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Article

Alleviation of Cadmium Phytotoxicity Using Silicon Fertilization in Wheat by Altering Antioxidant Metabolism and Osmotic Adjustment

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Department of Environmental Sciences, The University of Lahore, Lahore 54590, Pakistan
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Department of Agronomy, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Faisalabad 38040, Pakistan
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Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Government College University, Faisalabad 38000, Pakistan
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Department of Environmental Sciences, The University of Okara, Okara 56000, Pakistan
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College of Plant Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China
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Department of Marine Biology, Faculty of Marine Sciences, King Abdualaziz University, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia
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Biology Department, Faculty of Science, Tabuk University, Tabuk 71421, Saudi Arabia
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Department of Biological Sciences and Technology, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Subhan Danish, Muhammad Arif Ali, Shah Fahad, Valerie Vranová and Rahul Datta
Sustainability 2021, 13(20), 11317; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su132011317
Received: 7 September 2021 / Revised: 5 October 2021 / Accepted: 6 October 2021 / Published: 13 October 2021
Humans are facing very serious health threats from food contamination with cadmium (Cd), and Cd uptake by wheat is amongst the main causes of Cd entrance into the food chain. The current study examined the effect of foliar application (0, 1.50, 3.00 and 4.00 mM) of various silicate chemicals (calcium silicate and potassium silicate) on wheat growth and Cd addition by wheat under Cd stress 20 mg kg−1 of soil using CdCl2. The results revealed that under control conditions, the application of Si improved all the growth, physiological, biochemical and quality attributes by reducing malondialdehyde contents and electrolyte leakage. Under Cd stress, the supplementation of Si conferred a better growth rate, gaseous exchange for metabolic activity and maintained the tissues’ turgor and membranes’ stabilities compared to those obtained under control (without Si). The enzymatic activities (superoxide dismutase, peroxidase and catalase) also show rapid action by the application of Si supplement, which were associated with elevated osmoprotectant contents and antioxidants, having role in antioxidant defense against Cd stress. These results suggested that a 4.50 mM concentration of Si supplement (potassium silicate) works effectively against Cd stress. The given results showed that Si supplement is beneficial for the enhancement of many metabolic activities that takes places in plants during the growth period that proved a feasible approach in controlling the Cd concentration within wheat plants and, ultimately, in humans. View Full-Text
Keywords: silicon; wheat; cadmium; oxidative stress; antioxidants silicon; wheat; cadmium; oxidative stress; antioxidants
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MDPI and ACS Style

Heile, A.O.; Zaman, Q.u.; Aslam, Z.; Hussain, A.; Aslam, M.; Saleem, M.H.; Abualreesh, M.H.; Alatawi, A.; Ali, S. Alleviation of Cadmium Phytotoxicity Using Silicon Fertilization in Wheat by Altering Antioxidant Metabolism and Osmotic Adjustment. Sustainability 2021, 13, 11317. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su132011317

AMA Style

Heile AO, Zaman Qu, Aslam Z, Hussain A, Aslam M, Saleem MH, Abualreesh MH, Alatawi A, Ali S. Alleviation of Cadmium Phytotoxicity Using Silicon Fertilization in Wheat by Altering Antioxidant Metabolism and Osmotic Adjustment. Sustainability. 2021; 13(20):11317. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su132011317

Chicago/Turabian Style

Heile, Abdihakim O., Qamar u. Zaman, Zubair Aslam, Afzal Hussain, Mustansar Aslam, Muhammad H. Saleem, Muyassar H. Abualreesh, Aishah Alatawi, and Shafaqat Ali. 2021. "Alleviation of Cadmium Phytotoxicity Using Silicon Fertilization in Wheat by Altering Antioxidant Metabolism and Osmotic Adjustment" Sustainability 13, no. 20: 11317. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su132011317

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