Next Issue
Volume 13, January-2
Previous Issue
Volume 12, December-2
sustainability-logo

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Sustainability, Volume 13, Issue 1 (January-1 2021) – 440 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Achieving most of the United Nations (UN) Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) requires a sustainable use and management of the soil–water system. Monitoring of reliable soil moisture data obtained by electromagnetic devices is crucial in water management efficiency. The work calibrates and validates the PR2/6 soil moisture profile probe in an experimental field in Central Italy, providing useful information to understand processes involving the unsaturated zone. The antecedent soil moisture and precipitation related to different stormflows allow identifying threshold values above which runoff significantly increases. In this way, without an accurate calibration of the instrument, the soil–water dynamics cannot be correctly assessed, with implications in groundwater recharge, irrigation, flood generation, etc. View this paper
  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
Article
Ethical Consumers’ Awareness of Vegan Materials: Focused on Fake Fur and Fake Leather
Sustainability 2021, 13(1), 436; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su13010436 - 06 Jan 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 4174
Abstract
With an increase in ethical awareness, people have begun to criticize the unethical issues associated with the use of animal materials. This study focused on the transition of global consumers’ awareness toward vegan materials and the relationship between the interest in ethical subjects [...] Read more.
With an increase in ethical awareness, people have begun to criticize the unethical issues associated with the use of animal materials. This study focused on the transition of global consumers’ awareness toward vegan materials and the relationship between the interest in ethical subjects such as animals, the environment, and vegan materials. For this purpose, consumers’ posts about fur/fake fur and leather/fake leather uploaded on Google and Twitter from 2008 to 2019 were utilized, and the Term Frequency-Inverse Document Frequency (Tf-idf) value was extracted using Python 3.7. Furthermore, the worldwide Google keyword search volume of each word was analyzed using Smart PLS 3.0 to investigate global consumers’ awareness. First, with time, consumers began relating animal materials such as fur and leather to topics such as animal rights, animal abuse, and animal protection. Second, as interest in “animal welfare” increased, interest in “fake fur” also rose, and as interest in “cruelty free” increased, interest in “fake fur”, “vegan fur”, and “vegan leather” also increased. Third, as consumers’ interest in the “environment” increased, interest in vegan materials such as “fake fur” and “fake leather” decreased. However, as interest in “eco” increased, interest in “vegan leather” also augmented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Social Ecology and Sustainability)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
A Systematic Review on Flood Early Warning and Response System (FEWRS): A Deep Review and Analysis
Sustainability 2021, 13(1), 440; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su13010440 - 05 Jan 2021
Viewed by 2360
Abstract
Flood is the major natural hazard in Malaysia in terms of populations affected, area extent, frequency, social–economic damage, and flood duration. This shows the importance of providing comprehensive and effective flood mitigation management, which requires government agencies to enhance their employment performance that [...] Read more.
Flood is the major natural hazard in Malaysia in terms of populations affected, area extent, frequency, social–economic damage, and flood duration. This shows the importance of providing comprehensive and effective flood mitigation management, which requires government agencies to enhance their employment performance that involves technological innovation. A flood early warning and response system (FEWRS) is essential to ensure that all stakeholders receive the right information and are provided with necessary actions and response information to avoid loss of lives and property. It should have some effective usability features and success components of its strategic information access and display; existing FEWRS fail and often do not effectively provide information on flood disasters to reduce their impacts at a local level to save the population’s lives. The measurement of information system (IS) success remains a top concern for researchers, managers, and practitioners. Therefore, this study seeks to provide a systematic overview of the most successful model of employment-related technical advancement for the management of flood disasters to improve its employees’ performance. In addition, examined factors that affect the successful implementation of flood management approaches, based on a systematic literature review among IS, show interrelationship of success factors. Findings from the literature suggest that the DeLone and McLean (D&M) model is the most widely employed model, recorded in 28 studies (39%). Further description of the 28 studies indicates that the D&M was either adopted alone or integrated with other theories. Moreover, results suggest the D&M is has been applied alone 39% of the time and has been extended 29% of the time; in total, 68% of the time, D&M has been applied either alone or extended in the information system domain. Additionally, 22% of the time it has been integrated with other theories. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
In Situ Observations on the Crack Morphology in the Ancient Timber Beams
Sustainability 2021, 13(1), 439; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su13010439 - 05 Jan 2021
Viewed by 1081
Abstract
The conservation of ancient structures is, in the construction panorama, a highly eco-sustainable operation. In fact, it provides for a very limited consumption of resources. This article provides an in-depth analysis of ancient wooden material, an essential element for drawing up correct conservation [...] Read more.
The conservation of ancient structures is, in the construction panorama, a highly eco-sustainable operation. In fact, it provides for a very limited consumption of resources. This article provides an in-depth analysis of ancient wooden material, an essential element for drawing up correct conservation interventions. Ancient timber beams have a peculiar morphology of failure dependent on many factors, among which are the species of wood, the quality of the material-knots, presence of fissures caused by shrinkage (checks), direction of the grain, and environmental conditions such as temperature and humidity. In addition, it is linked to load conditions and static configuration. This paper presents a case study of failed ancient timber members still in place and describes the type of failure as well as the origin and propagation of the cracks. The objective is to provide a classification of the causes and of the effects and their evolution, useful to practitioners and to those who have to make decisions on the timber structures conservation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Construction Materials and Construction Technology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Use of Software on Modeling Hazardous Substance Release as a Support Tool for Crisis Management
Sustainability 2021, 13(1), 438; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su13010438 - 05 Jan 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1206
Abstract
Today’s modern society offers many new opportunities, but also many risks. Even modernization of companies cannot completely eliminate these dangers. In the smart industry, despite significant technological progress, it is necessary to work with various raw materials, including hazardous substances. It is these [...] Read more.
Today’s modern society offers many new opportunities, but also many risks. Even modernization of companies cannot completely eliminate these dangers. In the smart industry, despite significant technological progress, it is necessary to work with various raw materials, including hazardous substances. It is these raw materials that will continue to pose risks in the future for industrial accidents, which cannot be ruled out. The possible release of hazardous substances can potentially have a negative impact on the environment and safety of the population. In order to deal with certain emergencies, it is necessary to allocate a large amount of funds and resources to them. The paper focuses on risk prevention in industry and the use of modern and new approaches. Specifically, it focuses on the implementation of the prevention of leakage of hazardous substances in the gaseous state from industrial facilities. The aim of the paper is to present a new approach to the prevention of leakage of hazardous substances, which provides more realistic calculations for modeling leaks and thus helps to reduce the cost of prevention. However, security in crisis management is not diminished. ALOHA CAMEO software was used for leak modeling, which the authors commonly use in practical applications and modeling in industrial enterprises in the performance of duties in the field of civil protection and crisis management. ALOHA software is used for such modeling, serving as a support tool for modeling for all crisis managers in Industry 4.0. This paper deals with the modeling of dispersion of hazardous substances with specific properties escaping from technological equipment located inside a building. This concerns the inability of the current dispersion model software to prevent the spread of the next leak inside the building containing the substance. A solution is needed to fix this problem. This issue is well illustrated by a specific example at the end of this article. The mentioned improvement of tools for simulation of industrial accidents influences the possibilities of development also in Industry 4.0. It enables more effective preparation for the management of possible accidents with regard to the appropriate spending of funds for prevention and subsequent response. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability in Industrial Management and Economy)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Influence of Design Parameters of Idler Bearing Units on the Energy Consumption of a Belt Conveyor
Sustainability 2021, 13(1), 437; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su13010437 - 05 Jan 2021
Viewed by 1056
Abstract
This publication presents the results of laboratory tests of idler rolling resistance under operational loads. Operational loads are understood as radial and axial forces acting on the idler, with values corresponding to those that occur in the conditions of its operation in copper [...] Read more.
This publication presents the results of laboratory tests of idler rolling resistance under operational loads. Operational loads are understood as radial and axial forces acting on the idler, with values corresponding to those that occur in the conditions of its operation in copper ore mines. Knowing the rolling resistance is important not only at the stage of conveyor design, selection of the drive power or calculations of the necessary belt strength, but also when improving and searching for new idler design solutions. The idlers adopted for this research were differentiated in terms of bearings and idler axial clearance. The investigations were carried out on a unique test stand designed and built by the authors. The construction of the stand enables simulating operational loads while measuring the rolling resistance. The test rig measures idler bearing losses and rolling drag, not belt indentation rolling resistance. The object of the research were ø133×465 idlers, which are most commonly used in the raw materials industry. The results show the possibility of reducing the belt conveyor energy consumption by appropriate selection of the design features of the idler bearing unit. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
A Partially Non-Compensatory Method to Measure the Smart and Sustainable Level of Italian Municipalities
Sustainability 2021, 13(1), 435; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su13010435 - 05 Jan 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1002
Abstract
A smart sustainable city (SSC) is a paradigm that encapsulates the latest lines of development in multiple fields of research. The attempt to converge towards a model of sustainable urban life, made difficult by increasing anthropic pressure and polluting activities conducted by man, [...] Read more.
A smart sustainable city (SSC) is a paradigm that encapsulates the latest lines of development in multiple fields of research. The attempt to converge towards a model of sustainable urban life, made difficult by increasing anthropic pressure and polluting activities conducted by man, is also reflected in the intentions of public institutions to take measures of environmental risk mitigation. The change towards more liveable cities must also include the adoption of more far-reaching measures in various sectors. The objective of our work was to provide an analysis in order to assess which of the Italian provincial municipalities were most closely related to the paradigm of SSCs. This aim was pursued through a comparison based on the results of a partially non-compensatory quantitative method, known as the Pena’s Distance method (DP2). The smartest and most sustainable cities, such as Siena, Milan and Padua, were not identified on the basis of common urban characteristics but rather derived from the combination of distinctive and functional elements in the pursuit of a strategic approach aimed at fully exploiting the resources of each area. Moreover, at a macro-geographical level, from the analysis emerged the presence of contiguous clusters, i.e., areas in which a major concentration of smart sustainable municipalities tended to form. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Uptake Kinetics of \({\text{NH}_{4}^{+} }\), \({\text{NO}_{3}^{-} }\) and \({\text{H}_{2}\text{PO}_{4}^{-} }\) by Typha orientalis, Acorus calamus L., Lythrum salicaria L., Sagittaria trifolia L. and Alisma plantago-aquatica Linn
Sustainability 2021, 13(1), 434; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su13010434 - 05 Jan 2021
Viewed by 793
Abstract
The emergent plants may differ in their capacity to assimilate nutrients from eutrophic water bodies, so the utilization of suitable emergent plants is the key part for successful restoration of shallow eutrophic lakes and rivers. This research applied the depletion method to study [...] Read more.
The emergent plants may differ in their capacity to assimilate nutrients from eutrophic water bodies, so the utilization of suitable emergent plants is the key part for successful restoration of shallow eutrophic lakes and rivers. This research applied the depletion method to study the kinetics of uptake of nutrient (H2PO4, NH4+, NO3) in different nutrient stresses by the five emergent aquatic plants (Acorus calamus L., Typha orientalis, Lythrum salicaria L., Sagittaria trifolia L., Alisma plantago-aquatica Linn) in the riverine zones of Dashi River (39°30′–39°40′ N, 115°59′–116°5′ E), a shallow eutrophic river located in Fangshan District, Beijing. The results showed that at the three phosphorus levels, A. calamus and A. plantago-aquatica had the highest maximum uptake rate values for NH4+ under low to moderate phosphorus conditions, and high phosphorus, respectively. T. orientalis had the highest maximum uptake rate values for NO3 at all phosphorus concentrations, while the Michaelis-Menten constant values of L. salicaria and A. plantago-aquatica were smaller. At the three nitrogen levels, the maximum uptake rate values for H2PO4 were the greatest for A. plantago-aquatica at the low to moderate nitrogen levels and L. salicaria at high levels. Meanwhile, T. orientalis and L. salicaria had the smallest Michaelis-Menten constant values. In this study, nitrogen microbial transformations, such as nitrification, denitrification and their coupling were not measured and their role in measuring kinetics was not assessed. Thus, achieved results shall be considered as a synthesis of several processes mediated by plants, a theoretical guidance to the selection of plant species for phytoremediation of polluted water bodies with different nutrient stresses for quality improvement around the diverse rivers in Haihe River basin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Sustainability and Applications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Development of DAYSAM: An Educational Smart Phone Game for Preschoolers to Increase Awareness of Renewable Energy
Sustainability 2021, 13(1), 433; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su13010433 - 05 Jan 2021
Viewed by 1069
Abstract
This paper presents a smartphone application game that aims to increase the awareness of preschoolers on renewable energy. The age of the selected preschoolers is in the range of 4-6 years. The game is called DAYSAM, and it aims to increase awareness regarding [...] Read more.
This paper presents a smartphone application game that aims to increase the awareness of preschoolers on renewable energy. The age of the selected preschoolers is in the range of 4-6 years. The game is called DAYSAM, and it aims to increase awareness regarding photovoltaic arrays, wind turbines, mini-hydropower stations, energy efficiency, and risks that polar bears are facing. The game provides two superior features compared to other available games in Arabic language, targeting the same age group. Preschoolers from An-Najah Child Institute are selected to play this game to investigate the impact of this game. The preschoolers’ awareness is tested before and after playing the game using coloring sheets in an unsupervised coloring process. The results show that the proposed game has increased preschooler’s awareness of renewable energy. Before playing the game, none of the preschoolers recognized images like the photovoltaic array or the wind turbine. After playing the game the preschoolers recognized these devices in different situations and shapes. This indicates that such a game can be used as a fun and educational tool in nurseries that have Arabic communication medium to increase awareness of renewable energy. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Short-Term Effects of Fire Severity on Vegetation Based on Sentinel-2 Satellite Data
Sustainability 2021, 13(1), 432; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su13010432 - 05 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 975
Abstract
An important component in improving the quality of forests is to study the interference intensity of forest fires, in order to describe the intensity of the forest fire and the vegetation recovery, and to improve the monitoring ability of the dynamic change of [...] Read more.
An important component in improving the quality of forests is to study the interference intensity of forest fires, in order to describe the intensity of the forest fire and the vegetation recovery, and to improve the monitoring ability of the dynamic change of the forest. Using a forest fire event in Bilahe, Inner Monglia in 2017 as a case study, this study extracted the burned area based on the BAIS2 index of Sentinel-2 data for 2016–2018. The leaf area index (LAI) and fractional vegetation cover (FVC), which are more suitable for monitoring vegetation dynamic changes of a burned area, were calculated by comparing the biophysical and spectral indices. The results showed that patterns of change of LAI and FVC of various land cover types were similar post-fire. The LAI and FVC of forest and grassland were high during the pre-fire and post-fire years. During the fire year, from the fire month (May) through the next 4 months (September), the order of areas of different fire severity in terms of values of LAI and FVC was: low > moderate > high severity. During the post fire year, LAI and FVC increased rapidly in areas of different fire severity, and the ranking of areas of different fire severity in terms of values LAI and FVC was consistent with the trend observed during the pre-fire year. The results of this study can improve the understanding of the mechanisms involved in post-fire vegetation change. By using quantitative inversion, the health trajectory of the ecosystem can be rapidly determined, and therefore this method can play an irreplaceable role in the realization of sustainable development in the study area. Therefore, it is of great scientific significance to quantitatively retrieve vegetation variables by remote sensing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Forest Resources Management)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Can Michigan’s Upper Peninsula Achieve Justice in Transitioning to 100% Renewable Electricity? Survey of Public Perceptions in Sociotechnical Change
Sustainability 2021, 13(1), 431; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su13010431 - 05 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1074
Abstract
The cost of energy in the Western Upper Peninsula (WUP), a rural and northern part of the state of Michigan, is among the highest in the United States. This situation has resulted in hardship for WUP residents due to exorbitant electricity bills. While [...] Read more.
The cost of energy in the Western Upper Peninsula (WUP), a rural and northern part of the state of Michigan, is among the highest in the United States. This situation has resulted in hardship for WUP residents due to exorbitant electricity bills. While interest in renewable electricity (RE) has increased in the region, the unanswered questions are what factors would make WUP residents more or less supportive of a transition to 100% RE, and how does the support for a 100% RE transition differ between counties in the WUP? This research analyzed factors that would make residents more or less supportive of a 100% RE transition in the WUP. This research investigated public perceptions through a quantitative residents’ survey (N = 347). Using logistic regression, the results show that residents’ likelihood to participate in a municipality-led initiative that will reduce their consumption by 5% is statistically significant to their probability of support for wind energy development at p < 0.05. Furthermore, the likelihood of 100% RE transition support is very high across WUP counties, with a similar trend for project preferences. The results in this research can provide a roadmap for future community-engaged planning on 100% RE in various counties in the region. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Research on Socio-Technological Sustainability Transitions)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Young Consumers’ Intention to Participate in the Sharing Economy: An Integrated Model
Sustainability 2021, 13(1), 430; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su13010430 - 05 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1332
Abstract
This paper aims to analyze the external and internal drivers of young consumers’ intention to participate in the sharing economy in tourism. From previous findings, a causal model (PLS) is designed to generate an integrated, practical, and novel structural model that significantly predicts [...] Read more.
This paper aims to analyze the external and internal drivers of young consumers’ intention to participate in the sharing economy in tourism. From previous findings, a causal model (PLS) is designed to generate an integrated, practical, and novel structural model that significantly predicts the intention to participate. The model, consisting of nine dimensions, includes consumers’ external and internal variables. Separately, these variables have all been considered relevant in the literature, though they have not been studied jointly before. The descriptive results show the excellent attitude and predisposition of young people toward the tourism sharing economy, which facilitates their participation. Through the model, the importance of all internal and external consumer variables in the formation of intention are proven; however, attitude and social norm are most notable among them. Trust is also a critical variable that serves as the link between internal and external variables. The study provides managers of sharing economy platforms with knowledge to encourage young consumers’ participation in a communication and market orientation context. The generational approach (Generation Z) used also allows the conclusions and implications to be transferred to other regions and sectors. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Sustainability in Public Pension Funds? A Longitudinal Study of the Council on Ethics of the Swedish AP Funds
Sustainability 2021, 13(1), 429; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su13010429 - 05 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1266
Abstract
Are public pension funds taking sustainability values into serious consideration? This question is addressed by analyzing annual reports of The Council on Ethics in the Swedish public pension system, which has a clear mission from The Swedish Government to consider sustainability values. The [...] Read more.
Are public pension funds taking sustainability values into serious consideration? This question is addressed by analyzing annual reports of The Council on Ethics in the Swedish public pension system, which has a clear mission from The Swedish Government to consider sustainability values. The council was established in 2007 and supports four funds with advice. This article studies empirically how the council’s expression of words connected to different values has changed over time as well as how it practically reasons in situations of value conflicts. The quantitative data shows that words indicative of “sustainability values” have considerably increased. As a contrast, the critical discourse analysis shows that the council often reasons in a general, loose way about preferable solutions, while more practical claims for action are largely lacking or are vague in relation to sustainable development. The underlying rationale is very much in line with the discourse of economic rationalism. Thus, the quantitative findings suggest an emerging sustainability discourse, while the qualitative analysis clearly indicates that an economic rationale continues to underpin the council’s practical reasoning. However, it is concluded that this is not a simple case of green washing documents but rather a slow train moving towards green institutional change. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
The Munich Bikeability Index: A Practical Approach for Measuring Urban Bikeability
Sustainability 2021, 13(1), 428; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su13010428 - 05 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1277
Abstract
This research addresses the phenomenon of varying bicycle friendliness in urban areas and considers which elements are necessary to design a city in a bike-friendly manner. It aims to provide a deeper understanding of the term bikeability, in relation to the established term [...] Read more.
This research addresses the phenomenon of varying bicycle friendliness in urban areas and considers which elements are necessary to design a city in a bike-friendly manner. It aims to provide a deeper understanding of the term bikeability, in relation to the established term walkability, and methods to create models that measure the degree of bikeability in urban areas. We explain different established models and compare their computational bases. The focus of this paper is to define a computational methodology built within a Geographic Information System (GIS) and a subsequent evaluation based on an investigation area in Munich, Germany. We introduce a bikeability index for specific investigation areas and geovisualize four selected factors of this index. The resulting map views show the road segments of the traffic network where the conditions for biking are adequate, but also those segments which need to be improved. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Economic Analysis of a Transport Company in the Aspect of Car Vehicle Operation
Sustainability 2021, 13(1), 427; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su13010427 - 05 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 761
Abstract
The article describes the issues of transport of bulk materials. The knowledge of this process has a key impact on the rational planning of transport tasks. It is necessary to have knowledge about the transport services market and the competition that exists in [...] Read more.
The article describes the issues of transport of bulk materials. The knowledge of this process has a key impact on the rational planning of transport tasks. It is necessary to have knowledge about the transport services market and the competition that exists in it. In order to achieve a competitive advantage on the market, enterprises should analyze data on the implementation of transport tasks on an ongoing basis. It is also important that the costs incurred from the conducted activity are minimized, while increasing the quality of services and taking into account the sustainable development of the enterprise. The study analyzes data from a few selected motor vehicles in the period of 3 years of operation, coming from an enterprise specializing in the transport of bulk materials. Moreover, a global sensitivity analysis was performed based on a neural model describing the impact of the analyzed factors on the company’s profit. The results show that the most important factors influencing the company’s profit are the fuel consumption of individual vehicles, the driver (driving style) and the month (average temperature, weather conditions). Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Transportation)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Permeability and Strength of Pervious Concrete According to Aggregate Size and Blocking Material
Sustainability 2021, 13(1), 426; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su13010426 - 05 Jan 2021
Viewed by 674
Abstract
The purpose of this study is to identify the differences in porosity and permeability coefficients when the mixing ratio of aggregates is different and to present the mixing ratio satisfying the strength requirement of compressive specified in a specification of Korea. Three mix [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study is to identify the differences in porosity and permeability coefficients when the mixing ratio of aggregates is different and to present the mixing ratio satisfying the strength requirement of compressive specified in a specification of Korea. Three mix ratios were suggested by considering various aggregate sizes and three cylinders were made for each ratio. The porosities of those cylinders were evaluated through the compression and water permeability test, measuring the weight of specimens in underwater and analysis of the pictured Computed Tomography (CT) image. Experiments have shown that it is best to mix 50% for 5–10 mm aggregates, 45% for 2–5 mm aggregates, and 5% for sand in terms of strength and permeability. In addition, as the proportion of fine aggregates increased, the porosity and permeability decreased. Moreover, the effectiveness of maintenance method was also examined in this study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Pavement Engineering and Road Materials)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
The Wetland Contract as a Tool for Successful Wetland Governance: A Case Study of Ljubljansko Barje Nature Park, Slovenia
Sustainability 2021, 13(1), 425; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su13010425 - 05 Jan 2021
Viewed by 841
Abstract
Our research focuses on implementing multilevel governance of wetlands to achieve an effective participatory process and its overall positive effects on wetland ecosystems and their protection as well as on local sustainable development. The aim of the research is to develop a methodology [...] Read more.
Our research focuses on implementing multilevel governance of wetlands to achieve an effective participatory process and its overall positive effects on wetland ecosystems and their protection as well as on local sustainable development. The aim of the research is to develop a methodology for establishing the Wetland Contract, a voluntary agreement to foster sustainable management and development of wetlands, to ensure greater coordination and consensus building between various stakeholders involved in management and to limit conflicts between preservation issues and economic activities in wetlands. The Wetland Contract and the integration process for establishing it in Ljubljansko barje Nature Park proved itself able to overcome conflicts between institutional and legal jurisdiction and is showing itself to be a dynamic path capable of activating a desirable relationship between various interests and supporting new forms of multi-sectoral stakeholder participation in wetland management. It has also contributed to a dialogue and shared responsibility among stakeholders. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
International Trade in Transport Services between Poland and the European Union
Sustainability 2021, 13(1), 424; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su13010424 - 05 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1130
Abstract
The structure of international trade in today’s global economy is undergoing transformation. The increase in the importance of services is a clear trend. In Polish foreign trade with the European Union countries, it is transport services that to the greatest extent create the [...] Read more.
The structure of international trade in today’s global economy is undergoing transformation. The increase in the importance of services is a clear trend. In Polish foreign trade with the European Union countries, it is transport services that to the greatest extent create the trade surplus. These services significantly affect the environment, which makes it necessary to take measures aimed at the implementation of the green transport principles. The aim of the study was to provide a detailed description of transport services in Polish foreign trade with European Union (EU) countries and to assess the role of these services in Polish economy, including in terms of sustainable development. The study concerned transport services, consisting of four separate types: maritime transport, air transport, other transport services (except maritime and air) and postal and courier services. The time span of the study was 2010–2018. The latest secondary data from the official statistics of the National Bank of Poland and the Central Statistical Office were used for the purpose of the analysis. The research methods included: critical analysis of the source literature, analysis of secondary data (desk-research) and graphic methods (tables and diagrams), by means of which the results of the study were presented. The conclusions drawn are inductive and deductive in nature. The article describes in detail Polish trade in transport services with EU countries. It focuses on export, import and balance. The role of the examined services in foreign trade and Polish economy was assessed based on the analysis of the structure of export and import and the rate of export and import, geographical orientation of trade, as well as the activity of enterprises from the transport service sector, registered in Poland, including joint ventures. Research has shown that between 2010 and 2018 Polish export and import of transport services as part of trade relations with EU countries increased considerably. The conducted research indicates that transport services are a crucial element of Polish trade. The role of EU countries in the Polish trade in transport services was recognised as significant and growing. This has a positive impact on the country’s economy. The increasing role of road transport in the structure of the Polish trade indicates that Polish entities providing transport services are thriving in this demanding market. However, the analysis of the source literature indicated changes in the preferences of consumers, who increasingly often expect the implementation of sustainable development principles in the distribution of goods. Green marketing or green transport are concepts more and more frequently used to gain competitive advantage in the market. The transport sector in Poland is facing a major trend towards the implementation of sustainable development principles. In order to maintain sales growth internationally, the entities will have to implement sustainable development principles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Economic and Business Aspects of Sustainability)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Analytical Approach to Quantitative Country Risk Assessment for the Belt and Road Initiative
Sustainability 2021, 13(1), 423; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su13010423 - 05 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 962
Abstract
In recent years, the “Belt and Road Initiative” (BRI) promoted by the Chinese government has attracted a significant amount of international trade and transnational investment and other businesses. Accordingly, country risk assessment should be granted priority in the decision-making process for these projects. [...] Read more.
In recent years, the “Belt and Road Initiative” (BRI) promoted by the Chinese government has attracted a significant amount of international trade and transnational investment and other businesses. Accordingly, country risk assessment should be granted priority in the decision-making process for these projects. Based on a comprehensive consideration of important relevant countries and the availability of data of countries along the BRI, this paper uses data from 49 countries along the BRI between 2014–2019 and establishes a national risk-evaluation system for the BRI from four dimensions (i.e., political, economic, social, and investment). This paper adopts the Grey correlation analysis based on the Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (Grey-TOPSIS) method to identify and evaluate the risk of countries along the BRI. Geographic Information System (GIS) maps are drawn according to the criteria for classifying the five risk levels to show the rank of the four aspects of risk scores along the BRI in 2019 and the rank of overall country risk scores during the period 2014–2019. The proposed conclusion and policy implications can help the Chinese government and companies to make informed decisions and minimize potential risks. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Research on Competitiveness of China’s Social Commerce Enterprises Based on Macro- and Micro-Niche
Sustainability 2021, 13(1), 422; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su13010422 - 05 Jan 2021
Viewed by 885
Abstract
Imbalance of development and resources allocation can emerge during the rapid expansion of social commerce enterprises, which significantly reduces their competitiveness and sustainability. In this paper, we put forward the concept of social commerce ecosystem and propose a model composed of macro-niche and [...] Read more.
Imbalance of development and resources allocation can emerge during the rapid expansion of social commerce enterprises, which significantly reduces their competitiveness and sustainability. In this paper, we put forward the concept of social commerce ecosystem and propose a model composed of macro-niche and micro-niche to empirically analyze the performance of different social commerce enterprises in China. The results show that: (1) The social sharing e-commerce sub-industry is a monopoly market while the social retail e-commerce sub-industry tends to be a perfectly competitive market; (2) Compared with using only macro-niche or micro-niche, our model shows a more comprehensive insight of enterprise competitiveness, which provides a better niche evaluation for other industries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Economic and Business Aspects of Sustainability)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Estimation of the Scale of Food Waste in Hotel Food Services—A Case Study
Sustainability 2021, 13(1), 421; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su13010421 - 05 Jan 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1257
Abstract
The problem of food waste in food services, which is global and essentially affects the entire world, is a major challenge for the hospitality industry. At the same time, it should be noted that this problem has not been sufficiently studied, which makes [...] Read more.
The problem of food waste in food services, which is global and essentially affects the entire world, is a major challenge for the hospitality industry. At the same time, it should be noted that this problem has not been sufficiently studied, which makes it difficult to reduce it effectively. The study was carried out in four hotels in late 2019 and early 2020. In order to determine the scale of food waste, the diary method was used, which consists of systematically recording, for seven days, in forms prepared for workstations, the weight of all food products and unused food, including the stage of the technological process. In the hotels under study, most food was wasted in the serving department, i.e., in the buffet in the dining room or in the form of plate waste (on average 72.55% of wasted food). After taking into account the number of hotel guests served, it was found that in the investigated facilities, an average of 0.046 kg was wasted from each serving offered to guests in the form of plate waste, which constituted 5.8% of its weight. In sum, it should be stated that in order to reduce food waste, it is necessary to educate both food services staff and consumers. Employees should be trained in the proper handling of food. Consumer education, on the other hand, should be directed toward raising awareness of the negative impact of food waste, such as that on the natural environment. In addition, it should indicate what action everyone can take to limit this negative phenomenon, whether at home, in the workplace, or in a food service establishment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Food Waste Management in Foodservice Establishments)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
The Role of Social Networks in Mobile Phone Use among Pedestrians: A Pilot Study in China
Sustainability 2021, 13(1), 420; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su13010420 - 05 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 838
Abstract
Pedestrian safety is alarming worldwide, and it is well validated that distracted walking/crossing involving mobile phone use would significantly compromise pedestrian safety. Some existing studies demonstrated that distracted pedestrians would spend more time to cross street, miss more safe opportunities to cross and [...] Read more.
Pedestrian safety is alarming worldwide, and it is well validated that distracted walking/crossing involving mobile phone use would significantly compromise pedestrian safety. Some existing studies demonstrated that distracted pedestrians would spend more time to cross street, miss more safe opportunities to cross and pay less attention to the road environment, etc. As a result, they are more likely to be hit by an oncoming vehicle. Specifically, with respect to the distraction results from mobile phone use for communication in road user groups, previous research has examined the relationship between social networks and mobile phone use among drivers and motorcyclists. However, very little similar research was found in the field of pedestrian study. This study performed an online survey to investigate with whom pedestrians were most likely to communicate with while crossing street in a Chinese sample. The association between social networks and self-reported injury/ near miss event was also examined. To provide an insight into the difference in communication pattern between scenarios, the results were compared with the patterns while driving, motorcycling and the general patterns. Results indicate that pedestrians are most likely to communicate with friends (31.2%), followed by spouses (24.5%). Additionally, participants who frequently talk to parents/children have a greater likelihood of being involved in injury/ near miss events than those talk to the others. Compared with the prevalence of mobile phone use among drivers and motorcyclists reported in previous studies, mobile phone use is more prevalent among pedestrians, especially as they are more likely to communicate with colleagues. In sum, the results demonstrate that social networks play an important role in mobile phone use during street crossing, and pedestrians are more likely to communicate with people who are socially closest to them. The effect of social networks on mobile phone use (especially for communication) among pedestrians should be considered in the development of traffic safety countermeasures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Transportation)
Article
A WebGIS for Visualizing Historical Activities Based on Photos: The Project of Yunnan–Vietnam Railway Web Map
Sustainability 2021, 13(1), 419; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su13010419 - 05 Jan 2021
Viewed by 814
Abstract
Historical photos have significance for historical and social studies. Especially, the introduction of Geographic Information System (GIS) and digitalized historical photos have brought more opportunities and possibilities for interdisciplinary studies and the convenience for normal citizens to participate in the landscape observation. To [...] Read more.
Historical photos have significance for historical and social studies. Especially, the introduction of Geographic Information System (GIS) and digitalized historical photos have brought more opportunities and possibilities for interdisciplinary studies and the convenience for normal citizens to participate in the landscape observation. To this aim, this paper first reviews the research related to historical photos and Open GIS, and points out the meaning of historical photos for the Yunnan–Vietnam Railway (YVR). Based on the collected data of original historical photos from archives and the fieldwork data that recorded the landscape along the railway from 2018 to 2019, a WebGIS of Yunnan–Vietnam Railway is designed and implemented with open GIS tools. All the data are processed in the QGIS as vector and raster layers and loaded in PostgreSQL as relational tables. Then, heatmaps are created indicating the density of historical activities of the railway company, the other historical photographers, and current touristic activities. Connected with the PostgreSQL database, the data are uploaded to GeoServer for more GIS functionalities. Finally, the whole system lives in a webpage, implemented in HTML and JavaScript with Leaflet, and the improved functionalities of the Yunnan–Vietnam Railway WebGIS include distance measuring, search engine, and historical information browsing. In the future, further research can be done focusing on the landscape changes along the railway and public participation during the landscape observation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing for Archaeology and Cultural Landscapes)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
New Housing Complexes in Post-Industrial Areas in City Centres in Poland Versus Cultural and Natural Heritage Protection—With a Particular Focus on Cracow
Sustainability 2021, 13(1), 418; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su13010418 - 05 Jan 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 792
Abstract
The cityscape changes constantly, reflecting the socio-economic conditions of a given urbanised area—both globally and in any given country. Post-industrial buildings and complexes have been its important elements since the nineteenth century. At present, many of them are undergoing adaptive reuse. The oldest, [...] Read more.
The cityscape changes constantly, reflecting the socio-economic conditions of a given urbanised area—both globally and in any given country. Post-industrial buildings and complexes have been its important elements since the nineteenth century. At present, many of them are undergoing adaptive reuse. The oldest, which are parts of post-industrial heritage and define the local identity, are now located in city centres. Some are revitalised and often adapted into multi-family housing. This paper fills a gap in the research on revitalised areas in Polish city centres, especially the ones converted into housing. It notes the links between these projects with elements of urban green-blue infrastructure, as well as the methods of protection of the reused postindustrial heritage. Studies from 2000–2020 on Polish multi-family housing architecture prove that the quality of buildings and semi-public green spaces is becoming increasingly important to developers and buyers. Properly used and exposed post-industrial heritage can contribute to raising the attractiveness of such spaces. In combination with city greenery systems, they can form attractive townscape sequences, as proven by Cracow cases. The paper’s conclusions indicate that the preservation and exposition of post-industrial heritage in newly built housing complexes is affected by numerous factors. The most important of these are legal determinants based on both state-level and local law. Economic factors also play a major role, as they directly affect projects. The skills and talent of designers who can create unique proposals that expose surviving relicts and a given place’s genius loci even in the most restrictive of economic and legal conditions, are also not without significance. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Influence of the Shortening of the Winter Fertilization Prohibition Period in Hungary Assessed by Spatial Crop Simulation Analysis
Sustainability 2021, 13(1), 417; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su13010417 - 05 Jan 2021
Viewed by 997
Abstract
The Nitrates Directive aims (a) to protect water quality across Europe from nitrates originating from agricultural sources that pollute ground and surface water, and (b) to promote good farming practices. One of the most controversial measures of the directive is the winter prohibition [...] Read more.
The Nitrates Directive aims (a) to protect water quality across Europe from nitrates originating from agricultural sources that pollute ground and surface water, and (b) to promote good farming practices. One of the most controversial measures of the directive is the winter prohibition period of fertilization, which has been extended by a month in two steps in recent years. According to the regulation, it is forbidden to apply nitrogen fertilization in Hungary between 31st October and 15th February, even though the winter climate is gradually becoming milder. Using the fertilization data of nearly half a million parcels of land in the Hungarian Nitrate Database, a crop model-based spatial analysis was carried out. Our aim was to test if a shift in the prohibition period starting date from 31st October to 30th November caused any differences in the nitrate amount leached at a 90 cm depth. Detailed nitrate inputs and soil and weather databases were coupled with the 4M crop model. The yield, plant nitrogen uptake, and nitrate leaching under five major crops were simulated, covering a considerable portion of arable land. Shifting the prohibition period starting date did not result in significant changes in the nitrate leaching. Further runs of the 4M model with different weather scenarios are needed to decide whether the modification of the prohibition period significantly affects the amount of nitrate leached. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Agricultural Landscapes: Challenges and Opportunities)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
What Do We Know about Bullying in Schoolchildren with Disabilities? A Systematic Review of Recent Work
Sustainability 2021, 13(1), 416; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su13010416 - 05 Jan 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1314
Abstract
Bullying is a serious problem that particularly affects schoolchildren with disabilities. However, studies in this group have been carried out on smaller cohorts and the results obtained are, therefore, less representative and sometimes inconclusive. The purpose of this paper is to perform a [...] Read more.
Bullying is a serious problem that particularly affects schoolchildren with disabilities. However, studies in this group have been carried out on smaller cohorts and the results obtained are, therefore, less representative and sometimes inconclusive. The purpose of this paper is to perform a systematic review of the work carried out in recent years, including the analysis of several variables related to the sample, the methodology applied and the type of bullying. The guidelines set down by the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) statement were followed in three phases. The total sample consisted of 55 children who fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The results reveal that half the studies were conducted in cohorts of less than 250 schoolchildren and drew no distinctions between the different types of disabilities. Furthermore, there is no consensus regarding the methodology used, and no specialized instruments were used. Hardly any specific interventions have been performed into the type of bullying investigated, in which victimization is the predominant mode. We concluded that there is an urgent need to increase the number of studies, including a larger number of individuals and using specialized instruments, in order to obtain more solid results. Such studies will allow us to create specific prevention and intervention programs to address the bullying of schoolchildren with disabilities. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Exploring the Emergence of Innovative Multi-Actor Collaborations toward a Progressive Urban Regime in Madrid (2015–2019)
Sustainability 2021, 13(1), 415; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su13010415 - 05 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 867
Abstract
For the last decade, urban actors around the globe have been struggling to adapt to a post-crisis and austerity context through increasing social mobilization and experimentation, calling for an urban democracy renewal and challenging established neoliberal urban regimes and governance systems. This has [...] Read more.
For the last decade, urban actors around the globe have been struggling to adapt to a post-crisis and austerity context through increasing social mobilization and experimentation, calling for an urban democracy renewal and challenging established neoliberal urban regimes and governance systems. This has triggered social innovations, in which novel collaborative formulas have been envisioned and implemented. In particular, civil-public collaborations (CPCs) have come to the fore as an empowering alternative to the well-established private–public partnerships (PPP). This article examines the conditions of possibility, enabling mechanisms and constraints for the emergence of innovative multi-actor collaborations (IMACs). For this aim, we developed a three-fold analytical framework combining social innovation, public governance, and urban regime theory. We applied this framework to the case of the so-called “government of change” in Madrid between 2015 and 2019. After exploring the pre-2015 context, the institutional innovations implemented once Ahora Madrid accessed the local government, and the post-2019 context, it points to the preconditions that allowed experimentation with IMAC, identifies the institutional mechanisms and governance innovations that support their emergence, and assesses to what extent and how power to act was created and used to accomplish urban regime change. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Policies)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Evaluation of Mechanical Characteristics of Cement Mortar with Fine Recycled Concrete Aggregates (FRCA)
Sustainability 2021, 13(1), 414; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su13010414 - 05 Jan 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 764
Abstract
One of the growing demands in concrete manufacture is the availability of natural fine aggregates, which account for 35% to 45% of the total concrete. An alternative method of disposal of fine recycled concrete aggregates (FRCA) generated from demolition and construction waste (C&DW) [...] Read more.
One of the growing demands in concrete manufacture is the availability of natural fine aggregates, which account for 35% to 45% of the total concrete. An alternative method of disposal of fine recycled concrete aggregates (FRCA) generated from demolition and construction waste (C&DW) is their usage in mortar and the development of recycled mortar. The main aim of this research work is to evaluate the viability of incorporating FRCA from urban C&DW for the manufacture of cement-based mortars. Simple processing techniques like washing and sieving are adopted to improve the FRCA quality. Physical and chemical characterization of ingredients is carried out. In total four mixes of 1:3 (cement: sand) mortar with partial replacement of normalized sand with FRCA (0%, 25%, 50%, and 100%) are evaluated for mechanical properties. Water to cement ratio for all four mortar mixes are determined by fixed consistency. Mechanical and physical properties like density, compressive strength, and flexural strength are studied for various curing periods, and the result is that the optimum usage of FRCA is 25% based on a 90-day curing period. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Municipal Solid Waste Management in a Circular Economy)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Development of the Circular Bioeconomy: Drivers and Indicators
Sustainability 2021, 13(1), 413; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su13010413 - 05 Jan 2021
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 3548
Abstract
The EU’s 2018 Bioeconomy Strategy Update and the European Green Deal recently confirmed that the bioeconomy is high on the political agenda in Europe. Here, we propose a conceptual analysis framework for quantifying and analyzing the development of the EU bioeconomy. The bioeconomy [...] Read more.
The EU’s 2018 Bioeconomy Strategy Update and the European Green Deal recently confirmed that the bioeconomy is high on the political agenda in Europe. Here, we propose a conceptual analysis framework for quantifying and analyzing the development of the EU bioeconomy. The bioeconomy has several related concepts (e.g., bio-based economy, green economy, and circular economy) and there are clear synergies between these concepts, especially between the bioeconomy and circular economy concepts. Analyzing the driving factors provides important information for monitoring activities. We first derive the scope of the bioeconomy framework in terms of bioeconomy sectors and products to be involved, the needed geographical coverage and resolution, and time period. Furthermore, we outline a set of indicators linked to the objectives of the EU’s bioeconomy strategy. In our framework, measuring developments will, in particular, focus on the bio-based sectors within the bioeconomy as biomass and food production is already monitored. The selected indicators commit to the EU Bioeconomy Strategy objectives and conform with findings from previous studies and stakeholder consultation. Additionally, several new indicators have been suggested and they are related to measuring the impact of changes in supply, demand drivers, resource availability, and policies on sustainability goals. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Delineating an Integrated Ecological and Cultural Corridor Network: A Case Study in Beijing, China
Sustainability 2021, 13(1), 412; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su13010412 - 05 Jan 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 789
Abstract
This study shows that an integrated ecological and cultural corridor network can help guide city development strategies to better preserve ecological and cultural assets. Traditionally, protection zones and suitable development areas are often identified by separately considering natural elements of the ecosystem and [...] Read more.
This study shows that an integrated ecological and cultural corridor network can help guide city development strategies to better preserve ecological and cultural assets. Traditionally, protection zones and suitable development areas are often identified by separately considering natural elements of the ecosystem and elements of cultural significance. To achieve the purpose of cohesively protecting areas of ecological and/or cultural significance, we have developed a corridor-based spatial framework by integrating ecological and cultural assets. Ecological sources are identified by combining protection prioritization, nature reserves, and water bodies. Ecological corridors are delineated by using the minimum cumulative resistance (MCR) model on a resistance surface constructed from land-use data to connect ecological sources. Ecologically important areas are then delineated by creating a 5-km buffer zone from ecological sources and ecological corridors. Cultural corridors are historical routes and rivers surrounded by abundant cultural nodes. Like ecologically important areas, culturally important areas are delineated by creating a 5-km buffer zone from cultural corridors. Comprehensive regions are the overlap of ecologically and culturally important areas. Finally, the integrated network connects all comprehensive regions following ecological corridors and cultural corridors in such a way that the largest number of ecological sources and cultural nodes are reached. We applied this framework in Beijing, China, and the results show that there are 2011 km2 of ecological sources, 30 ecological corridors, 423 cultural nodes, seven cultural corridors, and 10 comprehensive regions covering 2916 km2 in the integrated network. The framework adds new insights to the methodology of considering ecological and cultural assets together in developing protection and development strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Integrated Clean Environment for Human & Nature)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Identification and Prediction of Wetland Ecological Risk in Key Cities of the Yangtze River Economic Belt: From the Perspective of Land Development
Sustainability 2021, 13(1), 411; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su13010411 - 05 Jan 2021
Viewed by 702
Abstract
Rapid urbanization aggravates the degradation of wetland function. However, few studies have quantitatively analyzed and predicted the comprehensive impacts of different scenarios and types of human activities on wetland ecosystems from the perspective of land development. Combined with the Habitat Risk Assessment (HRA) [...] Read more.
Rapid urbanization aggravates the degradation of wetland function. However, few studies have quantitatively analyzed and predicted the comprehensive impacts of different scenarios and types of human activities on wetland ecosystems from the perspective of land development. Combined with the Habitat Risk Assessment (HRA) model and the Cellular Automata (Ca)-Markov model, this study quantitatively measured the impact intensity and spatial distribution of different types of human activities on the wetland ecosystem in 2015, simulated and predicted the ecological pressure on the wetland in 2030, and identified the ecological risk hotspots of the Yangtze River waterfront along the upper, middle, and lower reaches of the Yangtze River Economic Belt. The results showed that the ecological risk of wetlands in the study area was low in the urban core and high in the suburbs. Construction activities posed a greater risk to wetlands. The intensity of human activities in the ecological protection scenario will be significantly lower than that in the natural development scenario in 2030. The waterfront in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River will face more ecological risks. The results of the study can provide theoretical and technical support for wetland conservation policy formulation and waterfront development in the Yangtze River Economic Belt. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Back to TopTop