2. Literature Analysis
2.1. Advantages vs. Disadvantages of Online Education
2.2. Premises of a Good Experience with Online Education
2.3. Adapting Educational Institutions to Online Education vs. the Effect on the Trust of University Students and High School Students
2.4. Training of the Teaching Staff Regarding Online Education vs. the Effect on the Trust of University Students and High School Students
3. Materials and Methods
3.1. Description of the Research Method
3.2. The Sample
3.3. Work Stages
- Face validity: we made sure that the respondents understood the questions. In this respect, there were no misleading questions using multiple negations or unclear formulations;
- Construction validity testing: we used an analysis of exploratory factors and reliability, i.e., Cronbach’s alpha tests.
4.1. Results of Regression Equation
4.2. Model of the Structural Equation of the Factors Influencing the Perception of University Students and High School Students of Online Education during the State of Emergency Caused by the COVID-19 Pandemic
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|Variable||Description||Type of Variable|
|PHCA||Students’ desire for physical class attendance.||Construct|
|ETC||Perceptions of university students and of high school students regarding the effectiveness of face-to-face courses in the classroom.||Construct|
|EOE||Perceptions of university students and of high school students regarding the effectiveness of online courses.||Construct|
|AEI||Perceptions of university students and of high school students regarding the adaptation of educational institutions to online education requirements.||Construct|
|TSA||Perceptions of university students and of high school students regarding the adaptation of teaching staff to the new requirements of online education.||Construct|
|Gender||A categorical variable, which takes the value 0 when the respondent’s gender is male and the value 1 when the gender is female.||Categorical|
|Age||Represents the respondents’ age.||Numerical|
|Ability to browse the internet||The respondents who “strongly agreed” or “agreed” with the statement “I am able to easily access the internet in accordance with the educational interests” were classified as respondents who had the capacity to use technologies that are able to access online courses and they were encoded with the value 1. Those who expressed “total disagreement” or “disagreement” with the statement from above were classified as university/high school students who had no technical knowledge required to access and participate in the online courses, and were encoded with the value 0.||Dummy/|
|Possession of a computer or of similar equipment||The respondents who “strongly agreed” or “agreed” with the statement “I have a computer which allows me to participate easily in online courses” were encoded with the value 1, and those who expressed “total disagreement” or “disagreement” with the statement from above were encoded with the value 0.||Dummy/|
|Item/Latent Variable||Questions/Observed Variable||Cronbach’s Alpha|
|PHCA||PHCA1. I wish to go back to school/university as soon as possible.|
PHCA2. I wish to see my teachers/professors again.
PHCA3. I am happier when the courses take place in the school/academic environment.
PHCA4. I wish to see my schoolmates again.
|ETC||ETC1. I feel that the physical attendance of the courses is necessary for an effective education. |
ETC2. I believe that online classes are less motivating than the classes taking place in a classroom.
ETC3. I want to attend classes in a physical classroom.
|EOE||EOE1. I am willing to actively communicate electronically with my schoolmates and my teachers/professors.|
EOE. I could easily adapt to online courses without the direct assistance of the teaching staff.
EOE3. I am capable of self-discipline and finding time to study at home, too.
EOE4. I believe that a full course can be taught without difficulty through online programs/platforms.
EOE5. Online education is efficient during COVID-19 pandemic.
|AEI||AEI1. The school/university was prepared to manage the situation of online teaching.|
AEI2. The school/university offered to high school/university students the required technique (user’s guide) to access the online courses.
AEI3. The school/university will be able to guarantee my safety in the future.
|TSA||TSA1. The teaching staff were more lenient with the high school/university students in the process of adaptation to online education.|
TSA2. The teaching staff manage to transmit effectively the main ideas and information to high school/university students through online programs.
TSA3. The online communication with the teaching staff took place without difficulties.
|Education level||High school||9th grade||40||5.10|
|Undergraduate students||1st year||65||8.29|
|Postgraduate students (master’s studies)||1st year||56||7.14|
|Ability to browse the internet||Yes||55||7.00|
|Possession of a computer or of similar equipment||Yes||629||80.22|
|Mean||Std. Error||Mean||Std. Error||Mean||Std. Error|
|Technologically Challenged (Cannot Browse the Internet Easily)||Has a Suitable Computer or Similar Equipment|
|VIF||EOE||Age||Gender||Ability to Browse the |
|Possession of a Computer or of Similar Equipment|
|Gender||1.083||0.120 *||0.145 *||1.000|
|Ability to browse the internet||1.294||0.383 *||0.071||0.066||1.000|
|Possession of a computer or of similar equipment||1.511||0.367 *||0.100 *||0.013||0.411 *||1.000|
|EOE||β||Err. Std.||t||F||Adj R2|
|Age||0.009 (0.816)||0.011||0.84||49.09 ***||0.224|
|Gender||0.263 *** (0.001)||0.078||3.40|
|Ability to browse the internet||1.032 *** (0.000)||0.142||7.24|
|Possession of a computer or of similar equipment||0.859 *** (0.000)||0.119||7.20|
|cons||1.414 *** (0.000)||0.209||6.77|
|Education Levels||Fit Indices|
|High school||412.250 /126||0.075||0.890||0.877||0.083|
|Coefficient||Is the Hypothesis Supported?|
|High School Students||Undergraduate Students||Postgraduate|
|High School Students||Undergraduate Students||Postgraduate|
|H5:PHCA→ EOE||1.342 **|
|H7:TSA→EOE||2.238 * (0.090)||2.264|
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