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Clin. Pract., Volume 12, Issue 2 (April 2022) – 9 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The resection of tumors within the primary motor cortex is a constant challenge. Although tractography may help in preoperative planning, it has close limits of application. While it can give valuable information on subcortical fibers, it is less accurate in the cortical layer of the brain. Surgery within the precentral gyrus is of high risk and requires multimodal functional planning. If interpreted with vigilance and consciousness of the underlying physical premises, tractography can yield assisting information within close limits, especially subcortically. However, it may help in identification of functional columns of the brain in presence of a tumor. View this paper.
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Case Report
Usefulness and Limits of Tractography for Surgery in the Precentral Gyrus—A Case Report
Clin. Pract. 2022, 12(2), 231-236; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/clinpract12020027 - 11 Apr 2022
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Abstract
The resection of tumors within the primary motor cortex is a constant challenge. Although tractography may help in preoperative planning, it has limited application. While it can give valuable information on subcortical fibers, it is less accurate in the cortical layer of the [...] Read more.
The resection of tumors within the primary motor cortex is a constant challenge. Although tractography may help in preoperative planning, it has limited application. While it can give valuable information on subcortical fibers, it is less accurate in the cortical layer of the brain. A 38-year-old patient presented with paresis of the right hand and focal epileptic seizures due to a tumor in the left precentral gyrus. Transcranial magnetic stimulation was not applicable due to seizures, so microsurgical resection was performed with preoperative tractography and intraoperative direct electrical stimulation. A histopathological assessment revealed a diagnosis of glioblastoma. Postoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed complete resection. The paresis dissolved completely during follow-up. Surgery within the precentral gyrus is of high risk and requires multimodal functional planning. If interpreted with vigilance and consciousness of the underlying physical premises, tractography can provide helpful information within its limitations, which is especially subcortically. However, it may also help in the identification of functional cortex columns of the brain in the presence of a tumor. Full article
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Article
Does Less Pain Predict Better Quality of Life among Malaysian Patients with Mild–Moderate Knee Osteoarthritis?
Clin. Pract. 2022, 12(2), 219-230; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/clinpract12020026 - 29 Mar 2022
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Abstract
This study aims to identify the relationship between knee functional status and Health-Related QoL (HRQoL) in mild to moderate knee osteoarthritis (OA) patients and to ascertain which subdomain of knee functional status best predicts good HRQoL. A cross-sectional study was conducted in an [...] Read more.
This study aims to identify the relationship between knee functional status and Health-Related QoL (HRQoL) in mild to moderate knee osteoarthritis (OA) patients and to ascertain which subdomain of knee functional status best predicts good HRQoL. A cross-sectional study was conducted in an orthopaedic clinic of a tertiary hospital in Malaysia. Patients aged 40–75 years old with mild–moderate primary knee OA were recruited. The Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) and SF-36 questionnaires were used to measure knee functional status and HRQoL, respectively. Subdomains of KOOS include “function in daily living”, “function in recreational activities”, “pain”, “symptom”, and “knee-specific quality of life”. Subdomains for SF-36 are Physical Component Summary (PCS) and Mental Component Summary (MCS). Overall, 290 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria of the study, with a mean age of 66.8 years old (±7.06). Majority were female (57.6%) and Malay (79.7%). The relationships between all KOOS and HRQoL subdomains were significant. “Pain” contributed most towards better physical HRQoL ((PCS) Adj. B (95% CI); 0.063 (0.044, 0.169)), while “function in daily living” contributed most towards better mental HRQoL ((MCS) Adj. B (95% CI); 0.624 (0.478, 0.769)). Thus, better HRQoL was related to better pain control and improved “function in daily living” in these patients. Full article
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Article
OK-432 Treatment of Ranula Intruding into the Cervical Region
Clin. Pract. 2022, 12(2), 215-218; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/clinpract12020025 - 28 Mar 2022
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Abstract
Objectives: Plunging ranula intruding into the cervical region is rare and a standard therapy has not yet been consolidated. This paper investigates the outcomes and side effects of OK-432 treatment in patients with a ranula extending into the cervical region. Methods: The study [...] Read more.
Objectives: Plunging ranula intruding into the cervical region is rare and a standard therapy has not yet been consolidated. This paper investigates the outcomes and side effects of OK-432 treatment in patients with a ranula extending into the cervical region. Methods: The study design and setting consisted of a planned data collection at Tohoku Medical and Pharmaceutical University and Fukase Clinic. Eight patients with ranula extending into the cervical region received OK-432 treatment between January 2016 and February 2019. OK-432 treatment was performed for patients with ranula extending into the cervical region. Results: In all patients, a total shrinkage and marked reduction in lesions were observed without local scars or deformations after OK-432 treatment. Complications were local swelling and mild fever (37.5–38.5 °C), which lasted a few days in half of the patients. Conclusions: OK-432 treatment is straightforward, secure, and efficacious and can be substituted for surgery in the treatment of ranula extending into the cervical region. Full article
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Article
Prevalence, Trends, and Outcomes of Pulmonary Embolism Treated with Mechanical and Surgical Thrombectomy from a Nationwide Inpatient Sample
Clin. Pract. 2022, 12(2), 204-214; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/clinpract12020024 - 13 Mar 2022
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Abstract
Pulmonary embolism (PE) is the third most common vascular disease in the US, a frequently underdiagnosed and potentially fatal condition where embolic material blocks one or more pulmonary arteries impairing blood flow. In this study, we aim to describe the prevalence, outcomes, and [...] Read more.
Pulmonary embolism (PE) is the third most common vascular disease in the US, a frequently underdiagnosed and potentially fatal condition where embolic material blocks one or more pulmonary arteries impairing blood flow. In this study, we aim to describe the prevalence, outcomes, and predictors of mortality of PE patients treated with mechanical (MT) and surgical thrombectomy (ST). This is a retrospective study using the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality’s HCUP NIS data from 2010–2018. We used the ninth and tenth revisions of the International Classification of Diseases clinical modification codes (ICD-9-CM and ICD-10-CM) to identify patients admitted with a primary diagnosis of PE (ICD-10-CM codes I26.02, I26.09, I26.92, I26.93, I26.94, and I26.99; ICD-9-CM codes 415.11, 415.13, and 415.19). We extracted demographics, hospital-level, and patient-level characteristics, and defined the severity of comorbid conditions using Deyo modification of the Elixhauser Comorbidity Index. The primary outcomes of interest were the utilization trends of PE (treated with MT and ST); the secondary outcomes were mortality, discharge to facility, peri-procedural complications, and length of hospital (LOS) stay; the tertiary outcome was to identify the predictors of in-hospital mortality. From 2010–2018, there were 1,627,718 hospitalizations for PE, of which 6531 (0.39%) underwent MT and 3465 (0.21%) underwent ST. The utilization trend of MT increased from 336 (0.20%) in 2010 to 1655 (0.87%) in 2018; the utilization trend of ST was 260 (0.15%) in 2010 and 430 (0.23%) in 2018. The unadjusted in-hospital mortality for MT was 9.1% with the mean LOS being 7(±0.3) days; for ST, mortality was 13.9% with a mean LOS of 13(±0.4) days. The occurrences of periprocedural complications for MT and ST were as follows: invasive mechanical ventilation was 13.8% and 32%; cardiopulmonary bypass was 3.3% and 68.3%; pulmonary embolectomy surgery was 1.7%; and bleeding complications were 1.4% and 3.4%. Predictors associated with in-hospital mortality for MT were: increasing age (OR 1.2, 95% CI 1.0–1.3, p < 0.026), female sex (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.2–2.8, p < 0.004), large hospitals (OR 2.2, 95% 1.4–3.5, p < 0.001), and teaching hospitals (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.1–3.1, p < 0.023). The predictor of in-hospital mortality for ST was increasing age (OR 1.2, 95% CI 1.0–1.4, p < 0.046). The number of MT procedures performed has rapidly increased over the past decade. Further studies are warranted to determine their rise and therapeutic use. Full article
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Article
Exercise Prescription and Progression Practices among US Cardiac Rehabilitation Clinics
Clin. Pract. 2022, 12(2), 194-203; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/clinpract12020023 - 08 Mar 2022
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Abstract
Background: Little is known about exercise prescription practices in cardiac rehabilitation (CR). Therefore, the purpose of this study was to understand how initial exercise is prescribed and how exercise intensity is progressed among cardiac patients enrolled in United States CR programs. Methods: A [...] Read more.
Background: Little is known about exercise prescription practices in cardiac rehabilitation (CR). Therefore, the purpose of this study was to understand how initial exercise is prescribed and how exercise intensity is progressed among cardiac patients enrolled in United States CR programs. Methods: A 22-question survey was sent out to US CR clinics. Results: Ninety-three clinics responded to the survey. RPE was the most commonly reported exercise intensity indicator used for prescribing exercise, followed by resting HR + 20–30 bpm. Exercise progression practices were also based on patient sustained RPE values. Conclusions. Exercise prescription practice has become reliant on subjective indicators of exercise intensity. This may limit patient outcomes, such as improvement in functional measures. Full article
Article
Immunohistochemical Evaluation of CD3, CD4, CD8, and CD20 in Decidual and Trophoblastic Tissue Specimens of Patients with Recurrent Pregnancy Loss
Clin. Pract. 2022, 12(2), 177-193; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/clinpract12020022 - 28 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1007
Abstract
Recurrent miscarriages affect up to 5% of couples. CD3+ (T-lymphocytes), CD4+ (helper T-lymphocytes), CD8+ (cytotoxic T-lymphocytes), and CD20+ (B-lymphocytes) cells may participate in the pathophysiology of recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL). The aim of this study was to investigate the [...] Read more.
Recurrent miscarriages affect up to 5% of couples. CD3+ (T-lymphocytes), CD4+ (helper T-lymphocytes), CD8+ (cytotoxic T-lymphocytes), and CD20+ (B-lymphocytes) cells may participate in the pathophysiology of recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL). The aim of this study was to investigate the complicity of these molecules in RPL. The experimental specimens were obtained from 20 females who underwent miscarriages in the first gestational trimester, while the control group’s specimens consisted of 20 females who proceeded with voluntary pregnancy termination during the same period. Tissue samples were taken from the decidua basalis, decidua parietalis, and trophoblast (placental chorionic villi) and were studied using immunohistochemical methods. Monoclonal antibodies were used against CD3, CD4, CD8, and CD20 cells. The lymphocyte levels in the decidua parietalis displayed profound disparities among the two groups. The decidua basalis and trophoblast exhibited almost the same disparities regarding positive CD cells. The comparison of CD4+ and CD8+ cells in the endometrial tissue revealed a significant difference between the two groups of study. The analysis uncovered a strong relationship between RPL and the presence of CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, and CD20+ cells in the decidua parietalis tissue. The number of positive T cells was decreased in the decidual basalis and chorionic villi, proving that their absence significantly disrupts the balance of the immunological environment. Full article
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Article
Extracellular Oxidative Stress Markers in COVID-19 Patients with Diabetes as Co-Morbidity
Clin. Pract. 2022, 12(2), 168-176; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/clinpract12020021 - 28 Feb 2022
Viewed by 1008
Abstract
COVID-19 patients have a higher risk of developing inflammatory responses associated with serious and even fatal respiratory diseases. The role of oxidative stress in exacerbating manifestations in COVID-19 pathogenesis is under-reported.This study aimed touseserum levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD3) and glutathione-S-transferase (GSTp1) by [...] Read more.
COVID-19 patients have a higher risk of developing inflammatory responses associated with serious and even fatal respiratory diseases. The role of oxidative stress in exacerbating manifestations in COVID-19 pathogenesis is under-reported.This study aimed touseserum levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD3) and glutathione-S-transferase (GSTp1) by ELISA, zinc (ErbaChem5), ferritin and free iron (VitrosChemistry, Ortho Clinical Diagnosis, Raritan, NJ, USA) at the first encounter of randomly selected RT-PCR-positive COVID-19 patients, for assessing disease severity. The parameters which helped in identifying the severity, leading to poor prognosis, were neutrophil:lymphocyte higher than 4, high CRP, low SOD3 values and high GSTp1 values, and diabetes mellitus as a co-morbidity. Higher zinc levels correlated with high GSTp1 and low SOD3, indicating the protective effect of zinc on ROS. The increased high GSTp1 shows an anticipated protective biochemical response, to mitigate the low SOD3 values due to ROS consumption. Decreased SOD3 levels indicate a state of high oxidative stress at cellular levels, and an anticipated increase in GSTp1 levels points to the pathophysiological bases of increasing severity with age, sex, and co-morbidities, such asdiabetes. High levels of initial GSTp1 and zinc levels possibly offer protection to redox reactions at the cellular level in severe COVID-19 infection, preventing deterioration. Full article
Article
Nuclear Expression of p-STAT3 Is Associated with Poor Prognosis in ER(−) Breast Cancer
Clin. Pract. 2022, 12(2), 157-167; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/clinpract12020020 - 25 Feb 2022
Viewed by 899
Abstract
The activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) has been reported in several types of cancer, where it acts as an oncogene. However, in breast cancer, the clinical role of STAT3 remains unclear. In the present study, the association between [...] Read more.
The activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) has been reported in several types of cancer, where it acts as an oncogene. However, in breast cancer, the clinical role of STAT3 remains unclear. In the present study, the association between phosphorylated-STAT3 (p-STAT3) expression and clinicopathological/biological factors was examined in each subtype. p-STAT3 expression was examined in 135 cases of breast cancer by immunohistochemistry. p-STAT3 expression was not associated with clinicopathological/biological factors and prognosis in a complete cohort of breast cancer cases. However, in patients with estrogen receptor-negative (ER(−)) breast cancer and triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), multivariate analysis showed that higher p-STAT3 expression was significantly associated with a short relapse-free survival (p = 0.029, HR 5.37, 95%CI 1.19–24.29). TNBC patients with p-STAT3 overexpression were found to have a poor prognosis (p = 0.029, HR 5.37, 95%CI 1.19–24.29). On the other hand, in ER(+) breast cancer, p-STAT3 overexpression was associated with a favorable prognosis (p = 0.034, HR 9.48, 95%CI 1.18–76.21). The present results suggested that STAT3 expression may play a different role in ER(−) and ER(+) breast cancer. In the future, the pharmacological inhibition of STAT3 expression may serve as an effective therapeutic strategy for ER(−) breast cancer, particularly TNBC. Full article
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Editorial
Publisher’s Note: We Changed Page Numbers to Article Numbers for Articles Published in Clinics and Practice Volumes 1–10
Clin. Pract. 2022, 12(2), 147-156; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/clinpract12020019 - 23 Feb 2022
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Abstract
Clinics and Practice [...] Full article
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