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Review

A Survey on Environmentally Friendly Vehicle Routing Problem and a Proposal of Its Classification

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Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, 84156 Isfahan, Iran
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Electrical Engineering Department, Amirkabir University of Technology, 11369 Tehran, Iran
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Department of Electrical Engineering, Bu-Ali Sina University, 65331 Hamedan, Iran
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Department of Management and Production Engineering, 10129 Politecnico di Torino, Turin, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2020, 12(21), 9079; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su12219079
Received: 23 September 2020 / Revised: 22 October 2020 / Accepted: 27 October 2020 / Published: 31 October 2020
The growth of environmental awareness and more robust enforcement of numerous regulations to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have directed efforts towards addressing current environmental challenges. Considering the Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP), one of the effective strategies to control greenhouse gas emissions is to convert the fossil fuel-powered fleet into Environmentally Friendly Vehicles (EFVs). Given the multitude of constraints and assumptions defined for different types of VRPs, as well as assumptions and operational constraints specific to each type of EFV, many variants of environmentally friendly VRPs (EF-VRP) have been introduced. In this paper, studies conducted on the subject of EF-VRP are reviewed, considering all the road transport EFV types and problem variants, and classifying and discussing with a single holistic vision. The aim of this paper is twofold. First, it determines a classification of EF-VRP studies based on different types of EFVs, i.e., Alternative-Fuel Vehicles (AFVs), Electric Vehicles (EVs) and Hybrid Vehicles (HVs). Second, it presents a comprehensive survey by considering each variant of the classification, technical constraints and solution methods arising in the literature. The results of this paper show that studies on EF-VRP are relatively novel and there is still room for large improvements in several areas. So, to determine future insights, for each classification of EF-VRP studies, the paper provides the literature gaps and future research needs. View Full-Text
Keywords: environmentally friendly VRP; alternative-fuel VRP; electric VRP; hybrid electric VRP; green VRP; literature review environmentally friendly VRP; alternative-fuel VRP; electric VRP; hybrid electric VRP; green VRP; literature review
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ghorbani, E.; Alinaghian, M.; Gharehpetian, G.B.; Mohammadi, S.; Perboli, G. A Survey on Environmentally Friendly Vehicle Routing Problem and a Proposal of Its Classification. Sustainability 2020, 12, 9079. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su12219079

AMA Style

Ghorbani E, Alinaghian M, Gharehpetian GB, Mohammadi S, Perboli G. A Survey on Environmentally Friendly Vehicle Routing Problem and a Proposal of Its Classification. Sustainability. 2020; 12(21):9079. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su12219079

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ghorbani, Erfan, Mahdi Alinaghian, Gevork. B. Gharehpetian, Sajad Mohammadi, and Guido Perboli. 2020. "A Survey on Environmentally Friendly Vehicle Routing Problem and a Proposal of Its Classification" Sustainability 12, no. 21: 9079. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su12219079

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