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Sustainability, Volume 13, Issue 18 (September-2 2021) – 492 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): This study examines the impact of the 2020 COVID-19 lockdown on household food waste in New Zealand. The study assesses cooking and food planning behaviours during and before the lockdown. Of 3028 respondents, 62.7% claimed to ‘rarely or never’ waste food in normal times, which rose to ~80% during lockdown. Participants wasting less food during lockdown tended to be older, work less than full-time, have no children, and have higher levels of cooking confidence, time, and meal planning behaviours. Those struggling to pay for food were most likely to report wasting food during lockdown. We recommend implementing national waste reduction targets, standardised measures for recording waste, and better resourcing of waste reduction and cooking skills education to reduce household food waste. View this paper
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Article
Political and Historical Determinants of the Differentiation of Entrepreneurial Ecosystems of Agritourism in Poland and Kazakhstan
Sustainability 2021, 13(18), 10487; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su131810487 - 21 Sep 2021
Viewed by 603
Abstract
(1) Background: In the context of differences among countries developing pre-entrepreneurship ecosystems in relation to agritourism, the need to define the specific challenges and facilitators in the group of post-communist countries is recognised. Given that, we aim to examine the differences between the [...] Read more.
(1) Background: In the context of differences among countries developing pre-entrepreneurship ecosystems in relation to agritourism, the need to define the specific challenges and facilitators in the group of post-communist countries is recognised. Given that, we aim to examine the differences between the countries belonging to the former USSR and the satellite countries of the former USSR. (2) Methods: For the realisation of the intended objective, we analysed studies of the literature on the subject, in terms of the theoretical treatment of the entrepreneurial eco-system in the field of agritourism, and current legal acts. Our own observations from stays in the regions in question were also used, along with statistical methods concerning the density of the transport network, comparative analysis of historical and political conditions, and SWOT analysis. (3) Results: Substantial differences were found between the components of the agritourism entrepreneurship ecosystem in Poland and Kazakhstan, primarily related to the level of transport infrastructure density (satisfactory in West Pomeranian Voivodeship, insufficient in North Kazakhstan), tradition of individual farming (well established in Poland, poorly present in Kazakhstan), support for agritourism development by central and local authorities (relatively high in Poland, incidental and with a short history in Kazakhstan), and finally, differences in the target group of agritourism service recipients (stable in Poland, undefined in Kazakhstan). (4) Conclusions: The research leads to the conclusion of the heterogeneity of the determinants of the development of the agritourism entrepreneurship ecosystem in countries collectively defined as post-communist. There are clearly different challenges and facilitations resulting not so much from the past political system as from the ethnic-historical considerations, the position of agriculture in the economy, and the degree and effectiveness of the involvement of administrative authorities in the development of agritourism. The study leads to a recommendation on the need for more efficient targeting of agritourism consumers abroad. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Entrepreneurial Ecosystems in Tourism and Events)
Article
Co-Creation of Value and Customer Experience: An Application in Online Banking
Sustainability 2021, 13(18), 10486; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su131810486 - 21 Sep 2021
Viewed by 481
Abstract
The need for the banking sector to digitize its services to improve the efficiency of its processes has motivated a wave of research among academics and professionals. One of the most important themes emerging in e-service adoption research is the customer experience. The [...] Read more.
The need for the banking sector to digitize its services to improve the efficiency of its processes has motivated a wave of research among academics and professionals. One of the most important themes emerging in e-service adoption research is the customer experience. The customer experience has been explored from different angles, being explained from personal elements, interactions between peers, and in terms of the tools provided by companies to improve the experience. However, one of the key elements for improving the customer experience understood from the perspective of service-dominant logic is the co-creation of value. This research explores the personal elements that lead customers to co-create value and how this impacts the customer experience of digital banking channels. We present a cross-sectional quantitative investigation, carried out through a structured questionnaire applied to 406 financial consumers in Colombia. The results indicate that perceived brand knowledge, creativity, and connectivity are antecedents of value co-creation that have a direct effect on the customer experience. The value of the co-creation process allows banks to offer personalized products to their clients without making significant financial and time investments to understand what the client wants, thus improving customer experience with the brand. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Everyday ICT Consumption and Sustainability)
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Article
Activism and Social Media: Youth Participation and Communication
Sustainability 2021, 13(18), 10485; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su131810485 - 21 Sep 2021
Viewed by 537
Abstract
Background: Digitalization and hyperconnectivity generate spaces for youth participation in social activism through social media platforms. The purpose of this research was to analyze young people’s online experience in social activism movements, including their preferences, themes, usage of language, and perceived impact. Methods: [...] Read more.
Background: Digitalization and hyperconnectivity generate spaces for youth participation in social activism through social media platforms. The purpose of this research was to analyze young people’s online experience in social activism movements, including their preferences, themes, usage of language, and perceived impact. Methods: The research is framed within a qualitative interpretative–descriptive paradigm. Five focus groups were conducted, including 58 high school students from Malaga, Spain. Results: Several themes were identified through the coding process, including technological devices and social media preferences, participation in social movements or activism, perception of the degree of participation, the focus of interest, motivation for involvement, language use on social media, and beliefs. Conclusions: In a hyperconnected world, youth participation in social movements becomes more relevant. Their interest is reflected in the enormous potential that this social participation of young people has through networks and virtual platforms, becoming an informal communication model with characteristics to be an effective vehicle for social transformation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Psychology of Sustainability and Sustainable Development)
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Article
Impact of Green Stormwater Infrastructure Age and Type on Water Quality
Sustainability 2021, 13(18), 10484; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su131810484 - 21 Sep 2021
Viewed by 444
Abstract
Green stormwater infrastructure (GSI) has become increasingly common to mitigate urban stormwater runoff. However, there is limited research on the impact of age and type of GSI. This study evaluated nutrient and metals concentrations in the soil water of five different GSI systems [...] Read more.
Green stormwater infrastructure (GSI) has become increasingly common to mitigate urban stormwater runoff. However, there is limited research on the impact of age and type of GSI. This study evaluated nutrient and metals concentrations in the soil water of five different GSI systems located at the University of Portland in Portland, Oregon. The GSI systems included a bioretention curb extension (part of Portland’s Green Street project), a bioretention basin, a bioretention planter, an infiltration basin, and a bioswale ranging in age from 2 to 11 years. Samples were taken from each system during rain events over a 10-month period and analyzed for copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), phosphate (PO43−), and total phosphorus (TP). Copper and zinc concentrations were found to be impacted by GSI age, with lower concentrations in older systems. The same trend was not found with PO43− and TP, where almost all GSI systems had soil water concentrations much higher than average stormwater concentrations. Age likely played a role in phosphorus soil water concentrations, but other factors such as sources had a stronger influence. Phosphorus is likely coming from the compost in the soil mix in addition to other sources in runoff. This study shows that GSI systems can be effective for copper and zinc, but changes to the soil mix design are needed to reduce high levels of PO43− and TP in soil water. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Occurrence, Impact, and Removal of Nutrients in Stormwater)
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Article
Rural Winery Resiliency and Sustainability through the COVID-19 Pandemic
Sustainability 2021, 13(18), 10483; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su131810483 - 21 Sep 2021
Viewed by 633
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic has adversely affected the tourism industry worldwide, including the wine industry in the western U.S. due to mandated winery and tasting room closures, followed by restrictions on capacity and food- and drink-handling once wineries reopened. In California, tasting rooms were [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic has adversely affected the tourism industry worldwide, including the wine industry in the western U.S. due to mandated winery and tasting room closures, followed by restrictions on capacity and food- and drink-handling once wineries reopened. In California, tasting rooms were fully closed from mid-March to mid-May 2020 and could not have visitors indoors through to October 2020. Hence, this study examines the resiliency of wineries in minor California wine regions, including the challenges faced during the pandemic, strategies used to sustain their business, and the attributes of their operation which contributed to success. Data were collected through structured in-person interviews with five wineries in minor California wine regions, specifically Russian River Valley and Sierra Foothills. The four themes which emerged include: lifestyle business; market differentiation; direct marketing; and the effects of COVID-19. These wineries are primarily family-owned, which gives them the ability to control costs and make decisions rapidly. They did not have a large workforce or multiple layers of management, allowing them to pivot quickly to adjust to the regulatory environment. This study on rural winery resilience during the COVID-19 pandemic will assist rural tourism operations in dealing with social and economic shocks in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability and Rural Tourism)
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Commentary
Mental Health Challenges of Young Labor Migrants from the Healthcare Professionals Perspective: Lessons Learned from a Multi-Country Meeting
Sustainability 2021, 13(18), 10482; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su131810482 - 21 Sep 2021
Viewed by 519
Abstract
The mental health of young labor immigrants (YLI’s) is a public health issue that has become notably more apparent during the COVID-19 pandemic. It is well established in the literature that most YLI’s are young and healthy when they arrive in the host [...] Read more.
The mental health of young labor immigrants (YLI’s) is a public health issue that has become notably more apparent during the COVID-19 pandemic. It is well established in the literature that most YLI’s are young and healthy when they arrive in the host country. However, due to the poor living and working conditions, as well as linguistic and socioeconomic barriers to health care in the host country, their physical and mental health often deteriorates. Between 1 March 2021 and 5 March 2021, a virtual meeting was organized by Oslo Metropolitan University in collaboration with the Nordic Council of Ministers mobility and network program for education in the Nordic and Baltic countries (Nordplus). It consisted of a multidisciplinary team of 26 participants from Nordic and Baltic countries. Topics included working and living conditions of YLI’s, prejudices towards immigrants, and mental health-related interventions for YLI’s in the participating countries. This paper draws attention to some of the mental health challenges and needs of YLI’s and to the suggestions gathered from the Nordplus meeting to combat these challenges from a healthcare professional’s perspective. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Global Health and Sustainable Development)
Article
Gym-Goers Preference Analysis of Fitness Centers during the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Conjoint Analysis Approach for Business Sustainability
Sustainability 2021, 13(18), 10481; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su131810481 - 21 Sep 2021
Viewed by 724
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic has had a great impact on the fitness centers industry. The purpose of this study is to analyze the preference of gym-goers on fitness centers in the Philippines during the COVID-19 pandemic by utilizing a conjoint analysis approach. One thousand [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic has had a great impact on the fitness centers industry. The purpose of this study is to analyze the preference of gym-goers on fitness centers in the Philippines during the COVID-19 pandemic by utilizing a conjoint analysis approach. One thousand gym-goers voluntarily participated in this study and answered 22 queries created from the orthogonal design. The results indicated that Price was the highest attribute considered (21.59%), followed by Ventilation (17.56%), Service (16.59%), Trainer (14.63%), Payment Method (11.95%), Operating Hours (8.90%), and Login (8.70%). The results also indicated that comfort, security, and fitness center services were the main aspects that gym-goers would consider as their main preference. The study highlighted how gym-goers are sensitive to the price set by the fitness centers. Moreover, due to the COVID-19 pandemic, ventilation and size are considered highly important attributes among gym-goers. Comfort, safety, and security are the main consideration to have sustainable fitness centers during and even after the COVID-19 pandemic. The outcome of this study may benefit fitness centers and increase their business market by considering the preference of customers. Finally, the result of this study can be utilized by fitness centers to promote a generalized fitness center for gym-goers of different generations, statuses, and even socioeconomic status during and even after the COVID-19 pandemic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Industrial Engineering and Management)
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Article
Synergetic Co-Production of Beer Colouring Agent and Solid Fuel from Brewers’ Spent Grain in the Circular Economy Perspective
Sustainability 2021, 13(18), 10480; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su131810480 - 21 Sep 2021
Viewed by 387
Abstract
Brewers’ Spent Grain is a by-product of the brewing process, with potential applications for energy purposes. This paper presents the results of an investigation aiming at valorization of this residue by torrefaction, making product for two purposes: a solid fuel that could be [...] Read more.
Brewers’ Spent Grain is a by-product of the brewing process, with potential applications for energy purposes. This paper presents the results of an investigation aiming at valorization of this residue by torrefaction, making product for two purposes: a solid fuel that could be used for generation of heat for the brewery and a colouring agent that could replace colouring malt for the production of dark beers. Decreased consumption of malt for such purposes would have a positive influence on the sustainability of brewing. Torrefaction was performed at temperatures ranging between 180 °C and 300 °C, with a residence time between 20 and 60 min. For the most severe torrefaction conditions (300 °C, 60 min), the higher heating value of torrefied BSG reached 25 MJ/kg. However, the best beer colouring properties were achieved for mild torrefaction conditions, i.e., 180 °C for 60 min and 210 °C for 40 min, reaching European Brewery Convention colours of 145 and 159, respectively. From the solid fuel properties perspective, the improvements offered by torrefaction in such mild conditions were modest. Overall, the obtained results suggest some trade-off between the optimum colouring properties and optimum solid fuel properties that need to be considered when such dual-purpose torrefaction of BSG for brewery purposes is implemented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability: Recovery and Reuse of Brewing-Derived By-Products)
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Review
A Review on the Efficient Catalysts for Algae Transesterification to Biodiesel
Sustainability 2021, 13(18), 10479; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su131810479 - 21 Sep 2021
Viewed by 553
Abstract
The depletion of fossil fuel resources and increasing environmental pollution led to a trend for using alternative, clean, green, and sustainable fuel and energy resources. To attain this aim, using biomass as an alternative resource for diesel production has been a hotspot among [...] Read more.
The depletion of fossil fuel resources and increasing environmental pollution led to a trend for using alternative, clean, green, and sustainable fuel and energy resources. To attain this aim, using biomass as an alternative resource for diesel production has been a hotspot among researchers. Biodiesel has several advantages, such as being lower toxic and more renewable, and eco-friendlier than diesel from fossil fuel resources. Several edible and non-edible bio-sources were used for the production of biodiesel from the transesterification process. Algal oil as a non-edible source is considered an abundant, low cost and green substrate for biodiesel production. Various factors such as reaction conditions and the type of catalyst affect the biodiesel production process. Different catalytic systems such as basic and acidic homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts and biocatalysts were introduced for the process in the literature, and each proposed catalyst has its own advantages and disadvantages. For instance, in spite of the lower cost and better mass transfer of base and acid homogeneous catalysts, reaction system corrosion, non-reusability, and soap formation are serious challenges of these catalysts at an industrial scale. On the other hand, acid and base heterogenous catalysts overcame the issues of corrosion and recovery, but some matters such as mass transfer limitation, high cost, and weak performance in catalyzing both esterification of FFAs and transesterification of lipids must be taken into account. In addition, bio-catalysis as a high-cost process led to a purer product formation with less side reaction. Therefore, several significant factors should be considered for transesterification catalysts such as availability, cost, reusability, stability, mass transfer, and the possibility to manage both the transesterification of triglycerides and the esterification of FFAs, selecting a catalyst with predominant pros is viable. Here, a review of the biodiesel production from algal biomass focusing on the efficient catalyst of the process is presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Algae as Biomass for High Added Value Products)
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Article
Blockchain during COVID-19: The Technology to Help Society
Sustainability 2021, 13(18), 10478; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su131810478 - 21 Sep 2021
Viewed by 437
Abstract
At the end of 2019, a new coronavirus was reported in the form of unknown pneumonia: It was the beginning of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. It is crucial to develop the strategies to manage this new pandemic in order to improve their effectiveness, as [...] Read more.
At the end of 2019, a new coronavirus was reported in the form of unknown pneumonia: It was the beginning of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. It is crucial to develop the strategies to manage this new pandemic in order to improve their effectiveness, as opposed to the ones adopted in 2003 during the SARS pandemic. In 17 years, new digital technologies and tools have been created; therefore, we can take advantage of them in the social management of the pandemic. The aim of our paper is to evaluate how blockchain technology can be used and what advantages it brings in managing an emergency situation such as of the COVID-19 pandemic. In particular, the effects of the adoption of this technology will be assessed when applied both to the management of the information flow between health infrastructures, and to track monetary, technical, and medical supply donations to hospital structures. We therefore propose a high-level, decentralized architecture that assists in administrating large-scale information and stores the gathered data in a blockchain supervised by the authorities. The distrust suffered by institutions today, the fear experienced in the last year due to the pandemic, and the birth of a technology that allows for the creation of reliable networks, pose thoughtful challenges to be faced to recover trust and hope for the future again. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Blockchain Fostering Sustainability: Challenges and Perspectives)
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Case Report
Transmission Expansion Planning for the Optimization of Renewable Energy Integration in the Sulawesi Electricity System
Sustainability 2021, 13(18), 10477; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su131810477 - 21 Sep 2021
Viewed by 427
Abstract
In order to meet the growth in demand and the renewable energy integration target, the Sulawesi Electricity System (SES) should be expanded. Currently, the SES is divided into two systems, namely South and North Sulawesi. These two systems have different characteristics, such as [...] Read more.
In order to meet the growth in demand and the renewable energy integration target, the Sulawesi Electricity System (SES) should be expanded. Currently, the SES is divided into two systems, namely South and North Sulawesi. These two systems have different characteristics, such as the system size, reliability and operational cost. North Sulawesi is smaller, weaker and more expensive than the South System. In order to improve the system reliability, generation and transmission expansion planning should be executed simultaneously to meet the economical investment cost and satisfy the reliability standard. For this purpose, the necessity of a backbone system with a higher voltage level than the existing 150 kV system should be considered, including the interconnection option between the two existing systems in Sulawesi. A methodology based on economic and technical criteria was developed to determine the backbone voltage level. Two voltage level options were considered, namely 275 and 500 kV. Several criteria were considered in order to determine the backbone voltage level, including the economic voltage, the line-loading limit, N-1 contingency, short circuiting, transient stability, voltage stability and small signal stability. The backbone voltage candidates should fulfil all of the criteria. The simulation was conducted in base- and high-demand scenarios, considering the fluctuation of future economic growth. The load flow and the dynamic analysis were simulated in a DIgSILENT Power Factory environment. The results showed that the 275 kV backbone, which was built in 2022, would violate three criteria: the economic voltage, N-1 contingency and voltage stability. On the other hand, the 500 kV backbone voltage level fulfills all of the criteria. The result of this research was considered in the electricity planning documents in Sulawesi. From a technical and economical perspective, the 500 kV backbone was chosen for the SES. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Energy Sustainability)
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Article
The Conflict between Preserving a ‘Sacred Natural Site’ and Exploiting Nature for Commercial Gain: Evidence from Phiphidi Waterfall in South Africa
Sustainability 2021, 13(18), 10476; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su131810476 - 21 Sep 2021
Viewed by 450
Abstract
Over the years, the Phiphidi sacred natural site has been protected by traditional methods or cultural codes. However, over the past three decades, anthropogenic pressures have affected the site. This study aimed to investigate the historical uses of the Phiphidi sacred natural site [...] Read more.
Over the years, the Phiphidi sacred natural site has been protected by traditional methods or cultural codes. However, over the past three decades, anthropogenic pressures have affected the site. This study aimed to investigate the historical uses of the Phiphidi sacred natural site and contemporary anthropogenic threats to the area, and the implications on the sustainability of the area. The data supporting this study were collected between June 2018 and May 2021, during which (i) interviews, (ii) observations and (iii) documents were used as the main techniques of data collection. Non-probabilistic purposive (also known as judgemental) sampling was used to select respondents including the custodians of the Phiphidi sacred natural site, officials working at Phiphidi Waterfall, representatives of the Dzomo La Mupo committee and local communities. The data obtained from interviews were analysed using thematic content analysis. Field observations helped in validating the data that were collected through interviews. The study showed that although the sacred site was historically a ‘no go area’ and was used to connect with ancestors and perform rituals, contemporary anthropogenic threats affecting the Phiphidi sacred site include weak property right systems and tourism infrastructure development that has led to land-use conflicts that have been driven by vested interests. The contemporary practices not only undermine the Vhavenda culture but also have negative implications for the biodiversity of the area. In addition, the current practices undermine the founding principles of the 1996 Constitution of the Republic of South Africa; these embrace culture, religion and the country’s environmental laws. While passion to save the sacred sites by custodians and local communities is still alive, government support is weak and, as a result, there are fears that other sacred sites in the region may also be targeted for tourism purposes. Several suggestions are made that, if implemented, could help to protect the remaining sacred natural sites. Full article
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Article
Comprehensive Evaluation of the Provincial Sustainable Tourismization Level in China and Its Temporal and Spatial Differences
Sustainability 2021, 13(18), 10475; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su131810475 - 21 Sep 2021
Viewed by 485
Abstract
Sustainable tourismization is a favorable development mode and pathway for the promotion of the coordinated development of the economy, society, and ecology. Based on the connotations of tourismization, a comprehensive evaluation index system of sustainable tourismization was constructed. This system consists of three [...] Read more.
Sustainable tourismization is a favorable development mode and pathway for the promotion of the coordinated development of the economy, society, and ecology. Based on the connotations of tourismization, a comprehensive evaluation index system of sustainable tourismization was constructed. This system consists of three dimensions: consumption tourismization, spatial tourismization, and industrial tourismization. The level, spatial, and temporal distribution characteristics, and differences in sustainable tourismization among China’s provinces from 2009 to 2018 were measured and analyzed using the improved entropy method, the Theil index, a spatial autocorrelation analysis, and other methods. It was found that the level of provincial sustainable tourismization in China has steadily increased over time, with the eastern region taking the lead. The overall differences and inter-regional differences in terms of the provincial sustainable tourismization level have generally decreased year-by-year. The intraregional differences within the eastern region were found to be the largest, and the rate of contribution of inter-regional differences to overall differences was shown to decrease gradually, while the rate of contribution of intraregional differences within the western region increased gradually. A positive spatial correlation in the provincial sustainable tourismization level was identified, and the spatial agglomeration effect showed an increasing trend. The spatial dependence was mainly characterized by “high–high” (HH) agglomeration, showing a ladder difference of “higher in the east and lower in the west”. The results of this study were used to identify where emphasis should be placed in terms of policy and strategy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impacts and Sustainability of Tourism, Hospitality, and Events)
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Review
Flood Mitigation in Mediterranean Coastal Regions: Problems, Solutions, and Stakeholder Involvement
Sustainability 2021, 13(18), 10474; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su131810474 - 21 Sep 2021
Viewed by 586
Abstract
Flooding affects Mediterranean coastal areas, with negative impacts on regional populations and ecosystems. This paper reviews the causes and consequences of coastal flooding in European Mediterranean countries, common and advanced solutions implemented to mitigate flood risk, and the importance of stakeholder involvement in [...] Read more.
Flooding affects Mediterranean coastal areas, with negative impacts on regional populations and ecosystems. This paper reviews the causes and consequences of coastal flooding in European Mediterranean countries, common and advanced solutions implemented to mitigate flood risk, and the importance of stakeholder involvement in developing these solutions. Climate change, intensive urbanization, tourism, deforestation, wildfires, and erosion are the main causes of coastal flooding, leading to social and economic losses, degradation of ecosystems, and water and soil contamination due to saltwater intrusion. Various measures for mitigating urban coastal flooding have been implemented, including coastal barriers, infrastructural drainage systems, wetlands, and mobile dams. Development and implementation of such solutions should be performed in close collaboration with stakeholders, but their current engagement at the coordination and/or decision-making level does not allow full integration of local knowledge in flood mitigation projects. Various processes are used to engage stakeholders in coastal flood mitigation, but participatory approaches are required to integrate their perspectives into performance analysis of potential solutions. Such approaches would allow a balance to be reached between nature conservation, market forces, stakeholder needs, and decision-makers’ priorities, resulting in development of innovative and sustainable mitigation solutions to enhance urban resilience to coastal flooding. Full article
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Article
The Economy and Policy Incorporated Computing System for Social Energy and Power Consumption Analysis
Sustainability 2021, 13(18), 10473; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su131810473 - 21 Sep 2021
Viewed by 408
Abstract
Human activities, such as energy consumption and economic development, will significantly affect the natural environment, while changes in the natural environment will also affect the sustainability of human society. Studying the energy consumption changes of human society and forecasting medium and long-term electricity [...] Read more.
Human activities, such as energy consumption and economic development, will significantly affect the natural environment, while changes in the natural environment will also affect the sustainability of human society. Studying the energy consumption changes of human society and forecasting medium and long-term electricity demand will help realize the sustainable development of energy in future society. However, current medium- and long-term electricity consumption forecasts have insufficient data samples and the inability to consider policy impacts. Here, we develop an Economy and Policy Incorporated Computing System (EPICS), which can use artificial intelligence technology to extract the summaries of energy policy texts automatically and calculate the importance index of energy policy. It can also process economic data of different lengths to expand samples of medium- and long-term electricity consumption forecasting effectively. A forecasting method that considers policy factors and mixed-frequency economic data is introduced to estimate future social energy and power consumption. This method has shown good forecasting ability in 27 months. The effect of EPICS can be demonstrated by predicting the medium- and long-term electricity demand. Full article
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Article
Improved Preventive Maintenance Scheduling for a Photovoltaic Plant under Environmental Constraints
Sustainability 2021, 13(18), 10472; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su131810472 - 21 Sep 2021
Viewed by 415
Abstract
The supply of PV power that satisfies the needs of customers is heavily dependent on the reliability of the generating plants. However, irrespective of the robustness of the design of such physical industrial assets, they tend to depreciate with usage and/or age which, [...] Read more.
The supply of PV power that satisfies the needs of customers is heavily dependent on the reliability of the generating plants. However, irrespective of the robustness of the design of such physical industrial assets, they tend to depreciate with usage and/or age which, in turn, increases the allowance between the design and the operational capabilities. Therefore, to ameliorate the reliability of the system, a combination of selective and preventive maintenance actions were planned by determining the best combination (optimal preventive maintenance intervals, optimal replaced components). In this work, we developed an optimal preventive maintenance strategy with minimal repair using the iterative numerical technique for a PV plant, with and without considering the influence of environmental conditions on the system. An algorithm was developed on MATLAB to determine the optimal number of preventive maintenance actions that yields the maximum availability by selecting the components to be maintained based on the reliability threshold, without considering the environmental impact on the components. The environmental elements’ criticality was introduced, and the reliability reiterated based on the new technique. Finally, by maximizing the availability of the system, an optimal preventive maintenance for a finite horizon was established. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability in Operations Management)
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Article
Revitalization of Food in Sweden—A Closer Look at the REKO Network
Sustainability 2021, 13(18), 10471; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su131810471 - 21 Sep 2021
Viewed by 376
Abstract
Can parts of the future food system include bi-weekly opportunities to purchase uneven stocks of produce at semi-remote locations? Current development in the Swedish food system suggests so. In the last few years, the Swedish Alternative Food Network ‘REKO’ has grown at an [...] Read more.
Can parts of the future food system include bi-weekly opportunities to purchase uneven stocks of produce at semi-remote locations? Current development in the Swedish food system suggests so. In the last few years, the Swedish Alternative Food Network ‘REKO’ has grown at an explosive pace. This anthropological article describes and discusses the organizational structure and motivations of the network, as well as discusses it from a revitalization perspective. From a netnographical and policy analysis perspective it is shown how the network uses social media and policy to convey a low bureaucracy, end to end, commercial space for local food—understood as a more “simple” way to achieve direct relationships in the food supply chain and thus create opportunities for local food networks. By adopting a view of the conventions and values of this Alternative Food Network as representing a parallel system aiming at facilitating direct relationships between ends in the food supply chain, the REKO initiative can be understood as a feasible model for a more satisfactory culture without needing to replace the mainstream food supply. The findings of the research deepen the understanding of REKO in Sweden by pointing towards how it can be understood as a sign of change of consumer preference and of prioritization of official policy concerns. The article also points towards how grass root movements can replicate success rapidly using policy documents capturing experiences and best practices spread online through social media. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Traditional Knowledge, Revitalization, and Sustainability)
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Article
Fabrication of Catalytic Converter with Different Materials and Comparison with Existing Materials in Addition to Analysis of Turbine Installed at the Exhaust of 4 Stroke SI Engine
Sustainability 2021, 13(18), 10470; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su131810470 - 21 Sep 2021
Viewed by 336
Abstract
Harmful pollutants (CO, NO, and unburnt hydrocarbons) coming out from the exhaust manifold of an engine must be converted into harmless gases by using catalytic converter. This field has seen vast research for increasing the conversion efficiency of pollutants by using different cheap [...] Read more.
Harmful pollutants (CO, NO, and unburnt hydrocarbons) coming out from the exhaust manifold of an engine must be converted into harmless gases by using catalytic converter. This field has seen vast research for increasing the conversion efficiency of pollutants by using different cheap metals. Nowadays, catalysts used in catalytic converter are noble metals, and they are also critical in the sense that they are not abundant on Earth. Platinum, palladium and rhodium are very expensive; hence, low-cost cars are not installed with catalytic converter, especially in third world countries. This research has been carried out to assess the catalytic activity of catalysts made from the salt/metal precursors, cerium sulphate tetra hydrate, manganese sulphate mono hydrate and copper sulphate penta hydrate that are not expensive and also less affected by the poison. Test sample catalysts were prepared through a coprecipitation method having different molar concentrations, and then tested for the conversion efficiency by applying the catalysts on ceramic plates by using flue gas analyzer. On the basis of the results, final catalysts were prepared and applied on a monolithic ceramic plate and then tested with regard to the resulting conversion rate of pollutants as compared to already installed catalytic converter. Moreover, turbine was installed in the exhaust passage to generate the power that would be utilized to run the electrical accessories of the engine. SOLIDWORKS were used for 3D CAD modeling and the flow analysis of turbine with radial inlet-axial outlet. In addition, ANSYS was used for stress-strain analysis. Full article
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Review
Challenges of a Healthy Built Environment: Air Pollution in Construction Industry
Sustainability 2021, 13(18), 10469; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su131810469 - 21 Sep 2021
Viewed by 390
Abstract
Air pollution is a global concern, especially in cities and urban areas, and has many implications for human health and for the environment. In common with other industrial sectors, the construction industry emits air pollutants. In scientific literature, the contribution the construction industry [...] Read more.
Air pollution is a global concern, especially in cities and urban areas, and has many implications for human health and for the environment. In common with other industrial sectors, the construction industry emits air pollutants. In scientific literature, the contribution the construction industry makes to air pollution is underexposed. This systematic literature review (SLR) paper gives an overview of the current literature regarding air pollution within the construction industry. Air pollution is discussed focusing mainly on three levels: (i) buildings and their building life cycle stages, (ii) construction processes and components, and (iii) building material and interior. The final sample of the SLR comprises 161 scientific articles addressing different aspects of the construction industry. The results show that most articles address the use stage of a building. Particulate matter in different sizes is the most frequently examined air pollutant within the SLR. Moreover, about a third of the articles refer to indoor air pollution, which shows the relevance of the topic. The construction industry can help to develop a healthier built environment and support the achievement of cleaner air within various life cycle stages, e.g., with optimized construction processes and healthier materials. International agreements and policies such as the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) can support the sustainable development of the construction industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Air Pollution Control and Sustainable Development)
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Review
Adoption of Climate Smart Agriculture by Communal Livestock Farmers in South Africa
Sustainability 2021, 13(18), 10468; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su131810468 - 21 Sep 2021
Viewed by 638
Abstract
The importance of adopting modern technology in agriculture, especially in a changing climate, cannot be underestimated in Africa. The aim of this review was to highlight the past and the status quo with regard to the adoption of current farming practices in relation [...] Read more.
The importance of adopting modern technology in agriculture, especially in a changing climate, cannot be underestimated in Africa. The aim of this review was to highlight the past and the status quo with regard to the adoption of current farming practices in relation to climate-smart agriculture (CSA) by communal livestock farmers in South Africa. The impact of animal agriculture on climate change was also deliberated. Different internet search engines and databases, like Google Scholar, EBSCO Host, Science Direct, etc., and peer-reviewed articles, books, and government and academic reports were employed to provide information to adequately address the aim. Keywords like “the impact of climate smart agriculture on communal livestock farmers”, “communal livestock in South Africa”, “communal farming and technology adoption”, etc. were used for the search. Various issues pertaining to the impact of animal agriculture on climate change, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and implementing CSA in livestock farming were extensively discussed. The findings indicated that there is limited research on the adoption of CSA by communal livestock farmers in South Africa. The review concluded that strategies to adopt modern technology in communal areas should address the issues to enhance knowledge of farmers and all stakeholders, through increasing awareness, trainings, and skills programs. The government should build local capacity in innovative and affordable water and agricultural solutions, and reliable financial mechanisms should be in place to implement innovative sound technologies in communal areas. Full article
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Article
Digital Twins for the Circular Economy
Sustainability 2021, 13(18), 10467; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su131810467 - 20 Sep 2021
Viewed by 583
Abstract
Accurate information plays an important role for the circulation of materials and products. It influences the economically and ecologically successful execution of processes such as reconditioning and the corresponding supply chain management. Digitization concepts, such as digital twins, enable the relevant information to [...] Read more.
Accurate information plays an important role for the circulation of materials and products. It influences the economically and ecologically successful execution of processes such as reconditioning and the corresponding supply chain management. Digitization concepts, such as digital twins, enable the relevant information to be made available to the right actor at the right time in a decentralized manner. It is assumed that digital twins will play an important role in the future and can contribute, among other things, to the successful implementation of circular economy strategies. However, there is no uniform definition of the term digital twin yet and the exploration and use of digital twins in the context of circular economy products and supply chains is still in its infancy. This article presents potential contributions of digital twins to the circularity of products and the management of circular supply chains. To this end, the derivation and validation of a definition for the term digital twin is described. A stakeholder analysis with a special focus on the processes of the individual stakeholders results in an overview of potentials and information requirements of circular supply chains for a digital twin. The paper concludes that circular supply chains can benefit from digital twins, but that there is still a need for research and development, particularly regarding product and use case-specific implementations of the concept. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Circular Economy in the Digital Age)
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Article
A Conceptual Framework for Greener Goldmining through Environmental Management Accounting Practices (EMAPs): The Case of Zimbabwe
Sustainability 2021, 13(18), 10466; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su131810466 - 20 Sep 2021
Viewed by 518
Abstract
Goldmining contributes substantially to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of the Zimbabwean economy through revenue generated from exports, however it also incurred numerous challenges to the environment. Amongst others, these challenges embody ecological degradation; water and air pollution; and depletion of natural resources. [...] Read more.
Goldmining contributes substantially to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of the Zimbabwean economy through revenue generated from exports, however it also incurred numerous challenges to the environment. Amongst others, these challenges embody ecological degradation; water and air pollution; and depletion of natural resources. In this paper, we establish the effects of mining operations on the environment through a comprehensive literature review, and how the integration of environmental management accounting practices (EMAPs) such as material flow cost accounting (MFCA), life cycle costing (LCC), and activity-based costing (ABC) could be integrated into a conceptual framework to address environmental challenges. EMAPs were chosen as they generate both physical and monetary data, which could promote transparency in material usage within the goldmining sector. Our analyses revealed a substantial body of literature on separate and individual EMAPs, yet very little was found on the integration of EMAPs. The main contribution of this work is the development of an integrated conceptual EMAPs framework on the strength of sets of qualitative propositions, aimed at promoting green goldmining for Zimbabwe as a developing economy. Future work would involve the validation of the framework among key stakeholders in the Zimbabwean goldmining industry. Full article
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Article
Taiwan’s Offshore Wind Energy Policy: From Policy Dilemma to Sustainable Development
Sustainability 2021, 13(18), 10465; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su131810465 - 20 Sep 2021
Viewed by 457
Abstract
Taiwan’s offshore wind energy policy (OWE policy) is a response to sustainable development goals. Offshore wind energy has become one of the fastest growing renewable energies on Taiwan’s coastline, with the government’s full support for the promotion and implementation of the OWE policy. [...] Read more.
Taiwan’s offshore wind energy policy (OWE policy) is a response to sustainable development goals. Offshore wind energy has become one of the fastest growing renewable energies on Taiwan’s coastline, with the government’s full support for the promotion and implementation of the OWE policy. With the operation of Taiwan’s first wind farm in 2021, increasing controversies are specifically concerned with the distribution of social, economic, and environmental burdens and benefits resulting from the OWE policy. More offshore wind farms are forthcoming by 2025. However, little attention has been paid to policy dilemmas for many aspects relevant to sustainable development. Therefore, this paper conducts a policy analysis to construct policy-relevant information of the OWE policy and identifies policy dilemmas in relation to concerns about sustainable development. This paper presents policy recommendations on the design and decision-making processes for facilitating the smooth promotion and implementation of Taiwan’s OWE policy and future renewable energy policies. Full article
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Article
Determinant Factors for Adoption of Government as a Platform in South Korea: Mediating Effects on the Perception of Intelligent Information Technology
Sustainability 2021, 13(18), 10464; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su131810464 - 20 Sep 2021
Viewed by 521
Abstract
This study aims to shed light on determinant factors for the introduction of Government as a Platform (GaaP) by public officers who can be platform providers or main stakeholders in GaaP. It focuses on public officers in 261 Korean public agencies. In order [...] Read more.
This study aims to shed light on determinant factors for the introduction of Government as a Platform (GaaP) by public officers who can be platform providers or main stakeholders in GaaP. It focuses on public officers in 261 Korean public agencies. In order to verify the research model’s hypotheses, we take advantage of Structural Equation Modeling and the Technology Acceptance Model. As a first result, concerning the direct effect on GaaP, the quality of open data, the scope of the stakeholders, and attitudes to civic engagement have a positive relationship on the perceived usefulness of Intelligent Information Technology (IIT). Second, in terms of the effect of IIT on GaaP, the perceived usefulness of IIT mediates positively on the intention to adopt GaaP based on the quality of open data, the scope of the stakeholders, and attitudes towards civic engagement. Based on these results, policy implications can be described as follows. Besides managing internal open data, governments should actively mine new open data that can create added value for innovation. They need to create an easily cooperative environment with other stakeholders, especially non-public participants, and governments should encourage public officers to more actively accept and utilize IIT in their jobs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Digital Governance and Digital Economy: Are We There Yet?)
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Article
A Novel Emergency Evacuation Model of Subway Station Passengers Considering Personality Traits
Sustainability 2021, 13(18), 10463; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su131810463 - 20 Sep 2021
Viewed by 470
Abstract
Subway station emergencies have caused serious casualties in recent years, so the aim of this research was to develop and establish an evacuation model that considers the OCEAN personality psychological traits to improve the credibility of the emergency pedestrian evacuation simulation. Firstly, the [...] Read more.
Subway station emergencies have caused serious casualties in recent years, so the aim of this research was to develop and establish an evacuation model that considers the OCEAN personality psychological traits to improve the credibility of the emergency pedestrian evacuation simulation. Firstly, the relationship between the personality and psychological stress was established based on the reconstruction of a passenger’s personality traits. Secondly, the relationship between the expected speed and a passenger’s personality traits was modified based on the social force model. Finally, the simulation was carried out using the Anylogic software. The results show that as the value of the personality increases, the evacuation time of personalities ψA and ψC gradually increases, but the opposite effect is observed for personalities ψN and ψE. Similarly, as the value of personality traits increases, the speed of personalities ψA and ψC gradually decreases, but the opposite effect is observed for personalities ψN and ψE. Only during peak periods, as the value of personality traits increases, the density of the connecting area of passengers with personality traits ψA and ψC gradually increases; on the contrary, that of passengers with personality traits ψN and ψE gradually decreases. The conclusion of this study is that different personality traits have different effects on evacuation behavior, which enriches the model of pedestrian evacuation further. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Public Transportation and Accident Prevention)
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Article
Organizing Sport for Climate Related Adaptations: Lessons from the Water and Forestry Industries
Sustainability 2021, 13(18), 10462; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su131810462 - 20 Sep 2021
Viewed by 456
Abstract
Sporting societies around the world are being impacted by a variety of contemporary climatic challenges. The sport management literature indicates that these impacts have disrupted sport. Some adaptations have been implemented, but a comprehensive planning framework is absent from the literature. Learning from [...] Read more.
Sporting societies around the world are being impacted by a variety of contemporary climatic challenges. The sport management literature indicates that these impacts have disrupted sport. Some adaptations have been implemented, but a comprehensive planning framework is absent from the literature. Learning from other industries, thus, was considered, and an examination of the literature from the water and forestry industries was conducted. The examination resulted in the discovery of six key themes offering insights or practical lessons to guide sport organizations in their efforts to organize for adapting to climatic impacts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sport Ecology)
Article
Performance Evaluation of a Field-Scale Anaerobic Baffled Reactor as an Economic and Sustainable Solution for Domestic Wastewater Treatment
Sustainability 2021, 13(18), 10461; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su131810461 - 20 Sep 2021
Viewed by 408
Abstract
The present study explored the efficiency of a four-chambered anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR) as a cost-effective and sustainable method of organic pollutant and pathogen removal from domestic wastewater, under a range of environmental conditions. An ABR with a circular additional filter at the [...] Read more.
The present study explored the efficiency of a four-chambered anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR) as a cost-effective and sustainable method of organic pollutant and pathogen removal from domestic wastewater, under a range of environmental conditions. An ABR with a circular additional filter at the outlet pipe was constructed to treat wastewater from a residential colony of 108 households with an average inflow of 110 m3/day and a nominal hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 20 h. Analysis of the chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen, sulfate and phosphate load, and total coliform removal for 2 years of operation, 2015 and 2017, showed a COD of 46%, sulfate load of 28%, phosphate load of 51% and total nitrogen of 28% for 2015, compared to a COD of 48%, sulfate load of 44%, phosphate load of 58% and total nitrogen of 31% for 2017. The lack of a significant effect of sludge removal suggested a stable process. The overall efficiency of the ABR increased in the summer, including for pathogen removal, which was significantly higher during the summer months of both years. Overall, the ABR was found to be able to consistently treat primary wastewater, although tertiary effluent treatment was still required before water reuse or final discharge. Full article
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Article
The Foundational Economy as a Cornerstone for a Social–Ecological Transformation
Sustainability 2021, 13(18), 10460; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su131810460 - 20 Sep 2021
Viewed by 745
Abstract
This theoretical paper synthesises research on the foundational economy and its contribution to a social–ecological transformation. While foundational thinking offers rich concepts and policies to transition towards such transformation, it fails to grasp the systematic non-sustainability of capitalism. This weakness can be overcome [...] Read more.
This theoretical paper synthesises research on the foundational economy and its contribution to a social–ecological transformation. While foundational thinking offers rich concepts and policies to transition towards such transformation, it fails to grasp the systematic non-sustainability of capitalism. This weakness can be overcome by enriching contemporary foundational thinking with feminist and ecological economics. Whereas the feminist critique problematises foundational thinking’s focus on paid labour, the ecological critique targets Sen’s capability approach as a key inspiration of foundational thinking, arguing that a theory of human needs is better suited to conceptualise wellbeing within planetary boundaries. Based on this, we outline a novel schema of economic zones and discuss their differentiated contributions to the satisfaction of human needs. By privileging need satisfaction, such broadened foundational thinking demotes the tradable sector and rentier economy, thereby revaluating unpaid work as well as respecting ecological imperatives. This empowers new articulations of social and ecological struggles to improve living conditions in the short run, while having the potential in the long run to undermine capitalism from within. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Economic and Business Aspects of Sustainability)
Article
The Optimization of Canola Crop Production through Wheat Residue Management within a Western Canadian Context—A Case Study of Saint-Front, Saskatchewan
Sustainability 2021, 13(18), 10459; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su131810459 - 20 Sep 2021
Viewed by 335
Abstract
In this study, the processes of wheat residue degradation in combination with various tillage treatments were explored to determine the ideal management prescription for maximizing canola crop production. A field experiment within a western Canadian context (near Saint-Front, Saskatchewan), consisting of a 2 [...] Read more.
In this study, the processes of wheat residue degradation in combination with various tillage treatments were explored to determine the ideal management prescription for maximizing canola crop production. A field experiment within a western Canadian context (near Saint-Front, Saskatchewan), consisting of a 2 × 3 factorial design, was conducted to determine the fate of crop residue under different harvest and treatment scenarios. ATR-Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, FTIR spectromicroscopy, and synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence imaging (SR-XFI) were used to explore wheat residue degradation mechanisms. The results indicated maximum canola yields and residue degradation occurred in combination with a combine outfitted with an aftermarket chopper and post-harvest treatment by harrow. Crop residue degradation was attributed to cellulose/linen hydrolysis and supramolecular structure changes from high crystalline to amorphous cellulose. Multi-element loss usually accompanied crop residue degradation. An important aspect of this study is the adoption of field-scale analysis to accurately portray real-world sustainable management techniques within a western Canadian context. The findings provided an optimal combination of crop residue treatment and tillage treatment to increase canola production, which had the potential ability to be applied in other countries. It is also an initial attempt to develop a technical composite of FTIR spectromicroscopy and SR-XFI for examining the mechanism of residue decomposition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Ecological Environment Restoration)
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Article
Spatial Pattern Simulation of Land Use Based on FLUS Model under Ecological Protection: A Case Study of Hengyang City
Sustainability 2021, 13(18), 10458; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su131810458 - 20 Sep 2021
Viewed by 374
Abstract
With rapid economic development in China, the excessive expansion of cities has led to the imbalance of land use structure, and then the ecological regulation function of the land ecosystem experiences problems, which has become an obstacle to sustainable development. Therefore, in order [...] Read more.
With rapid economic development in China, the excessive expansion of cities has led to the imbalance of land use structure, and then the ecological regulation function of the land ecosystem experiences problems, which has become an obstacle to sustainable development. Therefore, in order to protect the ecological environment, regulate urban development and pursue the maximization of ecological benefits, it is necessary to analyze, simulate and predict land use change. In this study, Hengyang City was taken as the study area, and based on the current land use data of Hengyang City in 2010, 2015, and 2018, the land use type transfer during 2010–2015 and 2015–2018 was analyzed. Then, starting from 2010, the FLUS model was used to simulate the spatial distribution of land use in 2015 and 2018, and then the spatial distribution of land use in Hengyang City in 2025 was predicted with the Markov prediction method under the premise of ecological protection priority. The results show that the change in ecological land in Hengyang City is mainly distributed in the surrounding and marginal areas, because the topography of Hengyang City is a basin. Changes in land type in Hengyang City in 2015 were subtle and difficult to observe. However, in 2018, the transformation of non-ecological land into ecological land was obvious, and the distribution area of ecological land expanded significantly. The Kappa index of the results simulated by the FLUS model based on neural network is above 0.72, and overall accuracy is above 0.9, which is highly consistent with the actual situation. It is reasonable and convincing to predict the spatial distribution of land use in the context of ecological protection. The predicted results can be useful for urban planning and land use distribution and provide a reference for relevant decision-makers. Full article
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