2. Literature Review: Crisis Situation and Hospitality Industry
3. Case Analysis
3.1. Importance of the Tourism Sector for Spain and of Spain for the International Tourism Sector: Contextual Analysis
3.2. The Influence of COVID-19 in the World and Spanish Tourism Sectors
4. Initiatives to Support the Spanish Tourism and Hospitality Industry
4.1. International Initiatives to Support the Tourism Sector and Hospitality Industry
4.2. National Initiatives to Support the Tourism Sector and the Hospitality Industry
4.3. Initiatives Undertaken by Large Spanish Hotel Chains
Conflicts of Interest
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|Type of Crisis & Geographic Area||Authors, Year||Description of Impact||Response and Recovery Strategies|
|Terrorism Terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001 USA||Stafford, Yu & Armoo 2002 |
|Dearth of businesses; Occupancy levels and room rates drop; Severe disruption of normal operations||Ensuring a coordinated response of hospitality industry; Pushing to reopen airport and other major tourist attractions; Building a marketing plan|
|Terrorism Terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001 USA||Taylor & Enz 2002 |
|Occupancy levels, Average daily rates (ADR) and Revenue per room (RevPar) drop||Push local market; marketing strategies; Human resources strategies; Focus in new segments; Cost rate-cutting strategies; Discounts on rates|
|Terror of a war and terrorist attacks|
|Israeli & Reichel 2003|
|Decline in number of foreign tourists||Relaunch domestic market; Focus on domestic market; Seek new domestic segments; Labour cutbacks; Reducing prices; marketing plan; Maintenance cost cut|
|Pandemic SARS 2003, Hong Kong||Chien & Law 2003|
|International travel cancellations; Occupancy rate drop; Job cuts||Closing of floors; Suspension of food and beverage services; Temporary closures; Pay cuts and no-pay leaves; Deploying of contingency plans; new operating measures; preventive health measures|
|Pandemic SARS 2003, Singapore||Henderson & Ng 2004|
|Average hotel occupancy, Average room rates contracted, Revenues and earnings drop||Cost savings; promotional packages for residents; improve services salaries reductions; new operating measures; preventive health measures|
|Okumus, Altinay & Arasli 2005|
|Tourist demand from Turkey decreased; Fixed and variable costs increased; Faced difficulties in collecting loans; Postponed future investment plans; Faced difficulties in paying debts||Checked our business agreements and contracts; Increased our marketing and sales efforts; Reduced our costs; Postponed future investment plans; Reduced the number of staff|
|Okumus & Karamustafa 2005|
|Domestic demand decreased; Faced difficulties in collecting loans; Postponed future investment projects; Experienced a stressful working environment; Delays in services from the local authorities; Faced difficulties paying debts; Reduced budget for training||Cut costs; Improve quality; More cautious and conservative decisions on new investments; Increased marketing and sales efforts; Checked business agreements and contracts; Spent more time on environmental scanning and prepared plans|
|Natural Disaster Indian Ocean tsunami; 2004||Henderson 2007|
|Hotel infrastructures were most severely damaged in Thailand, Sri Lanka and the Maldives; Mass exodus of tourists and cancellation of bookings; Decline in international tourists; Revenue per room down; Job loss||Hotels arranged for the delivery of water and food supplies to those in need; Collected and distributed items such as clothing; Provided space and complementary accommodation for relief workers; Members of staff were released to assist with rescue and recovery operations as well as tasks such as translating and counselling; Human resource policies; Bargain rates|
|Pandemic SARS 2003, Toronto||Tew, Lu, Tolomiczenko & Gellatly 2008|
|Loss in room nights; Occupancy rates were down; Losses in leisure and business travellers’ cancelled plans; Losses in both visitors and revenue; Losses of jobs||Cutting costs; Laying off workers, Closing facilities and floors/wings of lodging areas (e.g., hotels); Employees to take vacation or unpaid leave; Redirected their marketing and sales; Discounted packages to boost their hotel occupancy; Laid off employees; Cut management salaries; Working actively with industry associations and governments; Offering large discounts to lure customers back and changing strategic plans; Using guest rooms for purposes other than accommodation (e.g., rent as commercial offices); “Tourist in your own city” strategy|
|Economic Global Economic Crisis, 2008 Spain||Alonso-Almeida & Bremser 2013|
|Reduction of income; Cancellations: Cost reduction; Efficiency improvement; Competitiveness improvement||Measurements reactive; Added customer value; Flexibility; Proactive strategies: Customer loyalty and price reduction strategies|
|Economic Global Economic Crisis 2008 Spain||Bremser, Alonso-Almeida & Llach 2018|
|N/A||Prospectors were the best prepared to withstand an economic downturn with defenders scoring second. Reactors were the worst performers.|
|Economic and Terrorist attacks Terrorist attack of 9/11 and Economic Crisis 2008 in Honduras and Costa Rica||Kubickova, Kirimhan & Li 2019|
|Decline in hotel occupancy, rates and overall hotel performance; Lower prices; Decline in the average expenditure per guest; Hotel revenue||Terrorist attacks: international travel is substituted for domestic tourism; Revenue management tactics.|
Economic crisis: Domestic travel focus; Agreement between Honduras, Guatemala, El Salvador and Nicaragua to create a single Central American visa
|Tourist Arrivals||Variation 2019–2020 (%)||Accumulated Variation 2019–2020 (%)|
|Foreign Tourist Income||Variation 2019–2020 (%)||Accumulated Variation (%)|
|Number of Hotels Open||Variation 2019–2020||Number of Beds Offered||Variation 2019–2020||Number of Employees||Variation 2019–2020|
|Types of Initiatives||Driving Entities||Scope of Action|
|Policies to support companies in the tourism sector||European Commission||Labour|
|Tourism incentive policies||Government of Spain||Financial|
|Policies for reducing contagion in the tourism sector||Regional Governments||Tax|
|Town halls||Support payments of rents|
|Tourism associations||General sector support|
|Meliá Hotels International||2946.5||329||83,018|
|Iberostar Hotels & Resorts||2659||102||32,404|
|Barceló Hotel Group||2559||251||55,944|
|Riu Hotels & Resorts||2114||95||45,648|
|NH Hotel Group||1623||369||57,356|
|Programme Name||Main Axes and Areas of Action against COVID-19|
|Meliá Hotels International||Stay Safe with Meliá|
|Iberostar Hotels & Resorts||How we care|
|Barceló Hotel Group||We Care about You|
|Riu Hotels & Resorts||Sanitary Protocol|
|NH Hotel Group||Feel Safe at NH|
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