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Article

The Agrarian, Structural and Cultural Constraints of Smallholders’ Readiness for Sustainability Standards Implementation: The Case of Indonesian Sustainable Palm Oil in East Kalimantan

1
Department of Communication and Community Development Sciences, Bogor Agricultural University, Bogor 16680, Indonesia
2
Center for Agricultural and Rural Development Studies, Bogor Agricultural University, Bogor 16680, Indonesia
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Center for International Forestry Research~(CIFOR), Bogor 16115, Indonesia
4
World Wildlife Fund (WWF), Washington, DC 20037, USA
5
Department of Environmental Systems Science, ETH Zurich, 8092 Zurich, Switzerland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Antonio Ledda
Sustainability 2021, 13(5), 2611; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su13052611
Received: 22 January 2021 / Revised: 16 February 2021 / Accepted: 19 February 2021 / Published: 1 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Landscape Fragmentation and Sustainable Environmental Assessment)
The expansion of oil palm plantation has caused adverse impacts on the ecosystem. It has been associated with deforestation, biodiversity loss, disturbances to environmental services and livelihood change. The government of Indonesia has made an effort to control the negative effects by issuing relevant policies. One of the policies is Indonesian Sustainable Palm Oil (ISPO)’s sustainability standards to which large-scale plantations and smallholders are obliged to adhere. This study assesses the readiness of two types of smallholders, namely, the nucleus–plasma scheme and independent smallholders to adopt ISPO standards. Using a case study research approach in two oil palm plantation villages in East Kalimantan, the study found out a number of ISPO implementation challenges, grouped into structural and socio-cultural challenges, which make smallholders less ready to adhere to this mandatory policy. Coping with these challenges, this study proposed that land and business legality programs be expedited to strengthen property rights, and that training and education programs be intensified to enhance awareness, knowledge and capacity of smallholders to enable them to comply with sustainability standards. View Full-Text
Keywords: oil palm expansion; smallholders; governance; sustainability standards; ISPO oil palm expansion; smallholders; governance; sustainability standards; ISPO
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MDPI and ACS Style

Dharmawan, A.H.; Mardiyaningsih, D.I.; Rahmadian, F.; Yulian, B.E.; Komarudin, H.; Pacheco, P.; Ghazoul, J.; Amalia, R. The Agrarian, Structural and Cultural Constraints of Smallholders’ Readiness for Sustainability Standards Implementation: The Case of Indonesian Sustainable Palm Oil in East Kalimantan. Sustainability 2021, 13, 2611. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su13052611

AMA Style

Dharmawan AH, Mardiyaningsih DI, Rahmadian F, Yulian BE, Komarudin H, Pacheco P, Ghazoul J, Amalia R. The Agrarian, Structural and Cultural Constraints of Smallholders’ Readiness for Sustainability Standards Implementation: The Case of Indonesian Sustainable Palm Oil in East Kalimantan. Sustainability. 2021; 13(5):2611. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su13052611

Chicago/Turabian Style

Dharmawan, Arya H., Dyah I. Mardiyaningsih, Faris Rahmadian, Bayu E. Yulian, Heru Komarudin, Pablo Pacheco, Jaboury Ghazoul, and Rizka Amalia. 2021. "The Agrarian, Structural and Cultural Constraints of Smallholders’ Readiness for Sustainability Standards Implementation: The Case of Indonesian Sustainable Palm Oil in East Kalimantan" Sustainability 13, no. 5: 2611. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su13052611

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