Next Article in Journal
A Virtuous Circle of Governance Contests with Externalities
Next Article in Special Issue
Field Monitoring the Effects of Overnight Shift Work on Specialist Tactical Police Training with Heart Rate Variability Analysis
Previous Article in Journal
The Role of B Companies in Tourism towards Recovery from the Crisis COVID-19 Inculcating Social Values and Responsible Entrepreneurship in Latin America
Previous Article in Special Issue
Cardiac Effects of a Rowing Training Program in Breast Cancer Survivors
Article

Slow-Paced Breathing: Influence of Inhalation/Exhalation Ratio and of Respiratory Pauses on Cardiac Vagal Activity

1
Department of Performance Psychology, Institute of Psychology, German Sport University Cologne, Cologne 50933, Germany
2
UFR STAPS, EA 4260 CESAMS, Normandie Université, 14000 Caen, France
3
Department of Health & Social Psychology, Institute of Psychology, German Sport University Cologne, 50933 Cologne, Germany
4
UFR Psychologie, EA3918 CERREV, Normandie Université, 14000 Caen, France
5
INSERM, Unité Mixte de Recherche (UMR) S1158 Neurophysiologie Respiratoire Expérimentale et Clinique, Sorbonne Université, 75000 Paris, France
6
UMR-S 1075 COMETE, Normandie Université, 14000 Caen, France
7
INSERM, UMR-S 1075 COMETE, 14000 Caen, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Santos Villafaina, Juan Pedro Fuentes García and Daniel Collado-Mateo
Sustainability 2021, 13(14), 7775; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su13147775
Received: 25 May 2021 / Revised: 2 July 2021 / Accepted: 9 July 2021 / Published: 12 July 2021
Slow-paced breathing has been shown to enhance the self-regulation abilities of athletes via its influence on cardiac vagal activity. However, the role of certain respiratory parameters (i.e., inhalation/exhalation ratio and presence of a respiratory pause between respiratory phases) still needs to be clarified. The aim of this experiment was to investigate the influence of these respiratory parameters on the effects of slow-paced breathing on cardiac vagal activity. A total of 64 athletes (27 female; Mage = 22, age range = 18–30 years old) participated in a within-subject experimental design. Participants performed six breathing conditions within one session, with a 5 min washout period between each condition. Each condition lasted 5 min, with 30 respiratory cycles, and each respiratory cycle lasted 10 s (six cycles per minute), with inhalation/exhalation ratios of 0.8, 1.0, 1.2; and with or without respiratory pauses (0.4 s) between respiratory phases. Results indicated that the root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD), a marker of cardiac vagal activity, was higher when exhalation was longer than inhalation. The presence of a brief (0.4 s) post-inhalation and post-exhalation respiratory pause did not further influence RMSSD. Athletes practicing slow-paced breathing are recommended to use an inhalation/exhalation ratio in which the exhalation phase is longer than the inhalation phase. View Full-Text
Keywords: cardiac vagal activity; slow-paced breathing; respiratory parameters; RMSSD cardiac vagal activity; slow-paced breathing; respiratory parameters; RMSSD
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Laborde, S.; Iskra, M.; Zammit, N.; Borges, U.; You, M.; Sevoz-Couche, C.; Dosseville, F. Slow-Paced Breathing: Influence of Inhalation/Exhalation Ratio and of Respiratory Pauses on Cardiac Vagal Activity. Sustainability 2021, 13, 7775. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su13147775

AMA Style

Laborde S, Iskra M, Zammit N, Borges U, You M, Sevoz-Couche C, Dosseville F. Slow-Paced Breathing: Influence of Inhalation/Exhalation Ratio and of Respiratory Pauses on Cardiac Vagal Activity. Sustainability. 2021; 13(14):7775. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su13147775

Chicago/Turabian Style

Laborde, Sylvain, Maša Iskra, Nina Zammit, Uirassu Borges, Min You, Caroline Sevoz-Couche, and Fabrice Dosseville. 2021. "Slow-Paced Breathing: Influence of Inhalation/Exhalation Ratio and of Respiratory Pauses on Cardiac Vagal Activity" Sustainability 13, no. 14: 7775. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su13147775

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop