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Article

Influence of Intraspecific Competition Stress on Soil Fungal Diversity and Composition in Relation to Tree Growth and Soil Fertility in Sub-Tropical Soils under Chinese Fir Monoculture

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Bangor College China, A Joint Unit of Bangor University and Central South University of Forestry and Technology, Changsha 410004, China
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College of Forestry, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou 350002, China
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Institute of Applied Ecology, College of Plant Protection, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou 350002, China
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Department of Environment and Soil Sciences, University of Lleida, Avinguda Alcalde Rovira Roure 191, 25198 Lleida, Spain
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Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia
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Department of Botany and Microbiology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia
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College of Crop Science, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou 350002, China
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Department of Biochemistry, B.A. College of Agriculture, Anand Agricultural University, Anand 388110, Gujarat, India
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Plant Biology & Soil Science Department, University of Vigo, 36310 Vigo, Spain
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Bernhard Huchzermeyer
Sustainability 2021, 13(19), 10688; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su131910688
Received: 14 August 2021 / Revised: 11 September 2021 / Accepted: 22 September 2021 / Published: 26 September 2021
Soil microorganisms provide valuable ecosystem services, such as nutrient cycling, soil remediation, and biotic and abiotic stress resistance. There is increasing interest in exploring total belowground biodiversity across ecological scales to understand better how different ecological aspects, such as stand density, soil properties, soil depth, and plant growth parameters, influence belowground communities. In various environments, microbial components of belowground communities, such as soil fungi, respond differently to soil features; however, little is known about their response to standing density and vertical soil profiles in a Chinese fir monoculture plantation. This research examined the assemblage of soil fungal communities in different density stands (high, intermediate, and low) and soil depth profiles (0–20 cm and 20–40 cm). This research also looked into the relationship between soil fungi and tree canopy characteristics (mean tilt angle of the leaf (MTA), leaf area index (LAI), and canopy openness index (DIFN)), and general growth parameters, such as diameter, height, and biomass. The results showed that low-density stand soil had higher fungal alpha diversity than intermediate- and high-density stand soils. Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Mucromycota, and Mortierellomycota were the most common phyla of the soil fungal communities, in that order. Saitozyma, Penicillium, Umbelopsis, and Talaromyces were the most abundant fungal genera. Stand density composition was the dominant factor in changing fungal community structure compared to soil properties and soil depth profiles. The most significant soil elements in soil fungal community alterations were macronutrients. In addition, the canopy openness index and fungal community structure have a positive association in the low-density stand. Soil biota is a nutrient cycling driver that can promote better plant growth in forest ecosystems by supporting nutrient cycling. Hence, this research will be critical in understanding soil fungal dynamics, improving stand growth and productivity, and improving soil quality in intensively managed Chinese fir plantations. View Full-Text
Keywords: soil fungal composition; vertical soil profiles; stand density; soil health; sub-tropical forest; Southern China soil fungal composition; vertical soil profiles; stand density; soil health; sub-tropical forest; Southern China
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MDPI and ACS Style

Farooq, T.H.; Kumar, U.; Shakoor, A.; Albasher, G.; Alkahtani, S.; Rizwana, H.; Tayyab, M.; Dobaria, J.; Hussain, M.I.; Wu, P. Influence of Intraspecific Competition Stress on Soil Fungal Diversity and Composition in Relation to Tree Growth and Soil Fertility in Sub-Tropical Soils under Chinese Fir Monoculture. Sustainability 2021, 13, 10688. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su131910688

AMA Style

Farooq TH, Kumar U, Shakoor A, Albasher G, Alkahtani S, Rizwana H, Tayyab M, Dobaria J, Hussain MI, Wu P. Influence of Intraspecific Competition Stress on Soil Fungal Diversity and Composition in Relation to Tree Growth and Soil Fertility in Sub-Tropical Soils under Chinese Fir Monoculture. Sustainability. 2021; 13(19):10688. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su131910688

Chicago/Turabian Style

Farooq, Taimoor H., Uttam Kumar, Awais Shakoor, Gadah Albasher, Saad Alkahtani, Humaira Rizwana, Muhammad Tayyab, Jalpa Dobaria, Muhammad I. Hussain, and Pengfei Wu. 2021. "Influence of Intraspecific Competition Stress on Soil Fungal Diversity and Composition in Relation to Tree Growth and Soil Fertility in Sub-Tropical Soils under Chinese Fir Monoculture" Sustainability 13, no. 19: 10688. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su131910688

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