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Article

A New Equation to Estimate Energy Expenditure Using Heart Rate in Children

1
Department of Physical Education, Sungkyul University, 53, Seonggyeoldaehak-ro, Manan-gu, Anyang-si 14097, Korea
2
Department of Physical Education, Kyung Hee University (Global Campus), 1732 Deokyoungdaero, Giheung-gu, Yongin-si 17014, Korea
3
Department of Taekwondo, Kyung Hee University (Global Campus), 1732 Deokyoungdaero, Giheung-gu, Yongin-si 17014, Korea
4
Graduate School of Education, Yongin University, 134 Yongindaehak-ro, Cheoin-gu, Yongin-si 449-714, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Guillermo Felipe López Sánchez and Lee Smith
Sustainability 2021, 13(9), 5092; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su13095092
Received: 16 April 2021 / Revised: 28 April 2021 / Accepted: 29 April 2021 / Published: 1 May 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity, Health and Sustainability)
The first aim of this study was to develop equations to predict physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) for children utilizing heart rate monitors (HRM) and vector magnitudes (VM) from accelerometers. The second aim was to cross-validate the developed PAEE prediction equations and compare the equations to the pre-existing accelerometer-based PAEE equation (i.e., Trost). Seventy-five students in elementary school (from 10 to 13 years old) were classified into an equation calibration group (N = 50, 33 boys and 17 girls) and a cross-validation group (N = 25, 20 boys and 5 girls). Participants simultaneously wore a portable indirect calorimeter (Cosmed’s K4b2), a heart rate monitor on the chest, and an accelerometer on the right side of the waist. Then, the participants performed a series of various intensity activities. The energy expenditure (EE) measured by K4b2 was set as the dependent variable. Multiple regression analysis was performed to derive the heart rate and accelerometer-based equations. The heart-rate-based EE equation had an explanatory power of adj. R2 = 0.814 and the accelerometer-based EE equation had an explanatory power of adj. R2 = 0.802. The VM-based EE indicated high mean absolute percent errors (MAPE) at light, moderate, and vigorous intensity. The heart-rate-based EE was included in the range of equivalence limit in all activities, but the VM and pre-existing equation showed some overestimation beyond the equivalence range. The agreement errors between the criterion EE and the estimated EE were lower in the heart-rate-based equation than the accelerometer-based equations (i.e., VM and Trost). The approach with the heart-rate-based EE equation demonstrated higher accuracy than the accelerometer-based EE equations. The results of the current study indicate that the heart-rate-based PAEE equation can be a potential method for estimating children’s PAEE. View Full-Text
Keywords: children; energy expenditure; heart rate; accelerometer children; energy expenditure; heart rate; accelerometer
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lee, M.; Park, J.-H.; Seo, M.-W.; Kang, S.-K.; Lee, J.-M. A New Equation to Estimate Energy Expenditure Using Heart Rate in Children. Sustainability 2021, 13, 5092. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su13095092

AMA Style

Lee M, Park J-H, Seo M-W, Kang S-K, Lee J-M. A New Equation to Estimate Energy Expenditure Using Heart Rate in Children. Sustainability. 2021; 13(9):5092. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su13095092

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lee, Mihyun, Jeong-Hui Park, Myong-Won Seo, Seoung-Ki Kang, and Jung-Min Lee. 2021. "A New Equation to Estimate Energy Expenditure Using Heart Rate in Children" Sustainability 13, no. 9: 5092. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su13095092

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