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Article

Cultural Heritage Management Using Remote Sensing Data and GIS Techniques around the Archaeological Area of Ancient Jeddah in Jeddah City, Saudi Arabia

1
Italian National Research Council, C.da Santa Loja, Tito Scalo, 85050 Potenza, Italy
2
Department of Population Studies and Archaeology, National Authority for Remote Sensing and Space Sciences, Cairo 1564, Egypt
3
Department of Archaeology, Faculty of Arts, University of Kafrelsheikh, Kafr el Sheikh 1501, Egypt
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2020, 12(1), 240; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su12010240
Received: 24 May 2019 / Revised: 10 June 2019 / Accepted: 12 June 2019 / Published: 27 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing for Archaeology and Cultural Landscapes)
Historic Jeddah is located on the eastern shore of the Red Sea. Historic Jeddah was designated as a UNESCO world heritage site in 2014. The new urban development for the city of Jeddah has resulted in different spatial patterns. The southern part of Jeddah city falls within the moderate zone, because this area is well developed in regard to infrastructure with rainstorm and sewage networks. The middle area of the city falls within high vulnerability risk due to its high population, shallow water depth, flat slopes, and various incomplete network services (i.e., leakage from septic tanks and water pipes). The western and northwestern parts of the city are subject to very high pollution risk, due to the highly permeable area with coralline formation, very shallow water depth, and depressions. Unfortunately, historic Jeddah has been affected by the unplanned development and shallow water depth. Most of the construction and decoration of the ancient buildings are suffering from deterioration. The paper aims to detect the environmental changes, assessing the geo-environmental status, and creating some of the innovative solutions while using the integration between remote sensing and GIS techniques. The combination of SRTM, Corona 1966, Spot 1986, Landsat 1987, Orbview 2003, and Sentinel2A 2017 data will help in monitoring the changes around the study area. The Bands combination and the spatial statistical analysis are considered to be the most effective methods in the examination of the new built-up indices. GIS techniques and some models would be suggested as solutions to protect the archaeological area, according to UNESCO recommendations. View Full-Text
Keywords: supervised classification; heritage management; satellite imagery; spatial statistical supervised classification; heritage management; satellite imagery; spatial statistical
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MDPI and ACS Style

Elfadaly, A.; Shams eldein, A.; Lasaponara, R. Cultural Heritage Management Using Remote Sensing Data and GIS Techniques around the Archaeological Area of Ancient Jeddah in Jeddah City, Saudi Arabia. Sustainability 2020, 12, 240. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su12010240

AMA Style

Elfadaly A, Shams eldein A, Lasaponara R. Cultural Heritage Management Using Remote Sensing Data and GIS Techniques around the Archaeological Area of Ancient Jeddah in Jeddah City, Saudi Arabia. Sustainability. 2020; 12(1):240. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su12010240

Chicago/Turabian Style

Elfadaly, Abdelaziz, Ayaat Shams eldein, and Rosa Lasaponara. 2020. "Cultural Heritage Management Using Remote Sensing Data and GIS Techniques around the Archaeological Area of Ancient Jeddah in Jeddah City, Saudi Arabia" Sustainability 12, no. 1: 240. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su12010240

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