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Sustainability, Volume 12, Issue 15 (August-1 2020) – 417 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The above- and belowground impacts of the invasive legume Lespedeza cuneata on natives in three functional groups—grasses, forbs, and legumes—were explored through combining the filter framework model of community assembly and the passenger–driver model of non-native species behavior. Field surveys revealed species composition differences between invaded and uninvaded areas in half the survey sites, suggesting site-specific characteristics influence L. cuneata’s impact. The greenhouse experiment revealed stronger aboveground competitive effects than belowground soil effects due to soil conditioning, with impacts differing among functional groups. The response of L. cuneata was reduced in the presence of grasses and other legumes but not forbs. Promoting high grass abundance and planting native legumes will help to buffer grasslands from L. cuneata invasion. View [...] Read more.
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Article
The Evolution of the Kazakhstani Silk Road Section from a Transport into a Logistics Corridor and the Economic Sustainability of Regional Development in Central Asia
Sustainability 2020, 12(15), 6291; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su12156291 - 04 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1299
Abstract
Central Asian countries attract investment in transport infrastructure to rebuild the Silk Road paths and enjoy economic benefits from the participation in international trade. The Kazakhstani government approached the Russian and Chinese governments intending to join the Western Europe–Western China (WE–WC) initiative to [...] Read more.
Central Asian countries attract investment in transport infrastructure to rebuild the Silk Road paths and enjoy economic benefits from the participation in international trade. The Kazakhstani government approached the Russian and Chinese governments intending to join the Western Europe–Western China (WE–WC) initiative to boost the country’s regional development. The paper aims to assess how the WE–WC transport corridor affected the economic potential of linking cities and regions starting from the quality of transport infrastructure and leading to their export potential. The study’s findings showed that the Kazakhstan section of the WE–WC corridor was at an early stage of transformation from a transport into an economic corridor. While the Russia-Uzbekistan section continues to serve mainly a transit function and operate at the level of transport infrastructure, the China-Kyrgyzstan section has started evolving from the level of multimode transport corridor to the level of logistics corridor. The economic sustainability of the WE–WC linking mining and agricultural regions of Kazakhstan still comes into question and depends on the government’s further region-specific policy actions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Transportation)
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Article
Fostering Social Project Impact with Twitter: Current Usage and Perspectives
Sustainability 2020, 12(15), 6290; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su12156290 - 04 Aug 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1346
Abstract
Social impact assessment has become a major concern within the research community. While different methodological advancements have been made to better display, as well as to measure, achieved impacts, social media has proved to be a potential domain to generate many new opportunities [...] Read more.
Social impact assessment has become a major concern within the research community. While different methodological advancements have been made to better display, as well as to measure, achieved impacts, social media has proved to be a potential domain to generate many new opportunities to support both the communication as well as the realization of social impact. Within this context, the current research presents an analysis of how Twitter is used among a subset of research projects to maximize social impact. The research focuses on the use of Twitter, as one of the most often used social media, by the members of scientific projects funded under one part of the FP7 funding framework of the European Union called Science in Society. The data were analyzed using NVivo, and WordStat Provalis software. The results presented in this study include exploratory data analysis, topic mining and the analysis of the impact of projects on Twitter. The results indicate moderate use of Twitter among the observed projects, but with a strong focus on the dissemination of project results, thus indicating a trend towards the usage of social media for communicating the social impact of research projects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Successful Actions on Sustainability Impact)
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Article
Sustaining International Students’ Learning of Chinese in China: Shifting Motivations among New Zealand Students during Study Abroad
Sustainability 2020, 12(15), 6289; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su12156289 - 04 Aug 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 990
Abstract
This paper reports on an inquiry that examined groups of New Zealand students’ motivational shifts related to learning Chinese before and after relocation to China. In the inquiry, we encouraged 15 participants to write reflective journals and conducted two rounds of interviews before [...] Read more.
This paper reports on an inquiry that examined groups of New Zealand students’ motivational shifts related to learning Chinese before and after relocation to China. In the inquiry, we encouraged 15 participants to write reflective journals and conducted two rounds of interviews before and after their study abroad trip to China. The analysis revealed that most participants had their motivation enhanced by the trip, and expected to sustain their heightened motivation for learning Chinese in the future. The findings suggest that the participants’ motivational shifts happened during their period of study abroad in China, and were prompted by their new pedagogical environment and individual learning experiences. In other words, the motivational enhancement emerged from ongoing interactions between the participants’ L2 self-concepts (e.g., ideal L2 selves) and learning and sociocultural contexts in China. These findings offer fresh insights into the dynamic nature of Chinese language learning motivation and the role of formal and informal settings in the participants’ learning of Chinese. They imply that educational stakeholders need to provide authentic communication opportunities and resources to enhance international students’ motivation for the sustainable learning of Chinese. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Multilingualism in Higher Education)
Article
Adoption and Implementation of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in China—Agenda 2030
Sustainability 2020, 12(15), 6288; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su12156288 - 04 Aug 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1362
Abstract
The present research is conducted on the Chinese corporate sector and raises the basic questions associated with the adoption and implementation of corporate disclosure practices such as SDGs. The sample for this research consisted of 100 Chinese companies, which are listed in the [...] Read more.
The present research is conducted on the Chinese corporate sector and raises the basic questions associated with the adoption and implementation of corporate disclosure practices such as SDGs. The sample for this research consisted of 100 Chinese companies, which are listed in the Shanghai Stock Exchange from 2016 to 2018. For this purpose, content analysis is developed. More specifically, a quantitative approach is applied to quantify and identify certain contents or words in the given text. Our results show that Chinese companies seem to be more focused on certain aspects of the UN SDGs at the cost of others, but the overall situation is, at best, not encouraging. The focus of attention of Chinese companies seems to be infrastructure development, industrial innovation, and economic growth, along with the provision of a dignified and respectable working environment, affordable and clean energy, and peace, justice, and strong institutions. The results can be used as guidelines by Chinese companies to determine the actual presence or absence of SDGs implementation inside the process of value creation as an integral part of their practices about corporate disclosure. The main contribution of this research relates to the analysis of the adoption and implementation efforts to report SDGs and the contribution of such reporting towards the fulfillment of the UN Agenda 2030. This can be of interest to researchers working on the given topic. It is of utmost importance for government policymakers and corporate decision-makers, who want to support companies that are contributing towards the achievement and adaptation of SDGs as part of their overall objectives. Full article
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Article
Making Hemp Choices: Evidence from Vermont
Sustainability 2020, 12(15), 6287; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su12156287 - 04 Aug 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1136
Abstract
Hemp’s reemergence in the United States’ economy presents an opportunity for a new category of sustainable product choice for consumers. This study fills a gap in knowledge about which consumers are currently aware of or choosing hemp products using the theory of choice [...] Read more.
Hemp’s reemergence in the United States’ economy presents an opportunity for a new category of sustainable product choice for consumers. This study fills a gap in knowledge about which consumers are currently aware of or choosing hemp products using the theory of choice alternatives and a statistically representative survey from a top ten hemp producing US state. Findings reveal high levels of consumer awareness and consideration of hemp products in general and a smaller evoked/choice set. Cannabidiol products appear most often in our sample’s choice set; we examined these specifically. Other hemp products also appear, including clothing and textile, personal care, building material, and food products. Bivariate logistic regression results show that older respondents are more likely to be in the unaware set for hemp products in general and for cannabidiol products. Politically liberal respondents are more likely to be in the evoked/choice set for hemp products in general and for cannabidiol products. No demographic variables are significantly associated with being in the consideration set for hemp products in general. Younger and more educated respondents are more likely to consider cannabidiol products. As hemp represents a nascent but growing market, this study provides a baseline from which to build understanding of consumer choice alternatives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Systems – The Importance of Consumption)
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Article
Drought Stress Alleviation by ACC Deaminase Producing Achromobacter xylosoxidans and Enterobacter cloacae, with and without Timber Waste Biochar in Maize
Sustainability 2020, 12(15), 6286; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su12156286 - 04 Aug 2020
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 886
Abstract
The high consumption of water in industries, domestic areas and increasing earth temperature are major hurdles for the optimization of maize yield. Being the third most widely cultivated cereal crop, improvement in maize yield is a big challenge under the limited availability of [...] Read more.
The high consumption of water in industries, domestic areas and increasing earth temperature are major hurdles for the optimization of maize yield. Being the third most widely cultivated cereal crop, improvement in maize yield is a big challenge under the limited availability of irrigation. As the water requirement for maize cultivation is high, it is time to introduce technologies that can mitigate drought stress and are environmentally friendly. The inoculation of rhizobacteria with ‘1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase’ (ACCD) can play an imperative role in that regard by decreasing stress ethylene in plants. Biochar (BC) can also alleviate drought stress. Therefore, a field study was conducted, to examine the single and combined application of drought-tolerant plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPRs) Achromobacter xylosoxidans and Enterobacter cloacae, with 15 Mg ha−1 of timber waste biochar (TWBC) at normal irrigation = 16 irrigations, mild drought = 14 irrigations and severe drought = 12 irrigation for maize cultivation. A significant improvement in shoot dry weight (28%), 1000-grains weight (19%), grain yield (27%), concentrations of N (43%), P (92%) and K (71%) in grains, rate of photosynthesis (33%), transpiration rate (55%), stomatal conductance (104%), chlorophyll A (33%), chlorophyll B (62%) and total chlorophyll (45%) of maize was noted under drought stress where E. cloacae + TWBC was applied. Likewise, the application of A. xylosoxidans + TWBC also significantly enhanced the plant height (24%) and cob length (9%) of maize under drought stress. In conclusion, E. cloacae is more effective than A. xylosoxidans, with 15 Mg ha−1 TWBC to increase maize yield under drought stress, due to the potential of higher ‘1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate’ (ACC)-deaminase synthesis, better nutrient solubilization and indole acetic acid (IAA) production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Soil Health Management)
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Article
Golden Apples or Green Apples? The Effect of Entrepreneurial Creativity on Green Entrepreneurship: A Dual Pathway Model
Sustainability 2020, 12(15), 6285; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su12156285 - 04 Aug 2020
Viewed by 847
Abstract
Entrepreneurs with high creativity (i.e., golden apples) are easy to find, but entrepreneurs with green entrepreneurial intention (i.e., green apples) are rare. To explain this phenomenon, we first introduce cognitive dissonance theory to demonstrate how entrepreneurial creativity influences green entrepreneurship through two parallel [...] Read more.
Entrepreneurs with high creativity (i.e., golden apples) are easy to find, but entrepreneurs with green entrepreneurial intention (i.e., green apples) are rare. To explain this phenomenon, we first introduce cognitive dissonance theory to demonstrate how entrepreneurial creativity influences green entrepreneurship through two parallel mechanisms—green recognition and green disengagement. Moreover, we propose the use of green self-identity as a moderator to predict when the relationships between entrepreneurial creativity and these two mechanisms are intensified or attenuated. Through an empirical study, we surveyed 362 entrepreneurs from a local entrepreneurship association in eastern China. The results show that entrepreneurial creativity is positively associated with both green recognition and green disengagement. While green recognition strengthens green entrepreneurial intention, green disengagement weakens green entrepreneurial intention. More importantly, creative entrepreneurs with high green self-identity are more likely to engage in green recognition and, thus, promote green entrepreneurial intention. By contrast, creative entrepreneurs with low green self-identity are more willing to engage in green disengagement and, thus, inhibit green entrepreneurial intention. Finally, we discuss the theoretical and practical implications of these findings for entrepreneurial creativity and green entrepreneurship. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Economic and Business Aspects of Sustainability)
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Article
Vehicular PM Emissions and Urban Public Health Sustainability: A Probabilistic Analysis for Dhaka City
Sustainability 2020, 12(15), 6284; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su12156284 - 04 Aug 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 865
Abstract
Particulate Matter (PM) pollution is generally considered as a prime indicator of urban air quality and is linked to human health hazards. As vehicles are a vital component of an urban setting, the risks of particulate pollution need to be assessed. An emission [...] Read more.
Particulate Matter (PM) pollution is generally considered as a prime indicator of urban air quality and is linked to human health hazards. As vehicles are a vital component of an urban setting, the risks of particulate pollution need to be assessed. An emission modelling is essential for that, and thus stochastic modelling approach involving Monte Carlo simulation technique was applied, aiming to reduce the uncertainty in emission modelling. The risks scenarios for the emissions were generated for 2019 (present state) and 2024 (future), integrating the probability of emissions and the associated AQI (Air Quality Index). Despite the vehicles being a minor source of PM in Dhaka (compared to the contribution from other sources), about one-third of the city is found under high risk due to the exhaust particulate pollution; having the potentiality to cover more than 60% of the city in the coming years, affecting the urban public health sustainability. However, the extent of implementation of planning and management strategies can revert the scenarios for the city, which can plausibly reduce the risk from 80% to 50%, or even to a no-risk state. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Sustainability: Pavement Design, Construction and Environment)
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Article
GIS-Based Assessment of the Technical and Economic Feasibility of Utility-Scale Solar PV Plants: Case Study in West Kalimantan Province
Sustainability 2020, 12(15), 6283; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su12156283 - 04 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1231
Abstract
This paper presents a technical and economic feasibility assessment of utility-scale solar photovoltaic (PV) plants in the West Kalimantan Province of Borneo, which is essential for boosting the development of solar PV plants in Indonesia. The assessment was performed based on a previously [...] Read more.
This paper presents a technical and economic feasibility assessment of utility-scale solar photovoltaic (PV) plants in the West Kalimantan Province of Borneo, which is essential for boosting the development of solar PV plants in Indonesia. The assessment was performed based on a previously developed geographical information systems (GIS) package that integrates satellite-derived data of solar irradiation with locally obtained data such as land usage, topography, road lines, and an electrical network. For the evaluation of the technical and economic feasibility, annual energy production and electrical cost were calculated using an analysis tool that was integrated into a GIS package. The results show that more than 93% of the exploitable land that covers the area of 49,859 km2 is available for the development of solar PV plants, with an annual energy production higher than 180 GWh/km2 and an electricity cost lower than 0.05 USD/kWh, indicating the attractiveness of utility-scale solar PV plant development in West Kalimantan Province. A further detailed assessment of optimal sites shows that the selected sites are technically and economically feasible for the development of utility-scale solar PV plants. The approaches and results of this research should be valuable for energy planners, developers, and policy makers to set the strategies for promoting the development of utility-scale solar PV plants in pro of the sustainable development of Indonesia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Renewable Energy Technologies for Sustainability)
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Article
Shaking Stability: COVID-19 Impact on the Visegrad Group Countries’ Financial Markets
Sustainability 2020, 12(15), 6282; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su12156282 - 04 Aug 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2352
Abstract
The recent outbreak of the coronavirus pandemic has made a significant impact on the global financial markets. The aim of this paper is to assess the short-term reaction of the Visegrad countries’ financial markets to the COVID-19 pandemic. The Visegrad Group is a [...] Read more.
The recent outbreak of the coronavirus pandemic has made a significant impact on the global financial markets. The aim of this paper is to assess the short-term reaction of the Visegrad countries’ financial markets to the COVID-19 pandemic. The Visegrad Group is a political alliance of four Central European countries, namely Czechia, Hungary, Poland, and Slovakia. The financial assessment is based on the EUR/CZK, EUR/HUF, and EUR/PLN exchange rates and the major blue-chip stock market indices, that is Prague PX, Budapest BUX, Warsaw WIG20, and Bratislava SAX. It is evident that the ongoing pandemic has changed the expectations of the financial market participants about the future value of exchange rates in the Visegrad countries. This study indicates that, as a consequence of COVID-19, higher probability has been attached to the large depreciation of the Czech koruna (CZK), the Hungarian forint (HUF), and the Polish zloty (PLN) than to their large appreciation. Moreover, based on the TGARCH model, the positive and significant correlation between the number of reported COVID-19 cases and the exchange rates has been confirmed, implying that the ongoing pandemic has resulted in the depreciation of the Visegrad currencies. Additionally, the result of the TGARCH model reveals that there is a significant and negative link between the Visegrad stock market indices and the COVID-19 spread. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Economic and Business Aspects of Sustainability)
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Article
State-of-the-Art Review of Microbial-Induced Calcite Precipitation and Its Sustainability in Engineering Applications
Sustainability 2020, 12(15), 6281; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su12156281 - 04 Aug 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1695
Abstract
Microbial-induced calcite precipitation (MICP) is a promising new technology in the area of Civil Engineering with potential to become a cost-effective, environmentally friendly and sustainable solution to many problems such as ground improvement, liquefaction remediation, enhancing properties of concrete and so forth. This [...] Read more.
Microbial-induced calcite precipitation (MICP) is a promising new technology in the area of Civil Engineering with potential to become a cost-effective, environmentally friendly and sustainable solution to many problems such as ground improvement, liquefaction remediation, enhancing properties of concrete and so forth. This paper reviews the research and developments over the past 25 years since the first reported application of MICP in 1995. Historical developments in the area, the biological processes involved, the behaviour of improved soils, developments in modelling the behaviour of treated soil and the challenges associated are discussed with a focus on the geotechnical aspects of the problem. The paper also presents an assessment of cost and environmental benefits tied with three application scenarios in pavement construction. It is understood for some applications that at this stage, MICP may not be a cost-effective or even environmentally friendly solution; however, following the latest developments, MICP has the potential to become one. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Sustainability: Pavement Design, Construction and Environment)
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Review
Ultra-Processed Foods and Food System Sustainability: What Are the Links?
Sustainability 2020, 12(15), 6280; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su12156280 - 04 Aug 2020
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3627
Abstract
Global food systems are no longer sustainable for health, the environment, animal biodiversity and wellbeing, culinary traditions, socioeconomics, or small farmers. The increasing massive consumption of animal foods has been identified as a major determinant of unsustainability. However, today, the consumption of ultra-processed [...] Read more.
Global food systems are no longer sustainable for health, the environment, animal biodiversity and wellbeing, culinary traditions, socioeconomics, or small farmers. The increasing massive consumption of animal foods has been identified as a major determinant of unsustainability. However, today, the consumption of ultra-processed foods (UPFs) is also questioned. The main objective of this review is therefore to check the validity of this new hypothesis. We first identified the main ingredients/additives present in UPFs and the agricultural practices involved in their provision to agro-industrials. Overall, UPF production is analysed regarding its impacts on the environment, biodiversity, animal wellbeing, and cultural and socio-economic dimensions. Our main conclusion is that UPFs are associated with intensive agriculture/livestock and threaten all dimensions of food system sustainability due to the combination of low-cost ingredients at purchase and increased consumption worldwide. However, low-animal-calorie UPFs do not produce the highest greenhouse gas emissions (GHGEs) compared to conventional meat and dairy products. In addition, only reducing energy dense UPF intake, without substitution, might substantially reduce GHGEs. Therefore, significant improvement in food system sustainability requires urgently encouraging limiting UPF consumption to the benefit of mildly processed foods, preferably seasonal, organic, and local products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Food)
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Article
Insulating Organic Material as a Protection System against Late Frost Damages on the Vine Shoots
Sustainability 2020, 12(15), 6279; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su12156279 - 04 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 727
Abstract
Late frosts are one of the major impact factors on agriculture worldwide with large economic losses for agricultural crops, with a significant impact also in wine production. Given the importance of the wine sector in the world, more and more efforts are being [...] Read more.
Late frosts are one of the major impact factors on agriculture worldwide with large economic losses for agricultural crops, with a significant impact also in wine production. Given the importance of the wine sector in the world, more and more efforts are being made to identify innovative techniques capable of creating a low-cost and effective protection for vine shoots, as well as reducing energy consumption. In a previous work, cotton candy was identified as an insulating material to solve the problems related to late frosts on vineyards and limit its damages as much as possible. From the results of the previous research, it has proved that cotton candy is an excellent thermal insulator, but it degrades quickly in windy conditions. Thus, climatic tests carried out in windy condition showed that straw can greatly slow down the degradation of cotton candy over time, giving an indirect contribution to the protective effectiveness of cotton candy. In addition, several tests were conducted with different amounts of sugar and straw without wind to evaluate whether the straw can itself make a contribution in terms of thermal insulation, as well as contribute to the protective effectiveness of cotton candy, minimizing energy use as well. Full article
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Article
Greening the Browns: A Bio-Based Land Use Framework for Analysing the Potential of Urban Brownfields in an Urban Circular Economy
Sustainability 2020, 12(15), 6278; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su12156278 - 04 Aug 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1328
Abstract
The Circular Economy (CE) is expected to accelerate the use of resources with bio-based origin. Cities have an important role in such an economy, not only as main consumers but also because vegetation provides numerous ecosystem services essential for the well-being of urban [...] Read more.
The Circular Economy (CE) is expected to accelerate the use of resources with bio-based origin. Cities have an important role in such an economy, not only as main consumers but also because vegetation provides numerous ecosystem services essential for the well-being of urban dwellers. Urban lands are, however, heavily burdened with both past and present activities and ongoing urbanization. Retrofitting obsolete and potentially contaminated brownfields provides an opportunity to engage with bio-based land uses within the city. At the same time, plants are an important part of Gentle Remediation Options (GROs), a more sustainable alternative for managing contamination risks and restoring soil health. This paper (1) provides a tentative selection of Urban Greenspaces (UGSs) relevant for brownfields, and a compilation of ecosystem services provided by the selected UGSs, and (2) presents a framework covering the 14 selected bio-based land uses on brownfields, including GRO interventions over time. This framework provides three practical tools: the conceptualization of linkages between GROs and prospective UGS uses, a scatter diagram for the realization of 14 UGS opportunities on brownfields, and a decision matrix to analyze the requirements for UGS realization on brownfields. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Resources and Sustainable Utilization)
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Article
Coping with Supervisor Sanctions During Organizational Change: Core Members’ Active Change Behavior and Followers’ Middle Way Thinking
Sustainability 2020, 12(15), 6277; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su12156277 - 04 Aug 2020
Viewed by 677
Abstract
Recent research has shown that an organizational change implementation tactic is vital for influencing employee reactions to change. Hard tactics, such as supervisor sanction, are generally verified as obstructive to employees’ positive change behavior. The aim of this study is to identify the [...] Read more.
Recent research has shown that an organizational change implementation tactic is vital for influencing employee reactions to change. Hard tactics, such as supervisor sanction, are generally verified as obstructive to employees’ positive change behavior. The aim of this study is to identify the contingency circumstances under which sanction would be less harmful or even effective to change. By identifying the organizational situational influence of core members’ active change behavior and followers’ individual differences of middle way thinking, this study constructed a model that offers insight into the effectiveness of supervisor sanctions during change. Data from 250 employees in China were gathered by questionnaires. Results from hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) revealed that core members’ behavior neutralized the negative effect of supervisor sanctions on followers’ active change behavior. Moreover, this moderating effect was further magnified by followers’ personal middle way thinking value. The conclusions emphasized the roles of core members’ supportive behavior to change, which acts as role model, and of the individual middle way thinking values that have sustained Eastern Asia for thousands of years in successfully implementing change. The findings provide insights for the successful implementation tactics in organization change and enrich the understanding of the organizational change process. Research should continue to treat followers’ change reactions as a synergy output of situational factors and individual characteristics and examine the variables of these dimensions in the work environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovation and the Development of Enterprises II)
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Article
Key Factors in Measuring Ammonia Emissions with Dynamic Flux Chamber in Barns
Sustainability 2020, 12(15), 6276; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su12156276 - 04 Aug 2020
Viewed by 685
Abstract
In this study, measurement methods for estimating the NH3 emissions in barns and the development of different emission factors were reviewed, and the factors to be considered when applying a dynamic flux chamber approach were analyzed. First, one of the factors to [...] Read more.
In this study, measurement methods for estimating the NH3 emissions in barns and the development of different emission factors were reviewed, and the factors to be considered when applying a dynamic flux chamber approach were analyzed. First, one of the factors to be considered when applying the dynamic flux chamber was determined as the stabilization time in the chamber. As a result of the experiment, it was confirmed that the concentration in the chamber stabilized after 45 min. This is considered to take longer than the stabilization time of 20 min suggested in the previous study. The second is the choice of the measurement method. This method includes real-time measurement and the indophenol method. As a result of the experiment in both methods, the ammonia flux showed a difference of about 10%, so both methods are considered to be considered. Therefore, it is judged that the methodology should be selected according to the situation, such as weather or electric power secured at the barn site. In the future, if studies on whether the stabilization time in the chamber can be changed according to seasonal factors and ambient temperature, and based on a sufficiently large sample size, the results will contribute to improving the reliability of the estimated ammonia(NH3) emissions and the development of an emissions factor for use in the livestock sector in Korea. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Air, Climate Change and Sustainability)
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Article
The Willingness to Pay in the Food Sector. Testing the Hypothesis of Consumer Preferences for Some Made in Italy Products
Sustainability 2020, 12(15), 6275; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su12156275 - 04 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 892
Abstract
Previous publications have shown that Italian consumers are willing to pay a premium price for certain categories of Made in Italy products. The premium price has proven to be higher in the food sector. This study provides an extensive literature review on the [...] Read more.
Previous publications have shown that Italian consumers are willing to pay a premium price for certain categories of Made in Italy products. The premium price has proven to be higher in the food sector. This study provides an extensive literature review on the topic and aims to test a hypothesis regarding consumer preferences towards some Made in Italy food products of mass consumption (olive oil, meat and fish), with specific reference to the value systems that influence the purchase. This paper studies the correlation between the potential willingness to pay a premium price for the mentioned products and the characteristics of consumers’ sample. The results obtained confirm the willingness to pay for Made in Italy products and correlate the willingness to pay a premium price with the level of education of the respondents to the questionnaire. Thus, these findings show that consumers with a higher educational level tend to make more sustainable food choices and by doing so lean toward a sustainable lifestyle. Full article
Review
Sustainability Considerations in Water–Energy–Food Nexus Research in Irrigated Agriculture
Sustainability 2020, 12(15), 6274; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su12156274 - 04 Aug 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1437
Abstract
Irrigated agriculture is essential to satisfying the globally increasing demand for food and bio-based products. Yet, in water scarce regions, water-use for irrigation aggravates the competition for the use of water for other purposes, such as energy production, drinking water and sanitation. Solutions [...] Read more.
Irrigated agriculture is essential to satisfying the globally increasing demand for food and bio-based products. Yet, in water scarce regions, water-use for irrigation aggravates the competition for the use of water for other purposes, such as energy production, drinking water and sanitation. Solutions for sustainable food production through irrigated agriculture require a systemic approach to assess benefits and trade-offs across sectors. Here, the water–energy–food (WEF) nexus has become an important concept in natural resource management. It has been conceptualized to analyze linkages and trade-offs between the three sectors, across temporal and spatial scales. However, the concept has so far mainly been conceptual, with little empirical evidence or proof of concept in real world cases. The objective of this paper was to take stock of the rapidly advancing literature on the WEF nexus in irrigated agriculture, and to analyze how the concept was actually implemented in research studies, and how the nexus between water, food and energy was actually dealt with. The study period ranges from 2011 to 2019, and includes 194 articles. Results showed that the WEF nexus is indeed very relevant in irrigated agriculture, and the respective literature makes up one third of all WEF nexus papers. Modeling and empirical research have caught up with conceptual synthesis studies during the last four years, thereby indicating that the WEF nexus concept is indeed increasingly operationalized. However, most studies addressed the WEF nexus from a perspective of either socioeconomic, technological or environmental categories, and they place one of the dimensions of water, food or energy into the foreground. To address sustainable development, there is a need to fully integrate across research disciplines and thematic dimensions. Such studies are only starting to emerge. These findings are an important evidence-base for future WEF nexus research on irrigated agriculture, in support of sustainable solutions for water scarce regions, especially in settings undergoing transformations. Full article
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Article
Maize Straw Strip Mulching as a Replacement for Plastic Film Mulching in Maize Production in a Semiarid Region
Sustainability 2020, 12(15), 6273; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su12156273 - 04 Aug 2020
Viewed by 756
Abstract
Straw strip mulching in maize (Zea mays L.) production is showing a positive effect with the increasing negative effects coming from crop straw and plastic film residues. Therefore, it is imperative to develop comprehensive utilization of straw, and promote the green development [...] Read more.
Straw strip mulching in maize (Zea mays L.) production is showing a positive effect with the increasing negative effects coming from crop straw and plastic film residues. Therefore, it is imperative to develop comprehensive utilization of straw, and promote the green development of agriculture in rainfed regions. A dryland field experiment was conducted in semiarid northwestern China in 2017 and 2018 and included three treatments: maize straw strip mulching with alternating strips of mulched and non-mulched soil (MSSM), and double ridge-furrow fully mulched soil with white or black plastic film (DRWP or DRBP, respectively). The results show that the interaction between mulching treatment and year significantly influenced maize silage yield, grain yield, biomass yield, aboveground plant water content at silage maize harvest stage, ears ha−1, kernels ear−1, and thousand kernel weight (p < 0.001, p = 0.002, p < 0.001, p < 0.001, p < 0.001, p < 0.001, p < 0.001, and p < 0.001, respectively). For silage, maize growth under straw strip mulching was greater than that of the double ridge mulching system. Silage yield of MSSM was significantly higher than that of DRWP and DRBP, but maize grain and biomass yields under MSSM were significantly lower those under DRWP and DRBP in 2017 and 2018. Compared with the double ridge mulching system, net economic return from silage with MSSM was significantly increased by 28.31% and 20.85% in 2017 and 2018, respectively, and net economic return from grain was 6.67% lower in 2017 and 2.34% higher in 2018. The MSSM treatment exhibited water-temperature coupling; the MSSM treatment significantly reduced soil temperature in the 0–25 cm soil layer by 1.23–2.14 °C and increased soil water storage in the 0–200 cm soil layer by 9.75 and 24.10 mm in 2017 and 2018, respectively, thereby delaying growth development of maize by about 13 days. Therefore, straw mulch can replace plastic film mulch and serve as an environmentally friendly cultivation method for maize in semiarid rainfed regions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Suitable Agronomic Techniques for Sustainable Agriculture)
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Article
Predictive Insights for Improving the Resilience of Global Food Security Using Artificial Intelligence
Sustainability 2020, 12(15), 6272; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su12156272 - 04 Aug 2020
Viewed by 1136
Abstract
Unabated pressures on food systems affect food security on a global scale. A human-centric artificial intelligence-based probabilistic approach is used in this paper to perform a unified analysis of data from the Global Food Security Index (GFSI). The significance of this intuitive probabilistic [...] Read more.
Unabated pressures on food systems affect food security on a global scale. A human-centric artificial intelligence-based probabilistic approach is used in this paper to perform a unified analysis of data from the Global Food Security Index (GFSI). The significance of this intuitive probabilistic reasoning approach for predictive forecasting lies in its simplicity and user-friendliness to people who may not be trained in classical computer science or in software programming. In this approach, predictive modeling using a counterfactual probabilistic reasoning analysis of the GFSI dataset can be utilized to reveal the interplay and tensions between the variables that underlie food affordability, food availability, food quality and safety, and the resilience of natural resources. Exemplars are provided in this paper to illustrate how computational simulations can be used to produce forecasts of good and bad conditions in food security using multi-variant optimizations. The forecast of these future scenarios is useful for informing policy makers and stakeholders across domain verticals, so they can make decisions that are favorable to global food security. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Designing More Diverse and Resilient Food Systems for the Future)
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Article
Restoration of a Historic Building in Order to Improve Energy Efficiency and Energy Saving—Case Study—The Dining Room within the Žiča Monastery Property
Sustainability 2020, 12(15), 6271; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su12156271 - 04 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 867
Abstract
A proper systematic approach to the restoration of historic buildings is crucial in the preservation of heritage buildings. This paper presents the unity between the restoration of a historic building and sustainability. The aim of the research is to establish an effective method [...] Read more.
A proper systematic approach to the restoration of historic buildings is crucial in the preservation of heritage buildings. This paper presents the unity between the restoration of a historic building and sustainability. The aim of the research is to establish an effective method for the restoration of historic buildings and their reuse and sustainable renovation in terms of energy efficiency, in accordance with modern needs and conservation requirements while maintaining the authentic appearance. The main method in the paper is the observation of a historic building during its restoration and exploitation, analysis and evaluation of the results achieved in improving energy efficiency and energy saving in the example of the building within the Žica Monastery in Serbia, a cultural monument of exceptional importance. The subject of the research is the Dining Room within the Žiča Monastery and the analysis of the restoration results in order to ensure energy refurbishment and cultural heritage enhancement. The research findings are recommendations for the restoration and adaptive re-use of historic buildings, in accordance with modern requirements for comfort and environmental protection. The greatest contribution of this paper is the practical verification of energy refurbishment of the restored historic building, the Dining Room, by applying the principles and measures of energy efficiency, maintaining the authentic appearance of the building, in accordance with the conservation requirements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preventive Conservation and Energy Efficiency of Heritage Buildings)
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Article
Advanced Intervention Protocol in the Energy Rehabilitation of Heritage Buildings: A Miñones Barracks Case Study
Sustainability 2020, 12(15), 6270; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su12156270 - 04 Aug 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 799
Abstract
Bearing in mind that dwellings generate a high environmental impact, the aim of this research is to improve their energy efficiency. The incorporation of an insulating layer in the extrados of the building envelope is the most effective way of reducing the transmittance [...] Read more.
Bearing in mind that dwellings generate a high environmental impact, the aim of this research is to improve their energy efficiency. The incorporation of an insulating layer in the extrados of the building envelope is the most effective way of reducing the transmittance of a facade, eliminating thermal bridges, and optimizing its energy consumption. There is no doubt about the effectiveness of this solution in terms of thermal protection. However, this process collides with the preservation of the original composition of buildings with ornate facades. This article presents a protocol for the rehabilitation of ornate facades of historic buildings through the application of an insulating layer on the outside of the walls. The protocol shows that advanced techniques applied with an integrated approach permit compatibility between energy rehabilitation and the preservation of the original value. In addition to applying strategies of a high technological level, the protocol proposes a reflection upon a balanced intervention on ornamental elements, as well as the relationship between the degree of energy improvement of an ornate facade, and the degree of preservation of the original composition. A methodology is established that combines different avant-guard techniques and systems. These include capturing reality in 3D, the Building Information Model (BIM), monitoring, advanced manufacturing, and active and passive solution simulations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preventive Conservation and Energy Efficiency of Heritage Buildings)
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Article
Farmers’ Adoption Preferences for Sustainable Agriculture Practices in Northwest China
Sustainability 2020, 12(15), 6269; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su12156269 - 04 Aug 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 977
Abstract
In the highest soil erosion regions of arid and semiarid northwest China, water resource deficits and farmland misuse have further exacerbated soil degradation. Therefore, understanding how farmers in diverse agroclimatic zones perceive and respond to different conservation practices is important to the implementation [...] Read more.
In the highest soil erosion regions of arid and semiarid northwest China, water resource deficits and farmland misuse have further exacerbated soil degradation. Therefore, understanding how farmers in diverse agroclimatic zones perceive and respond to different conservation practices is important to the implementation of sustainable agriculture practices (SAPs). To this end, this study uses a best–worst scaling approach to examine the adoption preferences for nine SAPs among grain and cash crop farmers and investigates the influence of farm and climatic characteristics on adoption preferences based on a face to face survey of 554 households in Gansu province, which is classified as an arid and semiarid area in northwest China. Both grain and cash crop farmers had stronger preferences for the practices of using organic instead of chemical fertilizers and of improving irrigation practices. In addition, while cash crop farmers also had strong preferences for cover crop-related practices, they preferred long-term fallows least. Household income, livestock, and precipitation influence the potential perceived importance of SAPs. The different perceived importance of these practices suggests new possible combinations or packages for a sustainable agriculture program during the cropping structure adjustment in Gansu. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental and Economic Performance of Farming and Food Systems)
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Article
The Development and Validation of a Scale to Measure University Teachers’ Attitude towards Ethical Use of Information Technology for a Sustainable Education
Sustainability 2020, 12(15), 6268; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su12156268 - 04 Aug 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1672
Abstract
A self-administered measurement tool was developed and validated to provide data regarding ethical attitude of university teachers for a sustainable education. The research was based on several factors involved in forming attitudes towards the unethical information technology use. The sample: 334 Romanian teachers’ [...] Read more.
A self-administered measurement tool was developed and validated to provide data regarding ethical attitude of university teachers for a sustainable education. The research was based on several factors involved in forming attitudes towards the unethical information technology use. The sample: 334 Romanian teachers’ respondents who teach in the higher education system contributed to this research. A successions of factor analyses and structural equation modeling showed that a second-order model is a good fit for experimental data (χ2/df = 1.75, comparative fit index = 0.958, root mean square error of approximation = 0.045), however the partial least square (PLS-SEM) CFA approach revealed higher scores of factor loadings, implying the best fit to the model. This research suggested a structural model of ethical attitude of university teachers, composed by four factors measured by 13 indices. The results demonstrated that PLS-SEM CFA is appropriate for creating a valid structural model to measure university teachers’ ICT ethical attitude. The current research predicted a theoretical contribution to the field of ethical attitude of university teachers within a sustainable education context. Full article
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Article
Macro Perspective Research on Transportation Safety: An Empirical Analysis of Network Characteristics and Vulnerability
Sustainability 2020, 12(15), 6267; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su12156267 - 04 Aug 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 730
Abstract
The layout of the China Comprehensive Transportation Corridors and Hubs (CCTCH), depicted in the 13th Five Year Plan of Transportation, revolves around transport integration and economic globalization. With the aim of improving the sustainability of the entire national transportation system, this paper studies [...] Read more.
The layout of the China Comprehensive Transportation Corridors and Hubs (CCTCH), depicted in the 13th Five Year Plan of Transportation, revolves around transport integration and economic globalization. With the aim of improving the sustainability of the entire national transportation system, this paper studies the sustainability of the CCTCH from the perspective of network characteristics and network invulnerability. The topological properties of the CCTCH were quantitatively analyzed, based on graph theory and complex network theory. The relationship between the node degree, betweenness, socioeconomic factors (i.e., GDP, population, GDP per capita) and hub type was explored using correlation analysis. A vulnerability assessment model was developed to investigate the influence of node disruption on the whole network, as well as specific origin–destination paths, and a simulation analysis was conducted to examine the variations in the network performances faced with different attack scenarios. The results show that, among several factors, the hub type has a strong relationship with the node degree and a moderate correlation with GDP. We conclude that the CCTCH is relatively fragile from the viewpoint of network efficiency, and for the purpose of international transportation from the domestic border hubs to the economically developed cities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Transportation)
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Case Report
Innovative Methods for Small Mixed Batches Production System Improvement: The Case of a Bakery Machine Manufacturer
Sustainability 2020, 12(15), 6266; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su12156266 - 04 Aug 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 961
Abstract
One of the common problems of organizations with turn-key projects is the high scrap rate. There exist such traditional methods as Lean Six Sigma (LSS) and DMAIC tools that analyze causes and suggest solutions. New emerging intelligent technologies should influence these methods and [...] Read more.
One of the common problems of organizations with turn-key projects is the high scrap rate. There exist such traditional methods as Lean Six Sigma (LSS) and DMAIC tools that analyze causes and suggest solutions. New emerging intelligent technologies should influence these methods and tools as they affect many areas of our life. The purpose of this paper is to present the innovative Small Mixed Batches (SMB). The standard set of LSS tools is extended by intelligent technologies such as artificial neural networks (ANN) and machine learning. The proposed method uses the data-driven quality strategy to improve the turning process at the bakery machine manufacturer. The case study shows the step-by-step DMAIC procedure of critical to quality (CTQ) characteristics improvement. Findings from the data analysis lead to a change of measurement instrument, training of operators, and lathe machine set-up correction. However, the scrap rate did not decrease significantly. Therefore the advanced mathematical model based on ANN was built. This model predicts the CTQ characteristics from the inspection certificate of the input material. The prediction model is a part of a newly designed process control scheme using machine learning algorithms to reduce the variability even for input material with different properties from new suppliers. Further research will be focused on the validation of the proposed control scheme, and acquired experiences will be used to support business sustainability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Actual Trends of Logistics and Industrial Engineering)
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Article
Physical Activity Levels for Girls and Young Adult Women versus Boys and Young Adult Men in Spain: A Gender Gap Analysis
Sustainability 2020, 12(15), 6265; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su12156265 - 04 Aug 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 850
Abstract
Despite that the health benefits of physical activity (PA) are clear, during the last years, a noticeable plateau or slight increase in physical inactivity levels in Spanish adolescents and young adults has been reported. In addition, there seems to be a progressive reduction [...] Read more.
Despite that the health benefits of physical activity (PA) are clear, during the last years, a noticeable plateau or slight increase in physical inactivity levels in Spanish adolescents and young adults has been reported. In addition, there seems to be a progressive reduction of the total PA performed with age in both adolescent and young women as well as adult men. We aimed to analyze these changes with age in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in a sample of Spanish adolescents and young adults within the age range of 15–24 years old (n = 7827), considering the gender and using the short form of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. For that, we implemented a two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) considering both the gender and the age group surveyed. Generally, our findings showed a reduction in the daily MVPA performed from adolescence to young adulthood in Spaniards. Within these reductions, girls reduce their PA levels at a different age and pace in adolescence and young adulthood in comparison to boys. Though girls were less active than boys in the 15–18 year age range, these differences were no longer significant at older ages. Our results point out the necessity of implementing different policy approaches based on gender (i.e., for girls and young women), since reductions in the MVPA performed occur at particular ages and paces in comparison to boys and young men. This difference indicates that the traditional approach during adolescence and young adulthood is inadequate for tackling physical inactivity without considering the population’s gender. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Education, Health Promotion, and Sustainability)
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Article
The Sustainable Development of Organic Agriculture-Tourism: The Role of Consumer Landscape and Pro-Environment Behavior
Sustainability 2020, 12(15), 6264; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su12156264 - 04 Aug 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 894
Abstract
The purpose of this study is to explore the influence path of organic agricultural landscape on tourists’ pro-environment behavior and loyalty, and put forward suggestions for realizing sustainable tourism of organic agriculture. The M-R model was employed to construct an integrated model of [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study is to explore the influence path of organic agricultural landscape on tourists’ pro-environment behavior and loyalty, and put forward suggestions for realizing sustainable tourism of organic agriculture. The M-R model was employed to construct an integrated model of the influence of consumer landscape on pro-environment behavior and loyalty in organic agricultural tourism. The research framework and questionnaire design were constructed on the basis of literature review and 417 valid questionnaires which were collected from tourists in Eastern Taiwan (Hualien and Taidong). SPSS was employed to analyze the reliability and validity of the questionnaire and LISREL software was used to identify the influence path between variables. The results showed that: 1. The tourists’ cognition of consumer landscape will positively affect the environmental intimacy and environmental identity. 2. Tourists’ environmental intimacy and environmental identity will increase their pro-environmental behavior. 3. Tourists’ pro-environment behavior has a positive impact on their loyalty to organic agricultural tourism. The results show that organic agricultural tourism can stimulate tourists to understand the significance, importance and multiple values of the environment, and increase the intimacy and identity of tourists to the environment, which has a great effect on pro-environment behavior and loyalty. At the same time, it also shows that organic agricultural tourism is a sustainable tourism mode, which is worth promoting. Full article
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Article
A Model Process of Integrating Context of Local Culture for Pre-Development Stage in the Design of Cultural and Creative Products—Using Macao’s Historical Buildings as an Example
Sustainability 2020, 12(15), 6263; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su12156263 - 04 Aug 2020
Viewed by 967
Abstract
In the context of the research on local architectural culture of Macao, this paper explores how architecture’s cultural elements can be integrated into cultural and creative product design at the pre-development stage. Therefore, local culture can be effectively disseminated through the medium of [...] Read more.
In the context of the research on local architectural culture of Macao, this paper explores how architecture’s cultural elements can be integrated into cultural and creative product design at the pre-development stage. Therefore, local culture can be effectively disseminated through the medium of cultural and creative products. However, in the process of product design, seemingly, designers often rely on their experience as the main way to develop ideas and designs. This approach can fall short in generating sufficient cognition and interpretation between culture and product design, and the product may fail to truly reflect cultural and creative values. This paper focuses on the cultural elements and the designer’s cognition in design development of cultural and creative products. It applies theoretical concepts of Kansei engineering theory as the basis, and, combined with the Semantic Differential Method, tries to extract the most powerful product image elements that influence designers for better understanding of the cultural elements in design development. This paper aims to employ scientific methods to enable designers to better develop designs with cultural and creative connotations, thereby improving the success rate of cultural and creative products. It further proposes a model process of image perception to be employed by designers in early design research and the development stage. By enhancing the resonance of cultural elements for cultural and creative products, the model may shorten the perceptual distance between the designer and the local culture, improve the designer’s product development efficiency, and increase consumer satisfaction with the design outcome through added cultural and creative value. As such, the model can optimize the design development for cultural and creative products to achieve the public’s aesthetic and cultural expectations, as well as for a sustainable design approach. Full article
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Article
Early Childhood Social Competence Scale (EC-SCS): Factor Structure and Psychometric Properties
Sustainability 2020, 12(15), 6262; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su12156262 - 04 Aug 2020
Viewed by 769
Abstract
The Early Childhood Social Competence Scale (EC-SCS) was elaborated to evaluate social behavior on behalf of others in infantile populations. Due to the emergence and development of these behaviors from very early ages, the interest in its assessment is high from a developmental, [...] Read more.
The Early Childhood Social Competence Scale (EC-SCS) was elaborated to evaluate social behavior on behalf of others in infantile populations. Due to the emergence and development of these behaviors from very early ages, the interest in its assessment is high from a developmental, educational, and applied perspective. The aim of the present study is to develop a Spanish population version of the scale, considering a specific dimensional structure. It was tested with a sample of 504 children of ages between 3 and 5 years, enrolled in school centers of infantile education. The results show that the new version of the instrument is a suitable measure for the assessment of social competence behaviors in early infancy. The joint consideration of prosocial and unfriendly behavior is important as it allows for the promotion of social competence behaviors and optimizes the detection of and intervention in behavioral problems later in life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Psychology of Sustainability and Sustainable Development)
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