Next Article in Journal
A di/dt Detection Circuit for DC Unidirectional Breaker Based on Inductor Transient Behaviour
Next Article in Special Issue
Determinants of Selection of R&D Cooperation Partners: Insights from Korea
Previous Article in Journal
State-of-the-Art Review on IoT Threats and Attacks: Taxonomy, Challenges and Solutions
Previous Article in Special Issue
Does Reduction of Contribution Rate Affect the Sustainability of China’s Basic Endowment Insurance Fund?—Based on the Background of National Pooling and Collection Responsibility Transformation
Article

Psychological Needs, Physiological Needs and Regional Comparison Effects

by and *
Department of Economic, Hainan University, Haikou 570228, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Domingo Ribeiro-Soriano and Andrea Rey-Martí
Sustainability 2021, 13(16), 9464; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su13169464
Received: 10 June 2021 / Revised: 18 August 2021 / Accepted: 19 August 2021 / Published: 23 August 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Entrepreneurship and Sustainable Firms and Economies)
This paper innovatively constructs a panel extended linear expenditure system (ELES) model including the theory of internal and external habit formation and analyzes the time effect of consumption habits and the regional differences of the comparison effects on rural residents in a variety of consumption expenditures from a temporal and spatial perspective. This research demonstrates the following. Firstly, overall, rural residents have least internal habits in terms of subsistence spending, followed by developmental spending and the most in enjoyment spending. Secondly, China’s rural residents consider the “actual use value” of commodities in “introverted” consumption expenditures; but in “export-oriented” consumption expenditures, besides the “actual use value” of the goods, they also seek to fulfill their “emotional demands”. Thirdly, there is the largest comparison effect on food and housing consumption expenditures for rural residents in coastal economic developed regions, and the smallest comparison effect on clothing, transportation, cultural and educational expenditures. It is the largest comparison effect on clothing and medical care expenditures for rural residents in underdeveloped regions of the central and western, and the smallest comparison effect on food and housing consumption expenditures. View Full-Text
Keywords: time effect; comparison effect; panel extended linear expenditure system (ELES) model time effect; comparison effect; panel extended linear expenditure system (ELES) model
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Wu, X.; Han, J. Psychological Needs, Physiological Needs and Regional Comparison Effects. Sustainability 2021, 13, 9464. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su13169464

AMA Style

Wu X, Han J. Psychological Needs, Physiological Needs and Regional Comparison Effects. Sustainability. 2021; 13(16):9464. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su13169464

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wu, Xuepin, and Jiru Han. 2021. "Psychological Needs, Physiological Needs and Regional Comparison Effects" Sustainability 13, no. 16: 9464. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su13169464

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop