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Article

Insights on Water and Climate Change in the Greater Horn of Africa: Connecting Virtual Water and Water-Energy-Food-Biodiversity-Health Nexus

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Key Laboratory of Ecosystem Network Observation and Modeling, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
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University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
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Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012, China
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Department of Geodesy and Geoinformatics, Tashkent Institute of Irrigation and Agricultural Mechanization Engineers, Tashkent 100000, Uzbekistan
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State Key Laboratory of Resource and Environmental Information, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
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Key Laboratory for Resources Use and Environmental Remediation, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
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Key Laboratory of Agricultural Water Resources, Hebei Laboratory of Agricultural Water-Saving, Center for Agricultural Research, Institute of Genetics and Development Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shijiazhuang 050021, China
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Faculty of Environmental Sciences, Kigali Campus, University of Lay Adventists of Kigali (UNILAK), 6392 Kigali, Rwanda
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Franco Salerno
Sustainability 2021, 13(11), 6483; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su13116483
Received: 25 April 2021 / Revised: 30 May 2021 / Accepted: 3 June 2021 / Published: 7 June 2021
Water is the key limiting factor in socioeconomic and ecological development, but it is adversely affected by climate change. The novel virtual water (VW) concept and water, energy, food, biodiversity, and human health (WEFBH) nexus approach are powerful tools to assess the sustainability of a region through the lens of climate change. Climate change-related challenges and water are complex and intertwined. This paper analyzed the significant WEFBH sectors using the multicriteria decision-making (MCDM) and analytic hierarchy process (AHP) model. The AHP model demonstrated quantitative relationships among WEFBH nexus sustainability indicators in the Greater Horn of Africa countries. Besides, the net VW imports and water footprints of major staple crops were assessed. The composite WEFBH nexus indices varied from 0.10 to 0.14. The water footprint of crops is increasing period by period. The results also revealed that most countries in the study area are facing WEFBH domains unsustainability due to weak planning or improper management strategies. The strong policy constancy among the WEFBH sector is vital for dissociating the high-water consumption from crop production, energy, environmental, and human health system. Thus, this study enhances insights into the interdependencies, interconnectedness, and interactions of sectors thereby strengthening the coordination, complementarities, and synergies among them. To attain sustainable development, we urgently call all public and private entities to value the amount of VW used in their daily activities and design better policies on the complex WEFBH nexus and future climate change. View Full-Text
Keywords: analytic hierarchy process; biodiversity; climate change; Greater Horn of Africa; nexus analysis; sustainable development; virtual water analytic hierarchy process; biodiversity; climate change; Greater Horn of Africa; nexus analysis; sustainable development; virtual water
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hirwa, H.; Zhang, Q.; Qiao, Y.; Peng, Y.; Leng, P.; Tian, C.; Khasanov, S.; Li, F.; Kayiranga, A.; Muhirwa, F.; Itangishaka, A.C.; Habiyaremye, G.; Ngamije, J. Insights on Water and Climate Change in the Greater Horn of Africa: Connecting Virtual Water and Water-Energy-Food-Biodiversity-Health Nexus. Sustainability 2021, 13, 6483. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su13116483

AMA Style

Hirwa H, Zhang Q, Qiao Y, Peng Y, Leng P, Tian C, Khasanov S, Li F, Kayiranga A, Muhirwa F, Itangishaka AC, Habiyaremye G, Ngamije J. Insights on Water and Climate Change in the Greater Horn of Africa: Connecting Virtual Water and Water-Energy-Food-Biodiversity-Health Nexus. Sustainability. 2021; 13(11):6483. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su13116483

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hirwa, Hubert, Qiuying Zhang, Yunfeng Qiao, Yu Peng, Peifang Leng, Chao Tian, Sayidjakhon Khasanov, Fadong Li, Alphonse Kayiranga, Fabien Muhirwa, Auguste C. Itangishaka, Gabriel Habiyaremye, and Jean Ngamije. 2021. "Insights on Water and Climate Change in the Greater Horn of Africa: Connecting Virtual Water and Water-Energy-Food-Biodiversity-Health Nexus" Sustainability 13, no. 11: 6483. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su13116483

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