Energy consumption for cooling purposes has increased significantly in recent years, mainly due to population growth, urbanization, and climate change consequences. The situation can be mitigated by passive climate solutions to reduce energy consumption in buildings. This study investigated the effectiveness of the green roof concept in reducing energy demand for cooling in different climatic regions. The impact of several types of green roofing of varying thermal conductivity and soil depth on energy consumption for cooling school buildings in Egypt was examined. In a co-simulation approach, the efficiency of the proposed green roof types was evaluated using the Design-Builder software, and a cost analysis was performed for the best options. The results showed that the proposed green roof types saved between 31.61 and 39.74% of energy, on average. A green roof featuring a roof soil depth of 0.1 m and 0.9 W/m-K thermal conductivity exhibited higher efficiency in reducing energy than the other options tested. The decrease in air temperature due to green roofs in hot arid areas, which exceeded an average of 4 °C, was greater than that in other regions that were not as hot. In conclusion, green roofs were shown to be efficient in reducing energy consumption as compared with traditional roofs, especially in hot arid climates.
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