in adult patients with chronic non-psychiatric illness. The objective of this systematic review was to identify family functioning assessment instruments of known validity and reliability that have been used in health research on [...] Read more.
There is little information on the evaluation of family functioning in adult patients with chronic non-psychiatric illness. The objective of this systematic review was to identify family functioning assessment instruments of known validity and reliability that have been used in health research on patients with a chronic non-psychiatric illness. We conducted a search in three biomedical databases (PubMed, Science Direct, and Web of Science), for original articles available in English or Spanish published between 2000 and 2019. The review was conducted in accordance with PRISMA guidelines. Fourteen articles were included in the review. The instruments Family Assessment Device, Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scales, Family Functioning Health and Social Support, Family APGAR, Assessment of Strategies in Families-Effectiveness, Iceland Expressive Family Functioning, Brief Family Assessment Measure-III, and Family Relationship Index were identified. All of them are reliable instruments to evaluate family functioning in chronic patients and could be very valuable to help nurses identify families in need of a psychosocial intervention. The availability and clinical application of these instruments will allow nurses to generate knowledge on family health and care for non-psychiatric chronic conditions, and will eventually contribute to the health and wellbeing of adults with a non-psychiatric chronic disease and their families. Full article
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Article
Why Are Spanish Nurses Going to Work Sick? Questionnaire for the Measurement of Presenteeism in Nurses
Nurs. Rep. 2021, 11(2), 331-340; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nursrep11020032 - 06 May 2021
Viewed by 583
Abstract
Presenteeism is defined as the presence of the worker at their workplace despite not being in optimal physical or mental conditions. Presenteeism is a phenomenon that has been poorly studied in the context of healthcare. Despite the many negative consequences associated with presenteeism, [...] Read more.
Presenteeism is defined as the presence of the worker at their workplace despite not being in optimal physical or mental conditions. Presenteeism is a phenomenon that has been poorly studied in the context of healthcare. Despite the many negative consequences associated with presenteeism, to date, no studies have investigated this issue in nurses in Spain. The objective was to develop and validate a questionnaire on presenteeism to be used by nursing staff in Spain. Methods: A psychometric study for the development and validation of a questionnaire. The PRESENCA® questionnaire on presenteeism was created by a panel of experts, based on a survey comprised of 31 Likert-type items. Results: In total, 355 nurses completed the questionnaire. The factorial analysis revealed the existence of 3 factors and confirmed appropriate levels of validity and reliability (alpha = 0.729). Conclusions: The PRESENCA® questionnaire is the first tool developed and validated in Spanish for the assessment of presenteeism in nursing. Our findings demonstrate that this scale has appropriate psychometric properties and its use may facilitate the detection of presenteeism among professionals. As a result, use of this questionnaire may contribute towards the improvement of clinical safety. Full article
Article
The Effects of the Civility, Respect, and Engagement in the Workplace (CREW) Program on Social Climate and Work Engagement in a Psychiatric Ward in Japan: A Pilot Study
Nurs. Rep. 2021, 11(2), 320-330; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nursrep11020031 - 01 May 2021
Viewed by 660
Abstract
Background: Good social climate and high work engagement are important factors affecting outcomes in healthcare settings. This study observed the effects of a program called Civility, Respect, and Engagement in the Workplace (CREW) on social climate and staff work engagement in a psychiatric [...] Read more.
Background: Good social climate and high work engagement are important factors affecting outcomes in healthcare settings. This study observed the effects of a program called Civility, Respect, and Engagement in the Workplace (CREW) on social climate and staff work engagement in a psychiatric ward of a Japanese hospital. Methods: The program comprised 18 sessions installed over six months, with each session lasting 30-min. Participation in the program was recommended to all staff members at the ward, including nurses, medical doctors, and others, but it was not mandatory. A serial cross-sectional study collected data at four time-points. Nurses (n = 17 to 22), medical doctors (n = 9 to 13), and others (n = 6 to 10) participated in each survey. The analysis of variance was used to evaluate the changes in the following dependent variables, the Essen climate evaluation schema (EssenCES), the CREW civility scale, and the Utrecht work engagement scale (UWES) over time. Result: We found no significant effects. The effect size (Cohen’s d) for EssenCES was 0.35 from baseline to post-installation for all staff members. Effect sizes for EssenCES for medical doctors and UWES for nurses were 0.79 and 0.56, respectively, from baseline to post-program. Conclusions: Differences in social climate and work engagement among Japanese healthcare workers between the baseline and post-installation of the CREW program were non-significant. Full article
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Article
Development and Validation of the Brief Nursing Stress Scale (BNSS) in a Sample of End-of-Life Care Nurses
Nurs. Rep. 2021, 11(2), 311-319; https://doi.org/10.3390/nursrep11020030 - 30 Apr 2021
Viewed by 542
Abstract
Nursing has been identified as a very stressful profession. Specifically in end-of-life care, nurses frequently experience stressful situations related to death and dying. This study aims to develop and validate a short scale of stress in nurses, the Brief Nursing Stress Scale. A [...] Read more.
Nursing has been identified as a very stressful profession. Specifically in end-of-life care, nurses frequently experience stressful situations related to death and dying. This study aims to develop and validate a short scale of stress in nurses, the Brief Nursing Stress Scale. A cross-sectional survey of Spanish end-of-life care professionals was conducted; 129 nurses participated. Analyses included a confirmatory factor analysis of the Brief Nursing Stress Scale, estimation of reliability, relation with sex, age and working place, and the estimation of a structural equation model in which BNSS predicted burnout and work satisfaction The confirmatory factor analysis showed an adequate fit: χ2(9) = 20.241 (p = 0.017); CFI = 0.924; SRMR = 0.062; RMSEA = 0.098 [0.040,0.156]. Reliability was 0.712. Women and men showed no differences in stress. Younger nurses and those working in hospital compared to homecare showed higher levels of stress. A structural equation model showed nursing stress positively predicted burnout, which in turn negatively predicted work satisfaction. Nursing stress also had an indirect, negative effect on work satisfaction. The Brief Nursing Stress Scale showed adequate estimates of validity, reliability, and predictive power in a sample of end-of-life care nurses. This is a short, easy-to-use measure that could be employed in major batteries assessing quality of healthcare institutions. Full article
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Article
Polish Nurses’ Opinions on the Expansion of Their Competences—Cross-Sectional Study
Nurs. Rep. 2021, 11(2), 301-310; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nursrep11020029 - 29 Apr 2021
Viewed by 435
Abstract
The development of medical science creates new challenges for nurses to acquire new skills. Thanks to legal changes in Poland, nurses have gained the opportunity to independently provide health services in many areas, including consultations for patients. The aim of the survey is [...] Read more.
The development of medical science creates new challenges for nurses to acquire new skills. Thanks to legal changes in Poland, nurses have gained the opportunity to independently provide health services in many areas, including consultations for patients. The aim of the survey is to analyze nurses’ opinions on the expansion of competences in their profession. This is a cross-sectional, descriptive study conducted among 798 nurses using the survey technique. The majority (65.48%) of the respondents believed that they were adequately prepared to take up new competences. Most of the respondents believed that the new competence would improve the efficiency of the healthcare system in Poland (71.06%) and facilitate patients’ access to health services (65.29%). According to the nurses, the scope of nursing advice will mainly concern the promotion of health education, wound treatment and prescribing medications. Age, seniority and education level significantly influenced the nurses’ opinions on the scope of nursing advice. The Mann–Whitney test and the Kruskal–Wallis test were used. A correlation between two quantitative variables was assessed with the Spearman’s rho coefficient. The significance level of p < 0.05 was assumed. The extension of the professional competences of nurses will increase the prestige of the profession and is another step toward introducing the role of Advanced Practice Nurse in Poland. Full article
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Article
Nursing Education: Students’ Narratives of Moral Distress in Clinical Practice
Nurs. Rep. 2021, 11(2), 291-300; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nursrep11020028 - 29 Apr 2021
Viewed by 674
Abstract
Background: Research indicates that newly graduated nurses are often unprepared for meeting challenging situations in clinical practice. This phenomenon is referred to as a “reality shock”. This gap in preparedness may lead to moral distress. The aim of this article is to provide [...] Read more.
Background: Research indicates that newly graduated nurses are often unprepared for meeting challenging situations in clinical practice. This phenomenon is referred to as a “reality shock”. This gap in preparedness may lead to moral distress. The aim of this article is to provide knowledge of moral distress in clinical nursing practice. Methods: Bachelor and further education nursing students were invited to write a story about challenging situations from their own clinical practice, resulting in 36 stories. Analysis was based on hermeneutical reading inspired by a narrative method; therefore, six stories were selected to represent the findings. Results: A finding across the stories is that the students knew the right thing to do but ended up doing nothing. Four themes were related to moral distress: (a) undermining of professional judgement, (b) disagreement concerning treatment and care, (c) undignified care by supervisors, and (d) colliding values and priorities of care. Conclusion: Nursing education should emphasize to a greater extent ethical competency and training for the challenging situations students will encounter in clinical practice. Full article
Article
Assessing the Impact of Obesity on Pregnancy and Neonatal Outcomes among Saudi Women
Nurs. Rep. 2021, 11(2), 279-290; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nursrep11020027 - 24 Apr 2021
Viewed by 528
Abstract
Background: The rising prevalence of obesity has a significant impact on obstetrics practice regarding maternal and perinatal complications includes recurrent miscarriage, pregnancy-induced hypertension, preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, and prolonged labor. Objective: To assess the impact of obesity on pregnancy and neonatal outcomes among Saudi [...] Read more.
Background: The rising prevalence of obesity has a significant impact on obstetrics practice regarding maternal and perinatal complications includes recurrent miscarriage, pregnancy-induced hypertension, preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, and prolonged labor. Objective: To assess the impact of obesity on pregnancy and neonatal outcomes among Saudi women. Methods: The study was conducted at King Abdul-Aziz Medical City, Jeddah. Design: A cross-sectional retrospective design. A total number of 186 participants were recruited from July to December 2018 according to eligibility criteria. The data were collected retrospectively by a review of the chart records of the labor and delivery department. Results: The mean (SD) age of participants was 31.94 (5.67) years old; two-thirds were in obesity class I. There was a significant association between obesity and pre-existing thyroid disease and induced hypertension class III. However, episiotomy showed that obesity class III was significantly different from obesity class II. Conclusion: This study concludes obesity affects the outcomes of pregnant Saudi associations between obesity and preeclampsia, perineal tears, and episiotomy variables, and other variables reflect no associations. Recommendations: Further studies are needed to generalize the results. This study endorses the pregnant women start the antenatal follow-up from 1st trimester so, the data will be available on the system for research. Full article
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Article
Impact of Initial Emotional States and Self-Efficacy Changes on Nursing Students’ Practical Skills Performance in Simulation-Based Education
Nurs. Rep. 2021, 11(2), 267-278; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nursrep11020026 - 21 Apr 2021
Viewed by 476
Abstract
Training through simulation has shown to increase relevant and specific skills sets across a wide range of areas in nursing and related professions. Increasing skills has a reciprocal relation to the development of self-efficacy. A study was conducted to assess changes in the [...] Read more.
Training through simulation has shown to increase relevant and specific skills sets across a wide range of areas in nursing and related professions. Increasing skills has a reciprocal relation to the development of self-efficacy. A study was conducted to assess changes in the development of self-efficacy in simulation training for 2nd year nursing students. Initial emotional states, pre and post self-efficacy, and expert ratings of simulation performance were assessed. Results show that students who displayed an increase in self-efficacy as a result of simulation training were also judged to perform better by expert ratings. The effect of simulation on self-efficacy could be influenced by initial states of physiological activation and over control. Results also showed that initial emotional states did not moderate self-efficacy development on outcome measures. These findings improve our understanding on the relationship between students’ self-efficacy and performance of practical skills and inform pedagogical designs and targeted interventions in relation to feedback and supervision in nursing education. Full article
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Review
A Scoping Review to Identify Barriers and Enabling Factors for Nurse–Patient Discussions on Sexuality and Sexual Health
Nurs. Rep. 2021, 11(2), 253-266; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nursrep11020025 - 16 Apr 2021
Viewed by 473
Abstract
Background: Sexuality and sexual health (SSH) are essential aspects of care that have evolved since a 1975 World Health Organization (WHO) report on SSH. However, nurses still consider discussing the subject with patients a challenge. This scoping review aimed to map, synthesize, and [...] Read more.
Background: Sexuality and sexual health (SSH) are essential aspects of care that have evolved since a 1975 World Health Organization (WHO) report on SSH. However, nurses still consider discussing the subject with patients a challenge. This scoping review aimed to map, synthesize, and summarize findings from existing literature regarding barriers and enabling factors for nurse–patient SSH discussions in care contexts. Methods: A scoping review model inspired by Arksey and O’Malley was used to search for and synthesize studies published between 2009 and 2019. The databases searched were the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) and Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online, i.e., MEDLARS Online. A total of nineteen articles were eligible to be included. Results: Two main categories of enabling factors were identified, i.e., a professional approach via using core care values and availability of resources. Three major categories of barriers were identified: beliefs and attitudes related to age, gender, and sexual identity; fear and individual convictions; and work-related factors. Conclusions: Applying professionalism and core care values as well as making resources available are likely to promote SSH discussions between nurses and patients. Moreover, there is a need for a norm-critical approach in education and practice. Full article
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Article
Fatalism, Social Support and Self-Management Perceptions among Rural African Americans Living with Diabetes and Pre-Diabetes
Nurs. Rep. 2021, 11(2), 242-252; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nursrep11020024 - 12 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 547
Abstract
Diabetes is a public health problem and a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, the leading cause of death in the United States. Diabetes is prevalent among underserved rural populations. The purposes of this study were to perform secondary analyses of existing clinical [...] Read more.
Diabetes is a public health problem and a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, the leading cause of death in the United States. Diabetes is prevalent among underserved rural populations. The purposes of this study were to perform secondary analyses of existing clinical trial data to determine whether a diabetes health promotion and disease risk reduction intervention had an effect on diabetes fatalism, social support, and perceived diabetes self-management and to provide precise estimates of the mean levels of these variables in an understudied population. Data were collected during a cluster randomized trial implemented among African American participants (n = 146) in a rural, southern area and analyzed using a linear mixed model. The results indicated that the intervention had no significant effect on perceived diabetes management (p = 0.8), diabetes fatalism (p = 0.3), or social support (p = 0.4). However, the estimates showed that, in the population, diabetes fatalism levels were moderate (95% CI = (27.6, 31.3)), and levels of social support (CI = (4.0, 4.4)) and perceived diabetes self-management (CI = (27.7, 29.3)) were high. These findings suggest that diabetes fatalism, social support, and self-management perceptions influence diabetes self-care and rural health outcomes and should be addressed in diabetes interventions. Full article
Review
Inflammatory Bowel Disease Nurse—Practical Messages
Nurs. Rep. 2021, 11(2), 229-241; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nursrep11020023 - 01 Apr 2021
Viewed by 728
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Patients affected by inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are complex patients with various problems from a clinical and psychological point of view. This complexity must be addressed by a multidisciplinary team, and an inflammatory bowel disease nurse can be the [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Patients affected by inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are complex patients with various problems from a clinical and psychological point of view. This complexity must be addressed by a multidisciplinary team, and an inflammatory bowel disease nurse can be the ideal professional figure to create a link between doctor and patient. The objective of this comprehensive review is to describe the figure of inflammatory bowel disease nurses and the various benefits that their introduction into a multidisciplinary team can bring, as well as a focus on how to become an inflammatory bowel disease nurse. Materials and Methods: A search on the PubMed database was performed by associating the terms “IBD” or “inflammatory bowel disease” with the Boolean term AND to the various issues addressed: “life impact”, “communication”, “fistulas”, “ostomy”, “diet”, “incontinence”, “sexuality”, “parenthood”, “fatigue”, “pain management”, and “follow up appointments”. Regarding the analysis of the benefits that the IBD nurse brings, the terms “IBD”, “inflammatory bowel diseases”, “Crohn’s disease”, and “ulcerative colitis” were used, associating them with the terms “benefit”, “costs”, “team”, and “patients”. Finally, regarding the focus on how to become an IBD nurse, an IBD nurse was interviewed. Results: An IBD nurse is a valuable nursing figure within the multidisciplinary team that takes care of patients with IBD because this nurse performs important functions from both a clinical assistance point of view (management of fistulas, ostomies, infusion of biological drugs) and an information and therapeutic education point of view (communication with patients, direct contact with patients by telephone or email). Furthermore, this nurse performs the “filter” function between doctor and patient, saving time for doctors that will be used for more outpatient visits. Conclusions: The introduction of an inflammatory bowel disease nurse is therefore recommended for multidisciplinary organizations dealing with the clinical course of patients suffering from IBD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evidence-Based Practice and Personalized Care)
Article
Nursing Students Explore Meaningful Activities for Nursing Home Residents: Enlivening the Residents by Cultivating Their Spark of Life
Nurs. Rep. 2021, 11(2), 217-228; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nursrep11020022 - 01 Apr 2021
Viewed by 750
Abstract
International research focuses on person-centered care, quality of life, and quality of care for people living in long-term care facilities, and that it can be challenging to improve the quality of life for residents with dementia. The aim of this study was to [...] Read more.
International research focuses on person-centered care, quality of life, and quality of care for people living in long-term care facilities, and that it can be challenging to improve the quality of life for residents with dementia. The aim of this study was to explore ways of developing appropriate person-centered activities for nursing home residents based on what would be meaningful for them. A qualitative explorative design was chosen. Twelve students each year over a three-year period participated in the study (altogether 36). Each student tailored joyful and meaningful activities for two nursing home residents and wrote eight reflection journals each (altogether 284). Additional data came from eight focus group interviews with the students. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. The main theme was “Enlivening the residents by cultivating their spark of life”. Two main categories were identified: (1) “Journeying to meaningful and enlivening (enjoyable) activities”, and (2) “Expressions of enlivening”, It is possible to tailor meaningful and enlivening activities together with the individual person with dementia. Involvement and engagement are necessary to understand the verbal and nonverbal expressions and communicate with the individual resident. Full article
Article
Anxiety Effect on Communication Skills in Nursing Supervisors: An Observational Study
Nurs. Rep. 2021, 11(2), 207-216; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nursrep11020021 - 01 Apr 2021
Viewed by 637
Abstract
Communication represents an essential skill in nurse managers’ performance of everyday activities to ensure a good coordination of the team, since it focuses on the transmission of information in an understandable way. At the same time, anxiety is an emotion that can be [...] Read more.
Communication represents an essential skill in nurse managers’ performance of everyday activities to ensure a good coordination of the team, since it focuses on the transmission of information in an understandable way. At the same time, anxiety is an emotion that can be caused by demanding and stressful work environments, such as those of nurse managers. The aim of the present study was to analyze the impact of anxiety management on nurse managers’ communication skills. The sample comprised 90 nursing supervisors from hospitals in Madrid, Spain; 77.8% were women, and 22.2% were men, with an average of 10.9 years of experience as nursing supervisors. The instruments used for analysis were the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire: version five (16PF5) and State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) questionnaires, validated for the Spanish population. The results showed that emotional stability was negatively affected by anxiety (r = −0.43; p = 0.001), while apprehension was positively affected (r = 0.382; p = 0.000). Nursing supervisors, as managers, were found to possess a series of personality factors and skills to manage stress and communication situations that prevent them from being influenced by social pressure and the opinion of others. Full article
Editorial
Nursing Reports: Annual Report Card 2020
Nurs. Rep. 2021, 11(2), 202-206; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nursrep11020020 - 29 Mar 2021
Viewed by 562
Abstract
The choices authors make about where to submit their papers are complicated but are typically based on the Journal’s prestige [...] Full article
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