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Sustainability, Volume 13, Issue 11 (June-1 2021) – 747 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The ecosystem services of high natural mountain lakes may be threatened in the future due to global change, but indicators for assessing ecosystem services are potentially lacking. In this study, we propose multiple indicators based on limnological, spatial and socio-economic data. Quantitative results for eight ecosystem services indicate varying levels across 15 study lakes in the European Alps. Based on various socio-ecological variables, we identified four groups of lakes, which differed in ecosystem services such as water, recreation, representation, research, and education. Other ecosystem services, including habitat, aesthetic, and existence, were rather independent from the socio-ecological context. Our findings contribute to a deeper understanding of the ecosystem services of mountain lakes and support sustainable development by proposing group-specific management strategies. [...] Read more.
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Article
Priorities Determining Future Directions of Sustainable Development in Business Models of the Healthcare Industry—Findings and Framework
Sustainability 2021, 13(11), 6507; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su13116507 - 07 Jun 2021
Viewed by 647
Abstract
The private healthcare sector was chosen because of the fundamental importance of quality in this sector, the widespread understanding that sustainable development is part of hospital quality standards, and the compelling need for the supply chain components to work together in order to [...] Read more.
The private healthcare sector was chosen because of the fundamental importance of quality in this sector, the widespread understanding that sustainable development is part of hospital quality standards, and the compelling need for the supply chain components to work together in order to add value to the business models of private healthcare services. This study uses a qualitative methodology, striving to add value to and shed light on the relationship between private hospital communication modes and their stakeholders’ needs and their stakeholders’ expectations of business models in the marketplace and society. This research lists a range of actions and services for assessing the priorities of private hospital communication modes in business models with respect to stakeholder needs and expectations. Furthermore, the study links stakeholder needs and the expectations of business models in private hospitals, with respect to private hospital communication modes with stakeholders, and vice versa. It also provides directions for managers in the healthcare industry to determine the appropriate actions and services for addressing stakeholders’ needs and stakeholders’ expectations of business models in private hospitals considering sustainable development. This research contributes to framing the future direction of sustainable development in business models of the healthcare industry. The paper outlines the assessment of communication modes in relation to economic, social, and environmental performance in the context of sustainable development. Full article
Article
Conventional and Conservation Seedbed Preparation Systems for Wheat Planting in Silty-Clay Soil
Sustainability 2021, 13(11), 6506; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su13116506 - 07 Jun 2021
Viewed by 533
Abstract
Conventional seedbed preparation is based on deep ploughing followed by lighter and finer secondary tillage of the superficial layer, normally performed by machines powered by the tractor’s Power Take-Off (PTO), which prepares the seedbed in a single pass. Conservation methods are based on [...] Read more.
Conventional seedbed preparation is based on deep ploughing followed by lighter and finer secondary tillage of the superficial layer, normally performed by machines powered by the tractor’s Power Take-Off (PTO), which prepares the seedbed in a single pass. Conservation methods are based on a wide range of interventions, such as minimum or no-tillage, by means of machines with passive action working tools which require two or more passes The aim of this study was to assess both the power-energy requirements of conventional (power harrows and rotary tillers with different working width) and conservation implements (disks harrow and combined cultivator) and the soil tillage quality parameters, with reference to the capability of preparing an optimal seedbed for wheat planting. Field tests were carried out on flat, silty-clay soil, using instrumented tractors. The test results showed significant differences among the operative performances of the two typologies of machines powered by the tractor’s PTO: the fuel consumption, the power and the energy requirements of the rotary tillers are strongly higher than power harrows. However, the results also showed a decrease of these parameters proceeding from conventional to more conservation tillage implements. The better quality of seedbed was provided by the rotary tillers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Soil Tillage Systems and Wheat Yield under Climate Change)
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Article
Food Safety and Quality in Connection with the Change of Consumer Choice in Czechia (a Case Study)
Sustainability 2021, 13(11), 6505; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su13116505 - 07 Jun 2021
Viewed by 539
Abstract
The purpose of this study is to express changes in consumer preferences for certain food products due to the income growth of the population, and to specify the way producers or retailers of these commodities respond to the changes in customer choices. The [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study is to express changes in consumer preferences for certain food products due to the income growth of the population, and to specify the way producers or retailers of these commodities respond to the changes in customer choices. The methodology of this study is based on comparing the economic model of consumer behavior in the market to the analysis of demand elasticity, together with its practical application to food products of the same brand offered by multinational chains in Czechia and Germany. The study presents a new survey, including a comparison of the quality and safety of food products offered by retail chains in Czechia and Germany, and a comparison with similar bio-quality products offered by Czech farmers in their shops or at farmers’ markets. As the comparison indicates, unless multinational producers change their current behavior, consumers will prefer purchasing products from Czech producers, including products offered at farmers’ markets, and shop in neighboring countries where higher-quality original products may be found. Full article
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Article
Reactivity Effect of Calcium Carbonate on the Formation of Carboaluminate Phases in Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag Blended Cements
Sustainability 2021, 13(11), 6504; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su13116504 - 07 Jun 2021
Viewed by 495
Abstract
The reactivity effect of calcium carbonate, present in ground oyster shells and limestone filler, on the formation of carboaluminate phases in ground granulated blast furnace slag blended cement pastes was reported in this paper. Six different binary and ternary blended cement pastes were [...] Read more.
The reactivity effect of calcium carbonate, present in ground oyster shells and limestone filler, on the formation of carboaluminate phases in ground granulated blast furnace slag blended cement pastes was reported in this paper. Six different binary and ternary blended cement pastes were prepared using ground granulated blast furnace slag, ground oyster shells and limestone filler with different replacement levels (from 5 to 35%). The carboaluminate formation was assessed and quantified directly using X-ray diffraction (XRD), and indirectly by following the aluminate phase’s reaction (heat flow) and consumed calcium carbonate using Isothermal Calorimetry (IC) and Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), respectively. Further, the overall reaction degree calculated based on TGA results and the compressive strength were determined to support the findings obtained. The results revealed that the calcium carbonate present in ground oyster shells is more reactive when compared to that present in limestone filler, where more formed hemi- and monocarboaluminate phases were observed in mixtures containing ground oyster shells. An enhancement in compressive strength and overall reaction degree was observed by adding 5% ground oyster shells as cement replacement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Construction Materials for Sustainable Development)
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Review
Dryland Food Security in Ethiopia: Current Status, Opportunities, and a Roadmap for the Future
Sustainability 2021, 13(11), 6503; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su13116503 - 07 Jun 2021
Viewed by 660
Abstract
Given the impact of COVID-19 and the desert locust plague, the Ethiopian food security issue has once again received widespread attention. Its food crisis requires comprehensive and systematic research to achieve the United Nations Sustainable Development Goal of zero hunger. This review discusses [...] Read more.
Given the impact of COVID-19 and the desert locust plague, the Ethiopian food security issue has once again received widespread attention. Its food crisis requires comprehensive and systematic research to achieve the United Nations Sustainable Development Goal of zero hunger. This review discusses the current situation and the causes of food security in Ethiopia. We focus on the challenges in the food security assessment field. The article lists seven typical causes of food insecurity and three roots of food security in Ethiopia. Long-term food security assessment and a comprehensive understanding and manageability for food security causes are considered as the main existing research challenges. Climate-resilient management, water management, and long-term ecosystem network monitoring and data mining are suggested as potential roadmap for future research. Full article
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Article
How Transboundary Learning Occurs: Case Study of the ASEAN Smart Cities Network (ASCN)
Sustainability 2021, 13(11), 6502; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su13116502 - 07 Jun 2021
Viewed by 561
Abstract
While policy study of smart city developments is gaining traction, it falls short of understanding and explaining knowledge transfers across national borders and cities. This article investigates how transboundary learning occurs through the initiation and development of a regional smart cities network: the [...] Read more.
While policy study of smart city developments is gaining traction, it falls short of understanding and explaining knowledge transfers across national borders and cities. This article investigates how transboundary learning occurs through the initiation and development of a regional smart cities network: the ASEAN Smart Cities Network (ASCN). The article conducts an in-depth case study from data collected through key informant interviews and document analysis. Spearheaded by Singapore in 2017, ASCN is seen as a soft power extension for Singapore, a branding tool for ASEAN, and a symbiotic platform between the private sector and governments in the region. Most transboundary knowledge transfers within the ASCN are voluntary transfers of policy ideas. Effective branding, demand for knowledge, availability of alternative funding options, enthusiasm from the private actors, and heightened interest from other major economies are highlighted as facilitators of knowledge transfer. However, the complexity of governance structures, lack of political will and resources, limited policy capacity, and lack of explicit operational and regulatory mechanisms hinder transboundary learning. The article concludes that transboundary learning should go beyond exchanges of ideas and recommends promoting facilitators of knowledge transfer, building local policy capacity, encouraging collaborative policy transfer, and transiting from an information-sharing platform to tool/instrument-based transfer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Governance of Technology in Smart Cities)
Review
Towards a Conceptual Development of Industry 4.0, Servitisation, and Circular Economy: A Systematic Literature Review
Sustainability 2021, 13(11), 6501; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su13116501 - 07 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 700
Abstract
Industry 4.0 (I4.0) technologies have been highlighted in recent literature as enablers of servitisation. Simultaneously, businesses are advised to implement a circular economy (CE) to bring new opportunities. However, it is pertinent to mention that little attention has been given to assess the [...] Read more.
Industry 4.0 (I4.0) technologies have been highlighted in recent literature as enablers of servitisation. Simultaneously, businesses are advised to implement a circular economy (CE) to bring new opportunities. However, it is pertinent to mention that little attention has been given to assess the role of I4.0 in adopting the CE and servitisation in a fully integrated manner. This research fills this gap by developing a conceptual framework through a systematic literature review of 139 studies investigating the relationship between the I4.0, CE, and servitisation. This study identifies the impact of these variables on a firm’s operational and financial performance (revenue stream, growth, and profitability). Our research findings advocate that adopting I4.0 technologies to the business and manufacturing model enables sustainability, energy and resource efficiency while enhancing performance and offering innovative products through smart services. Thus, firms must systematically adopt I4.0 technologies to support a CE model that creates value through servitisation. This study identifies the research gaps that are unexplored for practitioners and future researchers while providing insight into the role of I4.0 in implementing CE in the servitisation business model. Full article
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Article
Comparison of Driving Forces to Increasing Traffic Flow and Transport Emissions in Philippine Regions: A Spatial Decomposition Study
Sustainability 2021, 13(11), 6500; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su13116500 - 07 Jun 2021
Viewed by 580
Abstract
The warming of the climate system has raised a lot of concerns for decades, and this is traceable to human activities and energy use. Conspicuously, the transportation sector is a great contributor to global emissions. This is largely due to increasing dependence on [...] Read more.
The warming of the climate system has raised a lot of concerns for decades, and this is traceable to human activities and energy use. Conspicuously, the transportation sector is a great contributor to global emissions. This is largely due to increasing dependence on private vehicles and a poorly planned public transportation system. In addition to economic impacts, this also has significant environmental and sustainability implications. This study demonstrates a novel approach using spatial logarithmic mean Divisia index (LMDI) to analyze drivers of traffic flow and its corresponding CO2 emissions in regions through an illustrative case study in the Philippines. Population growth is revealed as the main driver to traffic flow in most regions with the exception of a few regions and the national capital which are driven by economic activity. The economic activity effect shows positive trends contributing positively to traffic flow which is greatly linked to income level rise and increase in vehicle ownership. Concerning the impacts, results revealed that an increase in economic activity generally causes traffic intensity to decrease, and switching to more sustainable modes is not a guarantee to reduce carbon emissions. The authors recommend increasing equity on the appropriation of transport infrastructure projects across regions, quality improvement of public transport services and promoting mixed-use development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Development for Sustainability)
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Article
To Buy or Not to Buy: How Behavioral Habits Affect the Repurchase Intention of Cobranded Wearable Fitness Technology
Sustainability 2021, 13(11), 6499; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su13116499 - 07 Jun 2021
Viewed by 574
Abstract
Luxury sports products and brands in general have seen a significant increase in their sales, highlighting the high consumption of smart sports watches. The purpose of this study is to investigate the mediating role of cobranding, self-presentation, self-expression, and symbolic values in the [...] Read more.
Luxury sports products and brands in general have seen a significant increase in their sales, highlighting the high consumption of smart sports watches. The purpose of this study is to investigate the mediating role of cobranding, self-presentation, self-expression, and symbolic values in the relationship between the consumer’s need for uniqueness and the intention to repurchase luxury smart sports watches. The sample consisted of a total of 217 users of smart sports watches. An online questionnaire was used for data collection (24 items from 6 scales) and Smart PLS-SEM software was used for confirmatory factor analysis and to test a structural equation model. The findings provide an insight into the importance of cobranding on self-expression, self-presentation, and symbolic value. Specifically, in the case of intention to repurchase, the results show that symbolic value is the variable with the highest predictive value. This study provides an important advance in the academic literature related to luxury products in the sports sector, and the results facilitate a better understanding of the consumer’s intention to repurchase. Full article
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Article
Environmental and Health Co-Benefits of Coal Regulation under the Carbon Neutral Target: A Case Study in Anhui Province, China
Sustainability 2021, 13(11), 6498; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su13116498 - 07 Jun 2021
Viewed by 562
Abstract
Coal regulation has been implemented throughout China. However, the potential benefits of pollution abatement and the co-benefits of residents’ health were rarely assessed. In this study, based on the analysis of historical coal consumption and multiple coal regulation measures in Anhui Province, China, [...] Read more.
Coal regulation has been implemented throughout China. However, the potential benefits of pollution abatement and the co-benefits of residents’ health were rarely assessed. In this study, based on the analysis of historical coal consumption and multiple coal regulation measures in Anhui Province, China, four scenarios (Business as Usual (BU), Structure Optimization (SO), Gross Consumption Control (GC), and Comprehensive Measures (CM)) were constructed to indicate four different paths from 2020 to 2060, which is a vital period for realizing carbon neutrality. The results show that reductions of SO2, PM10, and PM2.5 emissions in the SO scenario are higher than those in the GC scenario, while the reduction of NOx emission is higher in the GC scenario. Compared with the BU scenario, residents’ health benefits from 2020 to 2060 are 8.3, 4.8, and 4.5 billion USD in the CM, GC, and SO scenarios, respectively, indicating that the achievements of coal regulation are significant for health promotion. Therefore, the optimization and implementation of coal regulation in the future is not only essential for the carbon neutrality target, but also a significant method to yield environmental and health co-benefits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Development for Sustainability)
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Article
Interval Type-2 Fuzzy Super SBM Network DEA for Assessing Sustainability Performance of Third-Party Logistics Service Providers Considering Circular Economy Strategies in the Era of Industry 4.0
Sustainability 2021, 13(11), 6497; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su13116497 - 07 Jun 2021
Viewed by 571
Abstract
Stakeholders are increasingly aware of the aspect of sustainability, and the fact that the circular economy facilitates the achievement of sustainable development goals. They place pressure on supply chains to become sustainable, and for this reason, third-party logistics (3PL) service providers, as specialized [...] Read more.
Stakeholders are increasingly aware of the aspect of sustainability, and the fact that the circular economy facilitates the achievement of sustainable development goals. They place pressure on supply chains to become sustainable, and for this reason, third-party logistics (3PL) service providers, as specialized professionals, play a vital role in sustainable supply chain management. Although developments in technology in the era of Industry 4.0 have been effective at directing 3PLs along the path towards sustainability, integrated management of forward and reverse logistics systems in order to achieve a circular economy and to become sustainable remains a problem, even in developed countries. However, benchmarking and using the experiences of others can help to speed up this path at a minimal cost. An interval type-2 fuzzy super-slack-based measure network DEA was developed to make such benchmarking possible. Governance style, staff behavior, environmental management systems, and social elements are considered, alongside the principles of the circular economy, in order to compare the sustainability performance of 17 3PLs with respect to different aspects through the application of the developed DEA model. Proper benchmarking with respect to strategies and operations of the 3PLs that are recognized as efficient makes it possible for these 3PLs to overcome obstacles and progress at a lower cost. The results show that 3PLs do not have a comprehensive sustainability strategy that is coordinated with an overall vision of the total supply chain. An investigation into the development of a framework with multiple steps for the guidance of 3PLs, as well as the whole supply chain, towards sustainability in the Industry 4.0 era would be a fruitful next study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Operations and Logistics)
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Article
Corporate Social Responsibility and Post Earnings Announcement Drift: Evidence from Korea
Sustainability 2021, 13(11), 6496; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su13116496 - 07 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 479
Abstract
To promote corporate social responsibility (CSR) in emerging markets such as South Korea to the level of developed nations, support from capital market investors is necessary. That is, CSR activities expand if capital market investors actively invest in companies that pursue such activities. [...] Read more.
To promote corporate social responsibility (CSR) in emerging markets such as South Korea to the level of developed nations, support from capital market investors is necessary. That is, CSR activities expand if capital market investors actively invest in companies that pursue such activities. This study thus analyzes the influence of the level of CSR activities on the post-earnings-announcement drift (PEAD) of publicly listed companies in South Korea, given the need to analyze the relationship between capital markets and CSR, which is part of sustainability management strategies. A sample of Korean firms listed on the Korean Stock Exchange from 2014 to 2018 was used for the regression analysis. The financial and stock return data were extracted from the KIS-Value database and CSR activities data were collected from the Korea Economic Justice Institute (KEJI) Index. The empirical analysis determined that more inactive companies in terms of CSR exhibited greater PEAD magnitude. Furthermore, high information asymmetry was found to further increase the magnitude of PEAD. These results indicate that investors cannot make swift investment decisions because of their low confidence in the information disclosed by inactive CSR companies; as a result, earnings information is slowly reflected in the stock prices of the period following disclosure. These findings suggest that CSR plays an important role in boosting investor confidence in corporate earnings information. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Economic and Business Aspects of Sustainability)
Article
The Integrated Cropping Calendar Information System: A Coping Mechanism to Climate Variability for Sustainable Agriculture in Indonesia
Sustainability 2021, 13(11), 6495; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su13116495 - 07 Jun 2021
Viewed by 637
Abstract
Climate change and its variability are some of the most critical threats to sustainable agriculture, with potentially severe consequences on Indonesia’s agriculture, such as changes in rainfall patterns, especially the onset of the wet season and the temporal distribution of rainfall. Most Indonesian [...] Read more.
Climate change and its variability are some of the most critical threats to sustainable agriculture, with potentially severe consequences on Indonesia’s agriculture, such as changes in rainfall patterns, especially the onset of the wet season and the temporal distribution of rainfall. Most Indonesian farmers receive support from agricultural extension services, and therefore, design their agricultural calendar based on personal experience without considering global climate phenomena, such as La Niña and El Niño, which difficult to interpret on a local scale. This paper describes the Integrated Cropping Calendar Information System (ICCIS) as a mechanism for adapting to climate variability. The ICCIS contains recommendations on planting time, cropping pattern, planting area, varieties, fertilizers, agricultural machinery, potential livestock feed, and crop damage due to climate extremes for rice, maize, and soybean. To accelerate the dissemination of information, the ICCIS is presented in an integrated web-based information system. The ICCIS is disseminated to extension workers and farmers by Task Force of the Assessment Institute for Agricultural Technology (AIAT) located in each province. Based on the survey results, it is known that the ICCIS adoption rate is moderate to high. The AIAT must actively encourage and support the ICCIS Task Force team in each province. Concerning the technological recommendations, it is necessary to update the recommendations for varieties, fertilizer, and feed to be more compatible with local conditions. More accurate information and more intensive dissemination can enrich farmers’ knowledge, allowing for a better understanding of climate hazards and maintaining agricultural production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Tropical Crop Science and Agriculture Management)
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Article
Digital Platform Ecosystems as Living Labs for Sustainable Entrepreneurship and Innovation: A Conceptual Model Proposal
Sustainability 2021, 13(11), 6494; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su13116494 - 07 Jun 2021
Viewed by 564
Abstract
The main idea of the paper is to combine modern research methods (as living labs that enable research in a real-life setting) with the new technological opportunities for entrepreneurship and innovation development (as digital platforms) to search for innovative solutions, while addressing the [...] Read more.
The main idea of the paper is to combine modern research methods (as living labs that enable research in a real-life setting) with the new technological opportunities for entrepreneurship and innovation development (as digital platforms) to search for innovative solutions, while addressing the sustainable development problems. Thus, the paper aims to explain how real value for society is created within digital platform ecosystems and how they employ to this end novel solutions that better address existing social problems. Consequently, it proposes a conceptual framework to research and develop sustainable entrepreneurship and innovation with the use of digital platforms. This research study takes a synthesizing conceptual approach that seeks to integrate the existing knowledge drawn on two major streams of research: living labs as a methodology and digital platform ecosystems to enrich the theory of sustainable entrepreneurship and innovation development. The paper contributes to the body of knowledge by proposing a novel conceptual model of digital platform ecosystems as living labs for sustainable entrepreneurship and innovation. The model depicts digital platform ecosystems examined as living labs and the implicit processes that include platform users in problem-solving and value-creation in real-life settings. The novelty of the model stems from framing these processes that capture the relationship between individuals and opportunities as the foundations of entrepreneurship and the relationship between the problem space and the solution space, where the opportunities occur. Full article
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Article
Statistical Analysis of Field-Based Stormwater Filtration Performance for the Ecosol Litter Basket
Sustainability 2021, 13(11), 6493; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su13116493 - 07 Jun 2021
Viewed by 505
Abstract
Increasing specificity in water quality regulations for the discharge of stormwater to the environment has increased the requirement to more accurately characterize the performance of filtration interventions. This work presents a statistical performance analysis for the Ecosol Litter Basket, an at source [...] Read more.
Increasing specificity in water quality regulations for the discharge of stormwater to the environment has increased the requirement to more accurately characterize the performance of filtration interventions. This work presents a statistical performance analysis for the Ecosol Litter Basket, an at source filtration device, based on an extensive field study. The field evaluation of the Ecosol Litter Basket, a primary stormwater filtration device, was performed over a three-year period in an urban catchment in Queensland, Australia. A total of 29 rainfall events were recorded, of which between 13 to 16 events were evaluated as qualifying for the purposes of characterizing the removal efficiency. A variety of pollutant removal evaluation metrics, including concentration-based and total load-based metrics, were utilized in this study to characterize the efficacy of the device for removing a range of pollutants. Two approaches are proposed to facilitate the analysis: a nonlinear regression approach to more effectively deal with nonlinear patterns in the influent and effluent data; and the regression of concentrations (ROC), which is an additional concentration-based metric. A statistical analysis of the results demonstrated that the differences between influent and effluent streams for TSS are significantly different in their mean and median, and the removal efficiency of the Ecosol Litter Basket was evaluated to be 57–65% for TSS with the influent event mean concentration (EMC) up to 142 mg/L. Full article
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Article
Dwelling Is a Key Idea in Traditional Residential Architecture’s Sustainability: A Case Study at Yangwan Village in Suzhou, China
Sustainability 2021, 13(11), 6492; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su13116492 - 07 Jun 2021
Viewed by 387
Abstract
Previous studies have failed to grasp the essence of traditional building habits responding to natural challenges. Therefore, contradictions arise between unified regulations protecting traditional residential architecture proposed by experts and the diverse construction transformation performed by locals. To resolve these contradictions, fieldwork was [...] Read more.
Previous studies have failed to grasp the essence of traditional building habits responding to natural challenges. Therefore, contradictions arise between unified regulations protecting traditional residential architecture proposed by experts and the diverse construction transformation performed by locals. To resolve these contradictions, fieldwork was conducted in Yangwan, a famous village in South China. The traditional residential architectural characteristics in three periods were obtained and compared. Peirce’s interpretation of the three natures of habit and Heidegger’s dwelling help determine the essence of building habits. The logic in traditional residential architecture is analysed through the “four-layer integrated into one” framework (including the natural environment, livelihood form, institution and ideology), yielding the following results. (1) The characteristics of the residential architectural form change with local livelihood form, institution and ideology. Nevertheless, the process by which local residents think, judge and respond to natural challenges remains unchanged (Thirdness of Habit), forming the core of dwelling. (2) The characteristics of the architectural form are determined by the causal chain of “four-layer integrated into one”. Stable causal chains are formed by the Thirdness of Habit, which represents people’s initiative in addressing natural challenges. Therefore, the protection of traditional residential architecture should centre on dwelling and people’s agency in response to the natural environment rather than on maintaining a unified physical form. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Habit, Cultural Landscape and Sustainability)
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Article
Issues Surrounding Behavior towards Discarded Textiles and Garments in Ljubljana
Sustainability 2021, 13(11), 6491; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su13116491 - 07 Jun 2021
Viewed by 492
Abstract
In recent years, post-consumer textile waste has become an important issue that attracts attention from activists, scientists and the media. The production and use of clothing has more than doubled in the last fifteen years due to declining costs, streamlined operations and rising [...] Read more.
In recent years, post-consumer textile waste has become an important issue that attracts attention from activists, scientists and the media. The production and use of clothing has more than doubled in the last fifteen years due to declining costs, streamlined operations and rising consumption under the influence of fast fashion. According to research, the average European buys as much as 26 kg of textiles each year and discards 11 kg, while a very small share of post-consumer textile waste is recycled. This article presents the findings of a study on household textile waste in the capital of Ljubljana. The research showed that despite the significant declarative environmental awareness of people for sustainable behavior in the field of textile waste, the share of those decreases with exposure to actual behavior. However, there are few people who are completely uninterested in reducing textile waste, as most people are aware of the problem and pay more and more attention to it. The authors study the management of textile waste and its creation by the inhabitants of Ljubljana in the broader context of the influences of fast fashion, as well as the cultural specifics of the Slovenian society. Full article
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Article
Performance Analysis of the Perhydro-Dibenzyl-Toluene Dehydrogenation System—A Simulation Study
Sustainability 2021, 13(11), 6490; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su13116490 - 07 Jun 2021
Viewed by 540
Abstract
The depletion of conventional energy resources has drawn the world’s attention towards the use of alternate energy resources, which are not only efficient but sustainable as well. For this purpose, hydrogen is considered the fuel of the future. Liquid organic hydrogen carriers (LOHCs) [...] Read more.
The depletion of conventional energy resources has drawn the world’s attention towards the use of alternate energy resources, which are not only efficient but sustainable as well. For this purpose, hydrogen is considered the fuel of the future. Liquid organic hydrogen carriers (LOHCs) have proved themselves as a potential option for the release and storage of hydrogen. The present study is aimed to analyze the performance of the perhydro-dibenzyl-toluene (PDBT) dehydrogenation system, for the release of hydrogen, under various operational conditions, i.e., temperature range of 270–320 °C, pressure range of 1–3 bar, and various platinum/palladium-based catalysts. For the operational system, the optimum operating conditions selected are 320 °C and 2 bar, and 2 wt. % Pt/Al2O3 as a suitable catalyst. The configuration is analyzed based on exergy analysis i.e., % exergy efficiency, and exergy destruction rate (kW), and two optimization strategies are developed using principles of process integration. Based on exergy analysis, strategy # 2, where the product’s heat is utilized to preheat the feed, and utilities consumption is minimized, is selected as the most suitable option for the dehydrogenation system. The process is simulated and optimized using Aspen HYSYS® V10. Full article
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Article
Active and Reactive Power Collaborative Optimization for Active Distribution Networks Considering Bi-Directional V2G Behavior
Sustainability 2021, 13(11), 6489; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su13116489 - 07 Jun 2021
Viewed by 446
Abstract
Due to their great potential for energy conservation and emission reduction, electric vehicles (EVs) have attracted the attention of governments around the world and become more popular. However, the high penetration rate of EVs has brought great challenges to the operation of the [...] Read more.
Due to their great potential for energy conservation and emission reduction, electric vehicles (EVs) have attracted the attention of governments around the world and become more popular. However, the high penetration rate of EVs has brought great challenges to the operation of the Active Distribution Network (ADN). On the other hand, EVs will be equipped with more intelligent chargers in the future, which supports the EVs’ high flexibility in both active and reactive power control. In this paper, a distributed optimization model of ADN is proposed by employing the collaborative active and reactive power control capability of EVs. Firstly, the preference of EV users is taken into account and the charging mode of EVs is divided into three categories: rated power charging, non-discharging, and flexible charging–discharging. Then, the reactive power compensation capacity of the plugged-in EV is deduced based on the circuit topology of the intelligent charger and the active–reactive power control model of the EV is established subsequently. Secondly, considering the operation constraints of ADN and the charging–discharging constraints of EVs over the operation planning horizon, the optimization objective of the model is proposed, which consists of two parts: “minimizing energy cost” and “improving voltage profile”. Finally, a distributed solution method is proposed based on the Alternating Direction Method of Multipliers (ADMM). The proposed model is implemented on a 33-bus ADN. The obtained results demonstrate that it is beneficial to achieve lower energy cost and increase the voltage profile of the ADN. In addition, the energy demand of EV batteries in their plugin intervals is met, and the demand preference of EV users is guaranteed. Full article
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Review
Neuroimaging Techniques in Advertising Research: Main Applications, Development, and Brain Regions and Processes
Sustainability 2021, 13(11), 6488; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su13116488 - 07 Jun 2021
Viewed by 531
Abstract
Despite the advancement in neuroimaging tools, studies about using neuroimaging tools to study the impact of advertising on brain regions and processes are scant and remain unclear in academic literature. In this article, we have followed a literature review methodology and a bibliometric [...] Read more.
Despite the advancement in neuroimaging tools, studies about using neuroimaging tools to study the impact of advertising on brain regions and processes are scant and remain unclear in academic literature. In this article, we have followed a literature review methodology and a bibliometric analysis to select empirical and review papers that employed neuroimaging tools in advertising campaigns and to understand the global research trends in the neuromarketing domain. We extracted and analyzed sixty-three articles from the Web of Science database to answer our study questions. We found four common neuroimaging techniques employed in advertising research. We also found that the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex play a vital role in decision-making processes. The OFC is linked to positive valence, and the lateral OFC and left dorsal anterior insula related in negative valence. In addition, the thalamus and primary visual area associated with the bottom-up attention system, whereas the top-down attention system connected to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, parietal cortex, and primary visual areas. For memory, the hippocampus is responsible for generating and processing memories. We hope that this study provides valuable insights about the main brain regions and processes of interest for advertising. Full article
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Article
Assessment of the Results and Methodology of the Sustainable Development Index for Spanish Cities
Sustainability 2021, 13(11), 6487; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su13116487 - 07 Jun 2021
Viewed by 468
Abstract
In 2017, the United Nations adopted a global Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) indicator framework, calling on member countries to collect complementary national and regional indicators. Cities are crucial to channelling efforts towards sustainability through the use of these indicators. They provide an integrated [...] Read more.
In 2017, the United Nations adopted a global Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) indicator framework, calling on member countries to collect complementary national and regional indicators. Cities are crucial to channelling efforts towards sustainability through the use of these indicators. They provide an integrated approach to the city situation monitoring sustainability. However, more research is needed to understand how to adapt the goals, targets and indicators to specific municipal contexts. In 2020, the Spanish Sustainable Development Solutions Network launched the 2nd edition of the Spanish Cities Index. A set of 106 indicators allows for monitoring the implementation of the SDGs at the local level for Spanish cities. The objective is to perform a statistical audit to evaluate the consistency of the indicators and the impact of modelling assumptions on the result. The methodology used is an adaptation of the Handbook on Constructing Composite Indicator prepared by the European Commission. The indicator system is well balanced and covers the essential areas of the Sustainable Development Goals. The Spanish ranking is robust enough among the alternatives evaluated. However, some improvements are possible in the selection of indicators, e.g., removing redundant indicators and regional data. Finally, it is recommended to weigh goals based on municipal responsibility to adjust the results to the Spanish municipal context. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pathways for Implementing the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG))
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Article
Smart and Resilient Urban Futures for Sustainability in the Post COVID-19 Era: A Review of Policy Responses on Urban Mobility
Sustainability 2021, 13(11), 6486; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su13116486 - 07 Jun 2021
Viewed by 800
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic has put lifestyles in question, changed daily routines, and limited citizen freedoms that seemed inalienable before. A human activity that has been greatly affected since the beginning of the health crisis is mobility. Focusing on mobility, we aim to discuss [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic has put lifestyles in question, changed daily routines, and limited citizen freedoms that seemed inalienable before. A human activity that has been greatly affected since the beginning of the health crisis is mobility. Focusing on mobility, we aim to discuss the transformational impact that the pandemic brought to this specific urban domain, especially with regards to the promotion of sustainability, the smart growth agenda, and the acceleration towards the smart city paradigm. We collect 60 initial policy responses related to urban mobility from cities around the world and analyze them based on the challenge they aim to address, the exact principles of smart growth and sustainable mobility that they encapsulate, as well as the level of ICT penetration. Our findings suggest that emerging strategies, although mainly temporary, are transformational, in line with the principles of smart growth and sustainable development. Most policy responses adopted during the first months of the pandemic, however, fail to leverage advancements made in the field of smart cities, and to adopt off-the-shelf solutions such as monitoring, alerting, and operations management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Urban and Rural Development)
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Article
The Importance of Sustainability in Diving Tourism—The Case of German Speaking Diving Tourists
Sustainability 2021, 13(11), 6485; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su13116485 - 07 Jun 2021
Viewed by 594
Abstract
Sustainability in sports tourism has increased in recent years. Sustainability is a particular focus for diving tourism. This paper analyses the meaning of sustainability to German speaking diving tourists to draw conclusions for the development of tourism strategies. Based on a literature review [...] Read more.
Sustainability in sports tourism has increased in recent years. Sustainability is a particular focus for diving tourism. This paper analyses the meaning of sustainability to German speaking diving tourists to draw conclusions for the development of tourism strategies. Based on a literature review on the importance of sustainability in diving tourism, an empirical study was designed to understand the importance of the topic within the target group. A total of 174 German-speaking diving tourists were surveyed using an online-questionnaire. The subjects were clustered regarding their sustainable behavior. It could be shown that there is a correlation between age as well as gender and sustainable behavior. A conjoint measurement showed that for diving tourists, ecological aspects are more important than the prize of a diving trip. The gained insights can contribute to establish new and more sustainable offers in diving tourism and thus developing this area of sports tourism more sustainably overall. Full article
Article
Mapping Environmental/Sustainable Governance Research in Chile: A Bibliometric and Network Analysis
Sustainability 2021, 13(11), 6484; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su13116484 - 07 Jun 2021
Viewed by 656
Abstract
In light of increasing concerns about the efficacy of environmental governance (EG) to address the global sustainability challenges of the Anthropocene era, more integrative, transversal, and far-reaching approaches, referred to here as sustainability governance (SG), are gaining ground both in governance praxis and [...] Read more.
In light of increasing concerns about the efficacy of environmental governance (EG) to address the global sustainability challenges of the Anthropocene era, more integrative, transversal, and far-reaching approaches, referred to here as sustainability governance (SG), are gaining ground both in governance praxis and in research. Empirical and methodological challenges emerge from this conceptual analytical cleavage between EG and SG. Through a combination of bibliometric and network analysis, the objective of this article is to explore the structure and trends in the field of EG/SG research in Chile, internationally regarded as the posterchild of Latin-American EG/SG, and derive empirical insights to feed the analytical distinction between EG and SG that informs global debates about ways forward towards an effective governance in the Anthropocene. Our results show that scientific research on EG/SG has experienced a significant increase since the 1990s. We find that while the topical range of the field is broad, including water governance, biodiversity conservation, environmental institutions, climate change and energy issues, and environmental conflicts and justice, key cross-cutting socio-economic and cultural dynamics underpinning the prevalent, yet fundamentally unsustainable, ways of life and economic model are virtually absent from the field, against their growing presence in diagnoses of “sustained unsustainability”. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Engineering and Science)
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Article
Insights on Water and Climate Change in the Greater Horn of Africa: Connecting Virtual Water and Water-Energy-Food-Biodiversity-Health Nexus
Sustainability 2021, 13(11), 6483; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su13116483 - 07 Jun 2021
Viewed by 766
Abstract
Water is the key limiting factor in socioeconomic and ecological development, but it is adversely affected by climate change. The novel virtual water (VW) concept and water, energy, food, biodiversity, and human health (WEFBH) nexus approach are powerful tools to assess the sustainability [...] Read more.
Water is the key limiting factor in socioeconomic and ecological development, but it is adversely affected by climate change. The novel virtual water (VW) concept and water, energy, food, biodiversity, and human health (WEFBH) nexus approach are powerful tools to assess the sustainability of a region through the lens of climate change. Climate change-related challenges and water are complex and intertwined. This paper analyzed the significant WEFBH sectors using the multicriteria decision-making (MCDM) and analytic hierarchy process (AHP) model. The AHP model demonstrated quantitative relationships among WEFBH nexus sustainability indicators in the Greater Horn of Africa countries. Besides, the net VW imports and water footprints of major staple crops were assessed. The composite WEFBH nexus indices varied from 0.10 to 0.14. The water footprint of crops is increasing period by period. The results also revealed that most countries in the study area are facing WEFBH domains unsustainability due to weak planning or improper management strategies. The strong policy constancy among the WEFBH sector is vital for dissociating the high-water consumption from crop production, energy, environmental, and human health system. Thus, this study enhances insights into the interdependencies, interconnectedness, and interactions of sectors thereby strengthening the coordination, complementarities, and synergies among them. To attain sustainable development, we urgently call all public and private entities to value the amount of VW used in their daily activities and design better policies on the complex WEFBH nexus and future climate change. Full article
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Article
Prognostic Assessment of the Performance Parameters for the Industrial Diesel Engines Operated with Microalgae Oil
Sustainability 2021, 13(11), 6482; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su13116482 - 07 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 417
Abstract
A study conducted on the high-speed diesel engine (bore/stroke: 79.5/95.5 mm; 66 kW) running with microalgae oil (MAO100) and diesel fuel (D100) showed that, based on Wibe parameters (m and φz), the difference in numerical values of combustion characteristics was [...] Read more.
A study conducted on the high-speed diesel engine (bore/stroke: 79.5/95.5 mm; 66 kW) running with microalgae oil (MAO100) and diesel fuel (D100) showed that, based on Wibe parameters (m and φz), the difference in numerical values of combustion characteristics was ~10% and, in turn, resulted in close energy efficiency indicators (ηi) for both fuels and the possibility to enhance the NOx-smoke opacity trade-off. A comparative analysis by mathematical modeling of energy and traction characteristics for the universal multi-purpose diesel engine CAT 3512B HB-SC (1200 kW, 1800 min−1) confirmed the earlier assumption: at the regimes of external speed characteristics, the difference in Pme and ηi for MAO100 and D100 did not exceeded 0.7–2.0% and 2–4%, respectively. With the refinement and development of the interim concept, the model led to the prognostic evaluation of the suitability of MAO100 as fuel for the FPT Industrial Cursor 13 engine (353 kW, 6-cylinders, common-rail) family. For the selected value of the indicated efficiency ηi = 0.48–0.49, two different combinations of φz and m parameters (φz = 60–70 degCA, m = 0.5 and φz = 60 degCA, m = 1) may be practically realized to achieve the desirable level of maximum combustion pressure Pmax = 130–150 bar (at α~2.0). When switching from diesel to MAO100, it is expected that the ηi will drop by 2–3%, however, an existing reserve in Pmax that comprises 5–7% will open up room for further optimization of energy efficiency and emission indicators. Full article
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Article
Sustainable Allocation Model of Construction Workforce for Work Resumption during COVID-19
Sustainability 2021, 13(11), 6481; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su13116481 - 07 Jun 2021
Viewed by 466
Abstract
COVID-19 has posed challenges for the construction industry, such as precise pandemic control, sustainable labor relations, and loss minimization. In response to these challenges, this study has developed a decision model that optimizes workforce allocation for projects to achieve sustainable workforce management, a [...] Read more.
COVID-19 has posed challenges for the construction industry, such as precise pandemic control, sustainable labor relations, and loss minimization. In response to these challenges, this study has developed a decision model that optimizes workforce allocation for projects to achieve sustainable workforce management, a tradeoff between pandemic prevention and work resumption. The priority of project resumption was evaluated using basic characteristics, the long- and short-term strategies, and the regional pandemic situation. The energy level of skilled workers was graded according to construction team size, skill level, and experience. Sustainable allocation principles and paths were explored to target four different types of work resumption plans. We used the cellular automaton (CA) technique to simulate the sustainable allocation model. We also analyzed the similarity function of energy levels and the time-cost function of allocation. The case study of the SGJ Construction demonstrates that this allocation model can accurately simulate work resumption and provide a sustainable allocation decisions and tools under pandemic. Also, it implies balanced interests and concerns between construction companies and the society for work resumption during COVID-19. Full article
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Article
Benthic Community Assessment of Commercial Oyster (Crassostrea virginica) Gear in Delaware Inland Bays
Sustainability 2021, 13(11), 6480; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su13116480 - 07 Jun 2021
Viewed by 440
Abstract
Oyster aquaculture is one of several methods for the restoration of Delaware Inland Bays; however, little is known about its potential impacts on the benthic community of the bays. In this study, water quality parameters were measured and polychaetes were collected from 24 [...] Read more.
Oyster aquaculture is one of several methods for the restoration of Delaware Inland Bays; however, little is known about its potential impacts on the benthic community of the bays. In this study, water quality parameters were measured and polychaetes were collected from 24 sampling locations at Rehoboth, Indian River, and Little Assawoman Bays from July to October 2016 and 2017. We aimed to assess the impact of Eastern oyster farming under different stocking densities (50 and 250 oysters/gear) and distances away from the sites where the off-bottom gears are implemented (under gears, one meter, and five meters away). No significant impact was detected on polychaetes’ abundance and richness in regard to the presence of oyster gears. The number of polychaetes and species richness was significantly higher in Little Assawoman Bay in comparison to the Indian River and Rehoboth Bays. Results showed that the Ulva lactuca bloom that happened in 2016 could negatively impact the low abundance and richness observed in the polychaetes community. Similarly, the values of polychaetes abundance and species richness did not change significantly in samples that were taken far from the oyster gears. Dominant polychaetes families were Capitellidae and Glyceridae contributing to more than 70% of polychaetes’ number of individuals. Our results help to understand the role of oyster aquaculture in restoring the viability in the natural habitat of the Delaware Inland Bays. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aquaculture and Environmental Impacts)
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Article
How State Interventions affect Municipalities Taking the Lead in Sustainability
Sustainability 2021, 13(11), 6479; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su13116479 - 07 Jun 2021
Viewed by 432
Abstract
The state and local governments throughout the United States interact within a complex system of multilevel governance to advance sustainability. However, we know little about what this hierarchical system of exchanges means for municipalities as they work to achieve energy efficient government operations. [...] Read more.
The state and local governments throughout the United States interact within a complex system of multilevel governance to advance sustainability. However, we know little about what this hierarchical system of exchanges means for municipalities as they work to achieve energy efficient government operations. Drawing on a perspective of “contested federalism”, we examine how the transaction costs of state–local government relations affect the efforts of U.S. cities to lead by example and promote sustainability within their internal processes. We apply a Bayesian item response theory approach to assess the effects of state-level fiscal and policy interventions on municipal commitments to energy efficiency programs within their internal operations. Our findings suggest that increased fiscal support for state energy programs enhances municipal commitments to government focused energy efficiency. We also find a positive connection between state energy efficiency standards and municipal efforts to enhance energy efficiency within their internal operations. The alignment of state resources and policy efforts with municipal actions can reduce commitment and agency costs that obstruct policy outcomes. The findings speak to the importance of multilevel governance exchanges in municipal efforts to become leaders in sustainability. Full article
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Abstract
Linking Conservation, Community Knowledge, and Adaptation to Extreme Climatic Events: A Case Study in Gorongosa National Park, Mozambique
Sustainability 2021, 13(11), 6478; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su13116478 - 07 Jun 2021
Viewed by 451
Abstract
This study is based on ethnographic research that analyzes how traditional knowledge and local beliefs on biodiversity conservation relates to the local ability to adapt and be resilient to climatic changes in two communities around Gorongosa National Park, Mozambique: Nhanfisse in the buffer [...] Read more.
This study is based on ethnographic research that analyzes how traditional knowledge and local beliefs on biodiversity conservation relates to the local ability to adapt and be resilient to climatic changes in two communities around Gorongosa National Park, Mozambique: Nhanfisse in the buffer zone and Muanandimae in the core area. A total of 78 semi-structured interviews with heads of households were conducted. We found that both communities carried out practices and held beliefs associated with conservation, such as protecting trees and animal species considered sacred or perceived as beneficial for human life in terms of water provision and agricultural production. In addition to traditional ceremonies that respond to extreme climatic events such as drought and flood, other adaptation strategies used by the communities include moving to neighboring areas in search of better living conditions and using forest products in times of scarcity. We discuss that the management of the park should be agreed on, in a shared way, between local communities and conservation agents to ensure that these areas continue to perform the ecological, subsistence, and spiritual functions required. Our research results contribute to a better understanding of local adaptation dynamics towards extreme climatic events and improvement of management strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Environmental Beliefs)
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