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Article

Fuel Injection Responses and Particulate Emissions of a CRDI Engine Fueled with Cocos nucifera Biodiesel

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School of Mechanical Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Nibong Tebal 14300, Penang, Malaysia
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Department of Engineering, School of Engineering, Computing and Built Environment, UOW Malaysia KDU Penang University College, 32, Jalan Anson, Georgetown 10400, Penang, Malaysia
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School of Mechanical, Aerospace and Automotive Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Environmental and Computing, Coventry University, Coventry CV1 5FB, UK
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Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Industrial University of Ho Chi Minh City, 12 Nguyen Van Bao Street, Ward 4, Go Vap District, Ho Chi Minh City 71408, Vietnam
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Department of Fundamentals of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Automotive, Mechanical, Electrical and Electronic Engineering (FAME), An Phu Dong Campus, Nguyen Tat Thanh University, Ho Chi Minh City 729800, Vietnam
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Department of Mechanical Engineering, Khwaja Fareed University of Engineering and Information Technology, Rahim Yar Khan 64200, Pakistan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Jose Navarro Pedreño, António Dinis Ferreira, Peter Goethals, Eun-Sung Chung and Vincenzo Torretta
Sustainability 2021, 13(9), 4930; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su13094930
Received: 11 March 2021 / Revised: 9 April 2021 / Accepted: 16 April 2021 / Published: 28 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reviews, Advances and Applications in Environmental Sustainability)
The objective of this paper is to study the effect of coconut oil biodiesel (COB)-diesel blends on exhaust particulate matter (PM) emissions and fuel injection responses in an unmodified turbocharged four-stroke common-rail direct injection (CRDI) diesel engine. Characterization of COB and their blends has been conducted to ascertain the applicability of these fuels for the existing engine. The test fuels used were fossil diesel fuel, COB10, COB20, COB30 and COB50 of biodiesel-diesel fuels. A test cycle which composed of 16 different steady-state modes at various loads and speed conditions was followed. Generally, the results showed a marginally advanced SOI timing and longer injection duration with increasing COB blends at higher load as compared to diesel fuel. Additionally, the lower calorific value (CV) and higher viscosity of the COB fuel blends have resulted in reduced turbo boost pressure and increased common-rail fuel injection pressure, respectively, across all engine speeds and loads. On the aspects of PM emissions characterization, results indicated that the blending of COB with conventional diesel had benefits over diesel in PM reduction. In fact, the largest achievable PM mass reduction of 38.55% was attained with COB50. In addition, it was noticed that the size of PM particles accumulated such that the granular size increased with higher diesel content in the blend. Additionally, the composition analysis on the PM collected by EDX spectroscopy has revealed that the C, O and Si as three main elements that made up the PM particles in descending order. Overall, the results indicated that COB biodiesel is a clean-burning alternative fuel and can be used satisfactorily in an unmodified diesel engine without the needs for engine remapping. View Full-Text
Keywords: sustainable fuels; particulate matter; coconut biodiesel; common-rail; biodiesel; combustion and renewable energy sustainable fuels; particulate matter; coconut biodiesel; common-rail; biodiesel; combustion and renewable energy
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MDPI and ACS Style

Teoh, Y.H.; How, H.G.; Sher, F.; Le, T.D.; Nguyen, H.T.; Yaqoob, H. Fuel Injection Responses and Particulate Emissions of a CRDI Engine Fueled with Cocos nucifera Biodiesel. Sustainability 2021, 13, 4930. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su13094930

AMA Style

Teoh YH, How HG, Sher F, Le TD, Nguyen HT, Yaqoob H. Fuel Injection Responses and Particulate Emissions of a CRDI Engine Fueled with Cocos nucifera Biodiesel. Sustainability. 2021; 13(9):4930. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su13094930

Chicago/Turabian Style

Teoh, Yew H., Heoy G. How, Farooq Sher, Thanh D. Le, Huu T. Nguyen, and Haseeb Yaqoob. 2021. "Fuel Injection Responses and Particulate Emissions of a CRDI Engine Fueled with Cocos nucifera Biodiesel" Sustainability 13, no. 9: 4930. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su13094930

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