Sustainable mobility policies may encounter social, economic, and cultural barriers to successful implementation that need to be assessed. In this sense, knowledge of the population’s mobility habits and their relationship with transport modes is particularly essential. Along these lines, a study was carried out of the patterns of transport modes chosen concerning various social and territorial variables on the island of Mallorca based on the most recent mobility surveys. The study shows that the choice of mode is influenced by a wide range of factors, such as gender, age group, motive for the trip, occupation, region of residence, duration of the trip, and proximity to Palma, the capital of the island. The results indicate that private vehicles are the most often chosen mode of transport. Private vehicles are mainly used by working men between 30 and 44 years old for journeys between home and work, which do not exceed 30 min and are preferably in areas close to Palma. Sustainable modes are little used, although they are mainly used by women, young people, and retired people for work purposes and for access to educational and health centers. The demand for transport generated by the resident population and tourist activity and the negative externalities generated by mobility in private vehicles are closely related on a municipal level (Pearson’s coefficient 0.84, p
= 0.00). However, the modal distribution does not seem to be directly related to these factors. Instead, it develops a more conditioned distribution by access to rail transport infrastructures and other geographical factors. In recent years, the Balearic Islands’ public administration launched the Balearic Islands Sectorial Mobility Plan 2019–2026, which aims to promote sustainable modes and reduce the use of private vehicles. This plan represents a considerable economic investment, but will also require great institutional coordination and cultural changes in the population’s perception of mobility. The study shows that the implementation of sustainable modes on the island requires a global vision of mobility issues that integrates urban planning and tourism planning to make the land-use model more sustainable.
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