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Sustainability, Volume 13, Issue 19 (October-1 2021) – 640 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): This work exposes two ways for integrating the Water–Energy–Food (WEF) Nexus into the Climate-Resilient Water Safety Plan methodology, using Leh Town, India, as a case study, first by including a critical infrastructure analysis of the WEF sectors in the system description, and second by proposing scenarios for risk management that exploit WEF synergies through water reclamation with resource recovery using constructed wetlands. The results showed potential risk reduction in groundwater contamination and opportunities for local production of reclaimed water, fertilizer, and crop production. The proposed approach can serve as a base to develop mechanisms for city planning that contribute to the shift from a sectoral to a trans-sectoral, resilient approach for enhanced WEF security. View this paper
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Article
The Role of Opinion Leaders in the Sustainable Development of Corporate-Led Consumer Advice Networks: Evidence from a Chinese Travel Content Community
Sustainability 2021, 13(19), 11128; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su131911128 - 08 Oct 2021
Viewed by 374
Abstract
Online community marketing and social media influencer marketing have aroused the interest of many researchers and practitioners around the world. Companies building online content communities to implement community marketing and influencer marketing has become a new corporate strategy, especially in the tourism and [...] Read more.
Online community marketing and social media influencer marketing have aroused the interest of many researchers and practitioners around the world. Companies building online content communities to implement community marketing and influencer marketing has become a new corporate strategy, especially in the tourism and hotel industries in which experiential products are sold. However, based on the content community, maintaining the sustainable development of a consumer advice network composed of opinion leaders and consumers is a major challenge. This paper selects the travel content community of Qunar.com as the research object to study the role of opinion leaders in the sustainable development of corporate-led consumer advice networks (CANs). Empirical evidence based on network evolution data from 1356 “Hotel Sleep Testers” across 11 years shows that: (1) the creation and provision of information can obviously increase the probability of the relationship construction and increase the number of relationships, thus facilitating the formation of opinion leadership (OL); (2) active participation in interactions and withhigh-quality information brings greater effects; (3) the network structure variables, such as preferential attachment, structural equivalence, and similarity, can also better predict the probability of a potential relationship; and (4) reciprocity in consumer advice networks has no significant impact on the establishment of network relationships. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Marketing and Strategy)
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Article
Online Communication Tools in Teaching Foreign Languages for Education Sustainability
Sustainability 2021, 13(19), 11127; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su131911127 - 08 Oct 2021
Viewed by 307
Abstract
Higher education curricula are developed based on creating conditions for implementing many professional and universal competencies. In Russia, one of the significant competencies for a modern specialist is business communication in oral and written forms in the Russian language and a foreign language. [...] Read more.
Higher education curricula are developed based on creating conditions for implementing many professional and universal competencies. In Russia, one of the significant competencies for a modern specialist is business communication in oral and written forms in the Russian language and a foreign language. Therefore, teaching students to write in a foreign language is one of the modern requirements for young specialists’ professional training. This article aimed to study the tools of online communication that are used in teaching foreign languages. The article presents the results of an empirical study and analysis of factors of application of online communication technologies in foreign languages teaching, synchronous and asynchronous means used in online learning, and the advantages of integrating online communication tools into the educational process of teaching a foreign language. The study of the advantages and disadvantages of educational platforms is based on an analysis of information and online communication technologies used in the educational process. Based on the example of teaching a foreign language, the article shows how online communication platforms are involved in the educational process. Furthermore, the teachers’ and students’ opinions are presented on how online platforms are convenient. The survey involved 928 first-year students and 76 foreign language teachers of Volgograd State University (Volgograd), Linguistics University of Nizhny Novgorod (Nizhny Novgorod), Tomsk Polytechnic University (Tomsk), Ural Federal University, named after the first President of Russia B.N. Yeltsin (Ekaterinburg). It was revealed that the integration of online communication tools has positive effects on the formation and development of written communication skills. Full article
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Article
Sustainable Design of a Multi-Echelon Closed Loop Supply Chain under Uncertainty for Durable Products
Sustainability 2021, 13(19), 11126; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su131911126 - 08 Oct 2021
Viewed by 517
Abstract
The increased awareness of environmental sustainability has led to increasing attention to closed loop supply chains (CLSC). The main objective of the CLSC is to capture values from end-of-life (EOL) products in a way that ensures a business to be economically and environmentally [...] Read more.
The increased awareness of environmental sustainability has led to increasing attention to closed loop supply chains (CLSC). The main objective of the CLSC is to capture values from end-of-life (EOL) products in a way that ensures a business to be economically and environmentally sustainable. The challenge is the complexity that occurrs due to closing the loop. At the same time, considering stochastic variables will increase the realism of the obtained results as well as the complexity of the model. This study aims to design a CLSC for durable products using a multistage stochastic model in mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) while considering uncertainty in demand, return rate, and return quality. Demand was described by a normal distribution whereas return rate and return quality were represented by a set of discrete possible outcomes with a specific probability. The objective function was to maximize the profit in a multi-period and multi-echelon CLSC. The multistage stochastic model was tested on a real case study at an air-conditioning company. The computational results identified which facilities should be opened in the reversed loop to optimize profit. The results showed that the CLSC resulted in a reduction in purchasing costs by 52%, an annual savings of 831,150 USD, and extra annual revenue of 5459 USD from selling raw material at a material market. However, the transportation cost increased by an additional annual cost of 6457 USD, and the various recovery processes costs were annually about 152,897 USD. By running the model for nine years, the breakeven point will be after three years of establishing the CLSC and after the annual profit increases by 1.92%. In conclusion, the results of this research provide valuable analysis that may support decision-makers in supply chain planning regarding the feasibility of converting the forward chain to closed loop supply chain for durable products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analysis on Real-Estate Marketing and Sustainable Civil Engineering)
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Review
A Review on Sustainability of Watershed Management in Indonesia
Sustainability 2021, 13(19), 11125; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su131911125 - 08 Oct 2021
Viewed by 435
Abstract
This paper provides an overview of the implementation and obstacles of watershed management, and the alternative solutions based on a synoptic review of related studies and experiences across Indonesia. The review found that problems in the institutional aspect were hierarchical confusion, discrepancy, and [...] Read more.
This paper provides an overview of the implementation and obstacles of watershed management, and the alternative solutions based on a synoptic review of related studies and experiences across Indonesia. The review found that problems in the institutional aspect were hierarchical confusion, discrepancy, and asynchrony among regulations, and weak (participation, synchronization, and coordination) among watershed management stakeholders. The weaknesses in the planning stage are integration among sectors, a lack of community participation, and limited readiness to integrate watershed planning into regional planning. Stakeholders’ involvement is also a critical factor in successful implementation of degraded watershed rehabilitation, including in peatland and mangrove areas. Failure should be minimized by providing adequate information on degraded watershed characteristics, appropriate species choices, and effective mechanical construction for soil and water conservation. Community participation as the main factor in driving watershed management should be achieved by strengthening public awareness of the importance of a sustainable watershed and providing access for the community to be involved in each stage of watershed management. Another problem is data gaps which are essential to address from the planning to evaluation stages. The gaps can be bridged by using remotely sensed data and by applying hydrological-based simulation models. Simplified criteria for watershed assessment may also be required, depending on site-specific issues and the watershed scale. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Management Optimization)
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Article
Can Corporate Social Responsibility Decrease the Negative Influence of Financial Distress on Accounting Quality?
Sustainability 2021, 13(19), 11124; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su131911124 - 08 Oct 2021
Viewed by 364
Abstract
This study aimed to test how corporate social responsibility (CSR) can affect the impact of corporate financial distress on earnings management. Based on the existing literature, distressed firms tend to hide their financial crises through earnings manipulation. However, as CSR can positively affect [...] Read more.
This study aimed to test how corporate social responsibility (CSR) can affect the impact of corporate financial distress on earnings management. Based on the existing literature, distressed firms tend to hide their financial crises through earnings manipulation. However, as CSR can positively affect companies in terms of performance, risk reduction, and market response, the better a firm’s CSR is the less managers will attempt earnings management even if they experience temporary distress. Consistent with the literature, test results using Korean-listed companies show that distress increased earnings management, and we confirmed that CSR weakened the positive effect of distress on earnings management. After testing each of the CSR subcategories, significant results were found mainly on environmental performance, reflecting the globally increasing interest in environmental issues. This study contributes to the literature on distress and earnings management, which rarely considers CSR as a moderating factor. Full article
Review
Methodologies for the Sustainability Assessment of Agricultural Production Systems, with a Focus on Rice: A Review
Sustainability 2021, 13(19), 11123; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su131911123 - 08 Oct 2021
Viewed by 338
Abstract
The intensification of agricultural production is connected to the increased use of fertilizers, pesticides, irrigation water, and energy. Among all cropping systems, rice cultivation is considered to be one of the most significant sources of environmental harm due to the flooding conditions in [...] Read more.
The intensification of agricultural production is connected to the increased use of fertilizers, pesticides, irrigation water, and energy. Among all cropping systems, rice cultivation is considered to be one of the most significant sources of environmental harm due to the flooding conditions in which rice normally grows; at the same time, rice has important economic and social implications, especially in areas where it is a staple food. In the last 20 years, sustainable development of agricultural production has become a priority for scientific research and policy programs. Several studies proposed methodological frameworks to assess the impacts of different management practices adopted in agro-ecosystems and to identify strategies to mitigate the negative effects of agricultural intensification. Such methodologies are based on the use of particular indicators, which are increasingly seen as crucial tools in impact assessment studies and for decision making. This paper aims to review and analyze the most significant methodological frameworks developed to assess the sustainability of agricultural production systems, with a particular focus on rice cultivation. The analysis includes highlighting which dimensions of sustainability (economic, environmental, social, and governance) are covered by each method and identifying which indicators are used to describe the different dimensions. The spatial scale of the application of the indicators, their typology, the data needed for their implementation, and the criteria for formulating the overall sustainability judgment were then examined. The analysis highlighted the scarce availability of clear operational data for the calculation of the indicators and the often-limited involvement of stakeholders in the development and implementation of the methodologies. The exceptions to these limitations are represented by a few methodologies developed under the umbrella of important international organizations to promote sustainability and research efficiency in specific agricultural production systems, such as the SRP (sustainable rice platform) for rice. Finally, the analysis shows that there is a need to develop methodologies that are applicable not only to an individual farm or group of farms, but also at larger spatial scales (district, watershed, region), which are often those of greatest interest to decision makers. Full article
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Review
Carbon Farming: Prospects and Challenges
Sustainability 2021, 13(19), 11122; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su131911122 - 08 Oct 2021
Viewed by 313
Abstract
Carbon farming is a capable strategy for more sustainable production of food and other related products. It seeks to produce a diverse array of natural farming methods and marketable products simultaneously. According to the food and agriculture organization (FAO), agriculture, forestry, and other [...] Read more.
Carbon farming is a capable strategy for more sustainable production of food and other related products. It seeks to produce a diverse array of natural farming methods and marketable products simultaneously. According to the food and agriculture organization (FAO), agriculture, forestry, and other land-use practices account for 24% of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and total global livestock emissions of 7.1 gigatons of CO2-equivalent per year, representing 14.5% of total anthropogenic GHG emissions. For example, an agroforestry system that deliberately integrates trees and crops with livestock in agricultural production could potentially increase carbon sequestration and decrease GHG emissions from terrestrial ecosystems, thus helping to mitigate global climatic change. Also, agroforestry is capable of generating huge amounts of bio-mass and is believed to be particularly suitable for replenishing soil organic carbon (SOC). SOC is a crucial indicator for soil fertility since the change in SOC can explain whether the land use pattern degrades or improves soil fertility. Moreover, SOC found in soil in the form of soil organic matter (SOM) helps to improve soil health either directly or indirectly. Thus, efforts should be made to convince farmers to increase their resource-use efficiency and soil conserving ability to get maximum benefits from agriculture. Therefore, this review aimed at clarification about carbon farming, modifications in carbon cycle and carbon sequestration during agricultural development, and benefits of agroforestry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Biodiversity with Sustainability)
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Article
Mainstream Value Information Push Strategy on Chinese Aggregation News Platform: Evolution, Modelling and Analysis
Sustainability 2021, 13(19), 11121; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su131911121 - 08 Oct 2021
Viewed by 263
Abstract
At present, most news aggregation platforms use personalized recommendation technology to push information in China, which is likely to cause the phenomenon of information cocoons. In order to alleviate the occurrence of this phenomenon, this paper studies the issue of mainstream value information [...] Read more.
At present, most news aggregation platforms use personalized recommendation technology to push information in China, which is likely to cause the phenomenon of information cocoons. In order to alleviate the occurrence of this phenomenon, this paper studies the issue of mainstream value information push from different perspectives, which can be used as a supplement for personalized recommendation technology to promote the diffusion of mainstream value information. First, we constructed an evolutionary game model to simulate the game process between news aggregation platforms and users. Through the results of evolutionary analysis, the news platform can be guided at a macro level to formulate mainstream value information push strategies by adjusting model parameters. Second, we conducted research on user behavior, and the results show that different user groups have different demands for mainstream value information. Third, we constructed two models from the perspective of user demands and platform revenue. Experiments show that user sensitivity to mainstream value information σ and platform evaluation factors val are important for finding the number of mainstream information pushes on each page. Finally, we investigated the effect of the mainstream value information from Toutiao. The survey results are consistent with the viewpoints presented in this paper. Full article
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Article
Remanufacturing in the Heavy Vehicle Industry—Case Study of a Finnish Machine Manufacturer
Sustainability 2021, 13(19), 11120; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su131911120 - 08 Oct 2021
Viewed by 334
Abstract
This study analyses remanufacturing operations of a Finnish heavy vehicle manufacturer with global operations. The company has remanufactured and refurbished certain components for a decade in a centralised remanufacturing and recycling centre in Finland, but it has encountered significant challenges, especially in reverse [...] Read more.
This study analyses remanufacturing operations of a Finnish heavy vehicle manufacturer with global operations. The company has remanufactured and refurbished certain components for a decade in a centralised remanufacturing and recycling centre in Finland, but it has encountered significant challenges, especially in reverse logistics. The company considers regional remanufacturing to decrease these disadvantages. The purpose of this study is to analyse the characteristics, challenges and benefits of regional remanufacturing by reviewing the relevant literature and analysing the empirical data, including a survey for international subsidiaries of the case company to determine regional needs. As a result, we have identified significant benefits, especially related to minimised logistics costs and better availability of the components, but also challenges, such as lack of resources, and insufficient economies of scale. Full article
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Article
“These Are the Very Small Things That Lead Us to That Goal”: Youth Climate Strike Organizers Talk about Activism Empowering and Taxing Experiences
Sustainability 2021, 13(19), 11119; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su131911119 - 08 Oct 2021
Viewed by 284
Abstract
Climate change is one of the most pressing issues we face, and the Fridays for Future wave of protests is unique both in its youth character and global reach. However, still not enough is known about how young activists experience their involvement and [...] Read more.
Climate change is one of the most pressing issues we face, and the Fridays for Future wave of protests is unique both in its youth character and global reach. However, still not enough is known about how young activists experience their involvement and how the experience of climate activism connects to their personal development and psychological well-being. To gain an enhanced understanding of this issue, we conducted a qualitative study based on eight in-depth interviews with individuals deeply involved in the Youth Climate Strike in Poland. We analyzed the interviews using a rigorous multi-stage thematic analysis. Results showed that the empowering aspects of activism were associated with a heightened sense of agency, a sense of belonging to a community, a sense of duty and ethical integrity, of finding one’s voice and learning new skills, and a sense of personal growth. Activists also indicated aggravating aspects of involvement, such as involving the struggle for balance between activism and other spheres of life, overwork, and conflicts within a peer group. In conclusion, in contrast to the pressing nature of the climate change conundrum, climate activism is often experienced by its young participants as a mostly empowering experience. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Youth Climate Activism and Sustainable Civic and Political Engagement)
Article
Knowledge Use in Education for Environmental Citizenship—Results of Four Case Studies in Europe (France, Hungary, Serbia, Turkey)
Sustainability 2021, 13(19), 11118; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su131911118 - 08 Oct 2021
Viewed by 368
Abstract
The aim of the paper is to contribute to the research on education for environmental citizenship in a comparative perspective. The central concept of education is the complex issue of knowledge. In the present paper, different knowledge forms, knowledge use, and types of [...] Read more.
The aim of the paper is to contribute to the research on education for environmental citizenship in a comparative perspective. The central concept of education is the complex issue of knowledge. In the present paper, different knowledge forms, knowledge use, and types of knowledge production in environmental education are analysed for two EU countries, France and Hungary, together with two candidate countries, Serbia and Turkey. We review the most important theories and publications, the research questions and the methods considered to be examples for our present work. The second part of the paper presents the case studies according to the theoretical priorities. Evidence-based papers on cases in different European countries illustrating and discussing the evaluation of the types of knowledge used in environmental education and sustainability projects, as well as analysing the power-related components of knowledge use are reviewed. In the final part, case studies are compared and conclusions are drawn. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Education for Environmental Citizenship)
Article
The Effects of On- and Before- Journey Advantages Using Ride-Sourcing in Indonesia
Sustainability 2021, 13(19), 11117; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su131911117 - 08 Oct 2021
Viewed by 332
Abstract
This paper explores the effects of on-journey (i.e., waiting and travel time reliability, driver quality), before-journey (i.e., service coverage, application quality, fare, etc.), and multi-tasking advantages when using ride-sourcing, the perceived usefulness of ride-sourcing and, in turn, the frequency of usage. Assuming a [...] Read more.
This paper explores the effects of on-journey (i.e., waiting and travel time reliability, driver quality), before-journey (i.e., service coverage, application quality, fare, etc.), and multi-tasking advantages when using ride-sourcing, the perceived usefulness of ride-sourcing and, in turn, the frequency of usage. Assuming a structural form without any reciprocal effects, the modified Structural Equation Model is used. This study collected data from 497 ride-sourcing users in Bandung city in 2018. As expected, ride-sourcing users who appreciate the usefulness of ride-sourcing services correlate with a higher frequency of use. This study found that situational variables or variables related to travel and built environment conditions (e.g., on-journey advantages, built environment, and travel characteristics) play a role in keeping travellers using the services. This study confirms that multi-tasking is not a reason for ride-sourcing users to use the services more often. Moreover, those who previously used motorcycles and car-based ride-sourcing (CBRS) are more loyal travellers than car, public transport users, and motorcycle-based-ride-sourcing (MBRS) users, respectively. Full article
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Article
Sustainability Assessment of Social and Economic Development of Municipalities in the Voronezh Region
Sustainability 2021, 13(19), 11116; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su131911116 - 08 Oct 2021
Viewed by 254
Abstract
In Russia, the issue of improving socio-economic sustainability of municipalities in the region through the assessment of its indicators are particularly relevant. The aim of this work is to assess the sustainability of socio-economic development of municipalities in the Voronezh region. The paper [...] Read more.
In Russia, the issue of improving socio-economic sustainability of municipalities in the region through the assessment of its indicators are particularly relevant. The aim of this work is to assess the sustainability of socio-economic development of municipalities in the Voronezh region. The paper uses a systematic approach for a comprehensive, structured and dynamic study of the state of socio-economic sustainability of municipalities in the region. This approach uses the methods of classification and comparative analysis. The authors propose a methodology for assessing the sustainability of socio-economic development of the region’s municipalities. The results of calculating the integral sustainability index indicate the presence of five groups of municipalities, characterized by a particular degree of socio-economic sustainability, ranging from high to crisis. The proposed methodology for assessing the sustainability of socio-economic development of municipalities allows us to highlight the problematic parameters of socio-economic development within the municipalities themselves and to identify the main strategic objectives on the way to a single strategic goal: improving the level and quality of life of the population. Regional policy measures to equalize the level of socio-economic development should be designed, taking into account the identified features of the territorial development of municipal districts. Full article
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Review
Generic Digital Equity Model in Education: Mobile-Assisted Personalized Learning (MAPL) through e-Modules
Sustainability 2021, 13(19), 11115; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su131911115 - 08 Oct 2021
Viewed by 267
Abstract
This study addresses the challenges most learners face in Third World and developing countries concerning education accessibility in an emergency. On the basis of the shortcomings found in a review of past studies, this scoping review introduces adapted model mobile-assisted personalized learning (MAPL), [...] Read more.
This study addresses the challenges most learners face in Third World and developing countries concerning education accessibility in an emergency. On the basis of the shortcomings found in a review of past studies, this scoping review introduces adapted model mobile-assisted personalized learning (MAPL), which focused on full distance learning using the personalized learning (PL) concept. This concept is rarely used in the classrooms of Third World and developing countries. MAPL is technology-integrated and customized PL but it does not depend on artificial intelligence. This model bridges the digital divide that hinders learners in accessing education by providing flexibility, regardless of weak internet reception or low bandwidth, among other hindrances, in Third World or developing countries. Learners in these countries inevitably opt for mobile devices as their preferred learning tool. MAPL is necessary and can aid underprivileged learners who are highly dependent on mobile devices. Rethinking and reforming current teaching practices are required. In this study, a pool of 60 articles from 2011 to 2021 was qualitatively synthesized. Among the articles, 29 focused on PL, 15 on mobile learning, and 16 on the potentials of MAPL. The findings indicate that MAPL could be a viable solution for achieving equity in education for every learner during full-fledged distance learning. Full article
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Article
Is It Possible for Young Students to Learn the AI-STEAM Application with Experiential Learning?
Sustainability 2021, 13(19), 11114; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su131911114 - 08 Oct 2021
Viewed by 259
Abstract
This study attempted to evaluate the learning effectiveness of using the MIT App Inventor platform and its Personal Image Classifier (PIC) tool in the interdisciplinary application. The instructional design was focused on applying PIC in the integration of STEAM (i.e., Science, Technology, Engineering, [...] Read more.
This study attempted to evaluate the learning effectiveness of using the MIT App Inventor platform and its Personal Image Classifier (PIC) tool in the interdisciplinary application. The instructional design was focused on applying PIC in the integration of STEAM (i.e., Science, Technology, Engineering, Art, and Mathematics) interdisciplinary learning, so as to provide sustainable and suitable teaching content based on the experiential learning theory for 7th grader students. Accordingly, the sustainable AI-STEAM course with the experiential learning framework has been implemented and verified, so as to confirm that the AI-STEAM course is not too difficult for young students. Many basic concepts involved in the AI-STEAM course, regarding programming logic, electromechanical concepts, interface design, and the application of image recognition, were measured in this study. The results showed that the students not only made significant progress in learning effectiveness, but also in particular made significant improvements in two parts: electromechanical concepts and image recognition knowledge. In the end, this study further provides some advice on the sustainable AI-STEAM course based on the survey of some important factors including active learning, and self-efficacy after confirming that it is not a barrier for the young students to learn the sustainable AI-STEAM course developed in this study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Educational Technology and E-learning)
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Article
Strengthening Accountability for Responsible Land Governance: Linking Governance of Tenure to Human Rights
Sustainability 2021, 13(19), 11113; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su131911113 - 08 Oct 2021
Viewed by 298
Abstract
While there is no universal right to land enshrined in existing human rights treaties, access to land is intrinsically linked to the achievement of human rights. For example, the right to food, adequate housing, property and equality and non-discrimination are of special concern [...] Read more.
While there is no universal right to land enshrined in existing human rights treaties, access to land is intrinsically linked to the achievement of human rights. For example, the right to food, adequate housing, property and equality and non-discrimination are of special concern for smallholder farmers, pastoralists, women, and other marginalized groups. In this regard, the Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries, and Forests in the context of national food security (VGGT) is considered a milestone document. They link binding human rights frameworks with universally agreed principles of responsible land governance. However, the implementation of the Guidelines is impeded by their voluntary nature and the absence of clear monitoring and accountability structures. The objective of this paper is to make a case for adopting human rights-based monitoring approaches that strengthen the implementation of the VGGT and, ultimately, responsible land governance. This policy analytical paper draws from a literature review, an analysis of secondary data gathered from National Human Rights Institutions working on land rights, as well as findings from two pilot case studies. The cases illustrate the need for a human rights-based land governance monitoring approach, relevant for policy-makers as well as land rights practitioners. Furthermore, this paper shows that there is currently no systemic approach that monitors the implementation of the VGGT from a human rights perspective. Therefore, the paper suggests that a human rights-based monitoring approach centered around established human rights monitoring and reporting mechanisms can provide a new, and urgently needed, impetus for implementing the VGGT. Linking VGGT implementation to human rights obligations by states can strengthen efforts towards responsible land governance reforms and contributes to holding governments accountable to their commitments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Improving Governance of Tenure: Progress in Policy and Practice)
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Article
Analysing Challenges and Strategies in Land Productivity in Sikkim Himalaya, India
Sustainability 2021, 13(19), 11112; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su131911112 - 08 Oct 2021
Viewed by 429
Abstract
Agriculture is the major source of livelihood in rural areas and is considered the backbone of the Indian economy. In Sikkim, agriculture is being practiced by 80% of the rural population, and having no other major livelihood options has created immense pressure on [...] Read more.
Agriculture is the major source of livelihood in rural areas and is considered the backbone of the Indian economy. In Sikkim, agriculture is being practiced by 80% of the rural population, and having no other major livelihood options has created immense pressure on the farmers and agricultural land. Agriculture sector is under great stress as the farmers are being confronted by various challenges in Sikkim Himalaya in recent years, such as land degradation, climate change and socio-economic problems. Despite the number of indigenous agriculture management methods being practised in Sikkim Himalaya, the agricultural production system is weakening. In this context, this paper presents an analysis of challenges faced by indigenous communities, local farmers and potential sustainable strategies for their management in Rani Khola watershed of Sikkim Himalaya. Data and information were collected by field observation, questionnaire surveys of 300 households, key informant interviews and focus group discussions conducted during 2017–18. Data processing and analysis were carried out with a combination of techniques, such as the application of remote sensing (RS), geographic information system (GIS)-based data processing and descriptive statistics. Major challenges identified in the watershed are water scarcity (80%), climate change (88%), soil erosion and runoff (72%), higher investment cost (100%), lack of irrigation facilities (77%), fragmentation and size of landholdings (100), human–wildlife conflict (59%) and pests and disease (60%). Some possibilities and innovations that could address these problems are the use and retaining of various indigenous soil and water conservation (SWC) measures, diversified farming systems, community involvement in the government development process, better irrigation facilities, strengthening the local economy, coordinated planning between stakeholders and development of market feedback mechanism within the system. Full article
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Article
Reprogramming Modernist Heritage: Enhancing Social Wellbeing by Value-Based Programming Approach in Architectural Design
Sustainability 2021, 13(19), 11111; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su131911111 - 08 Oct 2021
Viewed by 232
Abstract
This paper is built on the assumption that architecture is the establishment of the relationship between past and future, built and unbuilt, within the inherited and natural context and in direct connection with the overall culture. Unlike a traditional approach to heritage generally [...] Read more.
This paper is built on the assumption that architecture is the establishment of the relationship between past and future, built and unbuilt, within the inherited and natural context and in direct connection with the overall culture. Unlike a traditional approach to heritage generally limited to considering only the visible values of the place, this research stands on the belief that, in the context of heritage, the implementation and application of behavioral knowledge in architectural discourse contributes to the intensification and enhancement of these relations. In accordance with the need to re-examine existing and explore new forms of the relationship between future life of heritage and social wellbeing, the main goal of the research is to examine the possibility of improving this relationship through a value-based architectural programming methodological framework. This paper was conducted through: (1) theoretical framework that intertwines environment–behavior theories and architectural programming as the value-matrix methodology for the reuse of heritage; (2) exploring the established framework through design results gathered within the design-based studio on “heritage reprogramming” at the University of Belgrade—Faculty of Architecture with a particular focus on the modernist architectural heritage; and (3) discussing the overall principles through the multiscale and value-based approach. The evaluation of the results indicates the possibility of improving the social dimension of heritage protection and reuse, as well as the need to shift the focus from exclusively material and formal values of heritage to social and cultural aspects in accordance with the needs of contemporary society and culture. Results indicate that the multidimensional nature of architectural programming methodological approach in the context of modern heritage and, accordingly, the synergy of different programming values (environmental, human, social, systemic, temporal, economic, aesthetic) provides sustainable access to heritage and has the capacity to improve the social wellbeing of individual users but also of the wider community. Full article
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Article
Volunteers Recruitment, Retention, and Performance during the CSMON-LIFE (Citizen Science MONitoring) Project and 3 Years of Follow-Up
Sustainability 2021, 13(19), 11110; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su131911110 - 08 Oct 2021
Viewed by 320
Abstract
Volunteers’ contribution to research is growing, especially since the beginning of the 21st century. Given the constant increase of Citizen Science initiatives, recruiting strategies have to be planned properly. Retention is pivotal as well, especially when time is invested in volunteers’ training. However, [...] Read more.
Volunteers’ contribution to research is growing, especially since the beginning of the 21st century. Given the constant increase of Citizen Science initiatives, recruiting strategies have to be planned properly. Retention is pivotal as well, especially when time is invested in volunteers’ training. However, practically no follow-up data are available on retention after major Citizen Science initiatives. CSMON-LIFE (Citizen Science MONitoring) was a 42-month project (2014–2017) funded by the European Commission in the framework of the LIFE+ programme (LIFE13 ENV/IT/842). It aimed at increasing awareness on Citizen Science among citizens, researchers, and decision makers in Italy. During CSMON-LIFE, recruitment was based on extensive awareness raising actions on different media. In total, 5558 volunteers were engaged in different field activities during the project and its follow-up. They gathered a total of 30062 geo-referenced observations, each with an image of the reported organism. Their activities were organized in campaigns, each devoted to a different topic. This study aims at investigating volunteers’ performance and retention in the funded period of CSMON-LIFE (December 2014–November 2017) and in its after-LIFE follow-up period (December 2017–November 2020), for a total of 72 months. Full article
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Article
Dairy Buffalo Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) Affected by a Management Choice: The Production of Wheat Crop
Sustainability 2021, 13(19), 11108; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su131911108 - 08 Oct 2021
Viewed by 257
Abstract
Life cycle assessment (LCA) was performed in dairy buffalo farms representative of Southern Italian farming systems, similar due to several characteristics, with the exception of wheat production. This work evaluated the impacts derived from this management choice, comparing farms with wheat crop (WWC) [...] Read more.
Life cycle assessment (LCA) was performed in dairy buffalo farms representative of Southern Italian farming systems, similar due to several characteristics, with the exception of wheat production. This work evaluated the impacts derived from this management choice, comparing farms with wheat crop (WWC) or not (NWC). In agreement with the literature, economic allocation was chosen as a useful strategy to attribute equivalents to by-products, i.e., culled animals; the same criterion was also adopted to assign pollutants to wheat grain, limited to WWC farms. Environmental impacts in terms of Global Warming Potential (GWP, kg CO2 eq), Acidification Potential (AC, g SO2 eq), Eutrophication Potential (EU, g PO43-eq), Agricultural Land Occupation (ALO, m2y) and Water Depletion (WD, m3) were estimated. The production of wheat crop significantly affected (p < 0.05) the Agricultural Land Occupation (ALO) category as WWC farms need adequate land. WWC farms could allow a significant reduction in eutrophication (EU) compared to NWC farms (p < 0.05). Full article
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Article
Effect of Adding Emotion Recognition to Film Teaching—Impact of Emotion Feedback on Learning through Puzzle Films
Sustainability 2021, 13(19), 11107; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su131911107 - 08 Oct 2021
Viewed by 234
Abstract
In this study, the scientific puzzle film, “Story of the Comet”, is taken as a case to implement scientific teaching to guide students to find correct answers, through which it can train their learning and judging abilities. The students in the experimental group [...] Read more.
In this study, the scientific puzzle film, “Story of the Comet”, is taken as a case to implement scientific teaching to guide students to find correct answers, through which it can train their learning and judging abilities. The students in the experimental group received the scientific teaching guiding system of the puzzle film “Story of the Comet” with a facial emotion recognition system to recognize the emotional reaction of the subjects at the moment. According to their facial expressions of “disgust”, “sadness”, or “joy” appearing in the moment, the system presented differently captioned positive encouragement cards particularly designed for four different levels, for when the subjects answered the questions incorrectly at different levels and their emotions were detected at the same time. Furthermore, the positive encouragement cards encouraged the subjects to complete the puzzle film learning process. The subjects were students in the higher grades of Grade 5 and Grade 6 in elementary school. A total of 130 students participated in this experiment and were randomly divided into two groups. Both the control group (i.e., the group without emotion recognition) and the experiment group (i.e., the group with emotion recognition) received a before-watching test of learning effectiveness. After implementing the scientific teaching of the puzzle film “Story of the Comet”, both the control group and the experimental group also received an after-watching test of learning effectiveness. Finally, the subjects filled out a “learning satisfaction” questionnaire, “system availability” questionnaire, and “system satisfaction” questionnaire. The analysis of the results of the two groups’ tests and questionnaires: a comparative analysis of learning effectiveness indicates that there is a statistically significant difference between the choice answers of the two groups after the interactive teaching; for the experimental group, the average correct answers in the after-watching test was 5.86, which is 2.48 more than the before-watching test; that of the control group was 4.74, which is 1.47 more than the before -watching test. For comparative analysis of questionnaires for “learning satisfaction” and “system satisfaction”, the statistical data analysis indicates that the experimental group was more satisfied than the control group. Full article
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Article
Global Maximum Power Point Tracking of Solar Photovoltaic Strings under Partial Shading Conditions Using Cat Swarm Optimization Technique
Sustainability 2021, 13(19), 11106; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su131911106 - 08 Oct 2021
Viewed by 256
Abstract
The power versus voltage curves of solar photovoltaic panels form several peaks under fractional (partial) shading conditions. Traditional maximum output power tracking (MPPT) techniques fail to achieve global peak power at the output terminals. The proposed Cat Swarm Optimization (CSO) method intends to [...] Read more.
The power versus voltage curves of solar photovoltaic panels form several peaks under fractional (partial) shading conditions. Traditional maximum output power tracking (MPPT) techniques fail to achieve global peak power at the output terminals. The proposed Cat Swarm Optimization (CSO) method intends to apply MPPT techniques to extract the global maxima from the shaded photovoltaic systems. CSO is a robust and powerful metaheuristic swarm-based optimization technique that has received very positive feedback since its emergence. It has been used to solve a variety of optimization issues, and several variations have been developed. The CSO-based maximum power tracking technique can successfully tackle two major issues of the PV system during shading conditions, including random oscillations caused by conventional tracking techniques and power loss. The proposed techniques have been extensively used in comparison to conventional algorithms like the Perturb and the Observe (P and O) technique. The main objective is to achieve a tracking speed for extracting the Maximum Power Point (MPP) from the solar Photovoltaic (PV) system under fractional shading conditions by using CSO. Modeling of the solar photovoltaic array in the MATLAB/Simulink platform comprises a photovoltaic module, a switching converter (Boost Converter), and the load. The PSO and CSO techniques are applied to the PV module under different weather conditions. The PSO algorithm is compared to the CSO algorithm according to simulation results, revealing that the CSO algorithm can provide better accuracy and a faster tracking speed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alternate and Renewable Energy Options in Aviation and Aerospace)
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Article
Housing Cost Burdens and Parental Support for Young Renters in South Korea
Sustainability 2021, 13(19), 11105; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su131911105 - 08 Oct 2021
Viewed by 376
Abstract
In Korea, the housing issues faced by young renters negatively impact both their parents and themselves. This study aimed at exploring young renters’ situations whereby they receive financial support from their parents in order to pay current housing expenses, and their perception of [...] Read more.
In Korea, the housing issues faced by young renters negatively impact both their parents and themselves. This study aimed at exploring young renters’ situations whereby they receive financial support from their parents in order to pay current housing expenses, and their perception of housing cost burdens. Additionally, this study examined the influences on the reception of parental support and their perceived housing cost burdens. In February and March of 2021, an online questionnaire survey was conducted amongst young renters living independently from their parents and 385 responses from Jeonse renters and monthly renters with deposits in private rental housing units were analyzed. The major findings are as follows: (1) among the subjects, 43.4% had experienced receiving parental support in order to pay for housing expenses since their first instance of independent living, and 35.6% were still receiving parental support. (2) A discriminant model with a linear combination of the variables of age, income, residential location and rental deposit was found effective in predicting the receipt of parental support with 66.5% accuracy. (3) A linear combination of the variables of gender, rental deposit and monthly cash housing expenses was found to explain 5.8% of the total variance of perceived housing cost burdens. The results imply the necessity to expand the provision of public housing and housing subsidies to alleviate the financial burdens of young renters and their parents. Full article
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Article
Potential Application of Biochar Composite Derived from Rice Straw and Animal Bones to Improve Plant Growth
Sustainability 2021, 13(19), 11104; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su131911104 - 08 Oct 2021
Viewed by 224
Abstract
The current study is aimed at deriving biochar (BC) from rice straw (RS-BC) and waste bones (WB-BC), being wasted without adequate return at the expense of environmental degradation. The RS and WB feedstocks were pyrolyzed at 550 °C, and the potential of derived [...] Read more.
The current study is aimed at deriving biochar (BC) from rice straw (RS-BC) and waste bones (WB-BC), being wasted without adequate return at the expense of environmental degradation. The RS and WB feedstocks were pyrolyzed at 550 °C, and the potential of derived biochar as a slow nutrient releasing soil amendment was examined during the growth of ridge gourd. Proximate analysis of the prepared biochars showed significant improvement in ash content and fixed carbon as compared to their raw biomasses. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis of RS-BC and WB-BC displayed a diverse range of functional groups viz. derivatives of cellulose and hydroxylapatite (HA); macro and microporosity; multiple nutrients. Application of RS-BC and WB-BC in potted soil alone and as biochar composite (RS-BC+WB-BC) at 5, 10 and 15% (w/w) and chemical fertilizer (CF) resulted in a significant increase in soil pH, electrical conductivity (ECe), cation exchange capacity (CEC) and water holding capacity (WHC) in exchange for growth and yield of ridge gourd. However, there were insignificant differences in the growth of plants in response to RS-BC, WB-BC alone and CF with biochar composite at 15% amendment. For giving insignificantly different growth results than CF, the prepared biochar composite showed outstanding potential as an organic fertilizer applicable in agrarian soils to elevate soil properties and yield of agricultural commodities. Full article
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Article
Fiscal Economic Instruments for the Sustainable Management of Natural Resources in Coastal Marine Areas of the Yucatan Peninsula
Sustainability 2021, 13(19), 11103; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su131911103 - 08 Oct 2021
Viewed by 416
Abstract
Fiscal economic instruments (FEI) are indirect regulation mechanisms that generate public revenue for the state through rights to use, charges, and concessions. In Mexico, some of these instruments can be used in the surveillance, administration, and preservation of the environment. In this paper, [...] Read more.
Fiscal economic instruments (FEI) are indirect regulation mechanisms that generate public revenue for the state through rights to use, charges, and concessions. In Mexico, some of these instruments can be used in the surveillance, administration, and preservation of the environment. In this paper, we analyze the changes in Federal and State growth rates of expenditure budgets in critical areas of the Yucatan Peninsula coast to describe their contribution to sustainable development during the last 12 years. We present an adaptation of the methodological guide of economic instruments for environmental management from CEPAL, with 2013 as the base year for the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) deflator and the use of the Protocol of Nagoya year as an international compromise signed by Mexico. The results obtained show that the expenditure budgets respond to economic, political, and short-term security attention without expectations for sustainability. However, alarming evidence of severe environmental deterioration in the coast is diminishing natural attraction, from tourism, for example, which is the main source of income in the region. The effective use of FEI by local governments may be useful to addressing environmental challenges from a decentralization process with better awareness of the importance of coastal areas for regional sustainability. Full article
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Article
Virtual Engineering Using Realistic Virtual Models in Brownfield Factory Layout Planning
Sustainability 2021, 13(19), 11102; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su131911102 - 08 Oct 2021
Viewed by 240
Abstract
As more pressure is put on manufacturing companies to increase productivity and reduce waste as a means to remain competitive due to increased globalization and digitalization, many companies find themselves investing in their production systems, leading to changes in their existing factories and [...] Read more.
As more pressure is put on manufacturing companies to increase productivity and reduce waste as a means to remain competitive due to increased globalization and digitalization, many companies find themselves investing in their production systems, leading to changes in their existing factories and production systems. This process is usually performed with 2D CAD drawings and data of varying quality, leading to several challenges along the way. This longitudinal research follows up on eight years of industrial studies where researchers have applied 3D laser scanning and immersive virtual reality to improve the brownfield factory layout planning processes in real industrial scenarios, a novel approach in the research field. By interviewing key stakeholders at each company and analyzing the findings, challenges in data availability and accuracy of existing data, grasping scale and perspective, and challenges gathering input and communicating around planned changes are identified and shown to be substantially alleviated by the application of the technological tools and allowing more people to be part of the factory layout planning process. By using virtual engineering, industries can improve their brownfield factory layout planning process and take well-informed decisions leading to sustainability benefits via fewer costly mistakes, improved employee engagement, and less need for travel. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New and Renewed Manufacturing Paradigms for Sustainable Production)
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Article
“White” Space and Organic Claims on Food Packaging: Communicating Sustainability Values and Affecting Young Adults’ Attitudes and Purchase Intentions
Sustainability 2021, 13(19), 11101; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su131911101 - 08 Oct 2021
Viewed by 231
Abstract
The development of organic food products has proliferated over the past few decades, alongside the use of “white” space on products’ packaging as an element that communicates quality and sustainability values. Despite a growing interest towards green products, sustainable business practices and aesthetics, [...] Read more.
The development of organic food products has proliferated over the past few decades, alongside the use of “white” space on products’ packaging as an element that communicates quality and sustainability values. Despite a growing interest towards green products, sustainable business practices and aesthetics, there is not enough evidence on how specific design elements (i.e., “white” space) of organic food packaging could affect consumers’ brand perceptions, attitude towards the brand (Abr) and purchase intentions (PI). The present study seeks to unveil the role of “white” space as a packaging design element on the effectiveness of organic food products. Based on a content analysis of 406 international packaging designs it establishes the widespread coexistence of organic products with extended, in shades of gray “white” space. A between-subjects experiment with 305 young adults builds on the associations between “white” space and sustainability, and provides evidence on the proposed serial mediation model with perceived naturalness, quality and trustworthiness, and Abr as mediators in the relationship between organic food products and PI, especially when the packaging uses extended “white” space. Pertinent managerial implications with respect to effective packaging design that promotes sustainability values and generates positive attitudes and behaviors towards organic foods are underlined. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advertising and Sustainable Development)
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Article
Crowdfunding for Independent Print Media: E-Commerce, Marketing, and Business Development
Sustainability 2021, 13(19), 11100; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su131911100 - 08 Oct 2021
Viewed by 254
Abstract
Crowdfunding, as an alternative method to fundraising, triggers increased awareness in society, while it is also an effective marketing tool for campaign runners. The production and release of independent print media poses significant hurdles in terms of financing. Including the community in raising [...] Read more.
Crowdfunding, as an alternative method to fundraising, triggers increased awareness in society, while it is also an effective marketing tool for campaign runners. The production and release of independent print media poses significant hurdles in terms of financing. Including the community in raising funds through crowdfunding seems like a good possible alternative. This paper examines which types of crowdfunding the independent print media use, and why, and also focuses on the possible types of crowdfunding that are the best fit for organizations. The study applies a case example approach on a total of thirty independent print publications that have relied on crowdfunding. We found that independent print media focus on reward-based crowdfunding for the launch of publications, the method being not used solely for fundraising, but also specifically for community building. Practitioners benefit from the insights by being enabled to draft campaigns that are better-suited to the specific needs of the independent media target group, and to secure financing for the start of the operations. The approach of this study is of special value, as the research and empirical insights into the independent media sector are limited. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Collaborative Economy in the Age of Digital Disruption)
Review
What Nudge Techniques Work for Food Waste Behaviour Change at the Consumer Level? A Systematic Review
Sustainability 2021, 13(19), 11099; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su131911099 - 08 Oct 2021
Viewed by 274
Abstract
In European countries over 40% of food loss and waste occurs at the retail and consumer stages; this situation cannot be sustained and remediation is urgently needed; opportunities for change must be created. “Nudge” techniques have been shown to be effective in changing [...] Read more.
In European countries over 40% of food loss and waste occurs at the retail and consumer stages; this situation cannot be sustained and remediation is urgently needed; opportunities for change must be created. “Nudge” techniques have been shown to be effective in changing behaviour in areas related to food consumption (e.g., healthy diet), but the effectiveness of interventions using nudge techniques to change food waste behaviours remains unclear, despite a growing body of research. The aim of this review is to elucidate means to change household food waste behaviour using nudge approaches and identify priority needs for further research. Four databases, grey literature and reference lists were searched systematically to identify relevant research on nudges to change food waste behaviours. This search identified sixteen peer-reviewed research articles and two grey literature reports that were critically appraised using a critical appraisal checklist framework for descriptive/case series. Four studies deemed reliable show interventions using nudges of social norms, reminders or social norms with disclosure were effective in changing food waste behaviours at the household level, while disclosure alone, i.e., revealing environmental costs of food waste, was not. This review, unique in the application of a critical appraisal, suggests there is reliable information on the effectiveness of nudge for food waste recycling interventions when incorporating nudges of social norms, reminders or disclosure alongside use of social norms. If food waste recycling behaviour is considered an upstream measure to raise consumers’ consciousness on the amount of food waste they produce, this may have a positive impact on food waste reduction and therefore has important policy implications for food waste behaviour change at the household level. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Climate Change and Environmental Sustainability)
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Article
Synergistic Air Pollutants and GHG Reduction Effect of Commercial Vehicle Electrification in Guangdong’s Public Service Sector
Sustainability 2021, 13(19), 11098; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su131911098 - 08 Oct 2021
Viewed by 239
Abstract
This paper aims to analyze the associated environment and climate benefits of electrification by comparing the air pollutant and CO2 emissions from the fuel cycle of battery electric commercial vehicles (BECVs) and internal combustion engine commercial vehicles (ICECVs) through a case study [...] Read more.
This paper aims to analyze the associated environment and climate benefits of electrification by comparing the air pollutant and CO2 emissions from the fuel cycle of battery electric commercial vehicles (BECVs) and internal combustion engine commercial vehicles (ICECVs) through a case study in Guangzhou Province. Five types of vehicles (i.e., electric buses, coaches, light-duty trucks, dump trucks, and waste haulers) used in the public service sector were selected for analysis, taking into account six development scenarios based on the prevalent ownership trends of electric vehicles and the energy system optimization process. The results reveal that an increase in commercial vehicle electrification in the public service sector will cause reductions of 19.3 × 103 tons, 0.5 × 103 tons, 9.5 × 103 tons, and 8.5 × 106 tons for NOx, PM2.5, VOCs, and CO2, respectively, from the base 2030 case (CS_II, the electrification rates of buses, coaches, light-duty trucks, dump trucks, and waste haulers will reach 100%, 26.5%, 15.4%, 24.0%, and 33.1%, and their power needs will be met by 24% coal, 18.4% gas, and 13.2% renewable power), but with a slight increase in SO2 emissions. With the further penetration of BECVs into the market, the emission reduction benefits for NOx, PM2.5, VOCs, and CO2 could be even more remarkable. Moreover, the benefit obtained from the optimization of the share of renewable energy is more noticeable for CO2 reduction than for air pollutant reduction. Prioritizing the electrification of light-duty trucks after completing bus electrification could be a potential solution for achieving ozone pollution control and lowering carbon emissions in Guangdong. In addition, these results can provide scientific support for the formulation or adjustment of advanced pollution mitigation and peaking carbon policies in Guangdong, as well as other regions of China. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental and Economic Analysis of Low-Carbon Energy Technologies)
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